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CATAMITE, kat'a-m[=i]t, _n._ a boy kept for unnatural purposes--a corruption of GANYMEDE (q.v.).


CATAPAN, kat'a-pan, _n._ the governor of Calabria and Apulia for the Byzantine emperor. [Acc. to Littre, from Gr. _katepan[=o] t[=o]n axi[=o]mat[=o]n_, 'he who is placed over the dignities.']

CATAPHONICS, kat-a-fon'iks, _n._ the science of reflected sounds.--_adj._ CATAPHON'IC. [Gr. _kata_, against, _phon[=e]_, sound.]

CATAPHRACT, kat'a-frakt, _n._ (_Milton_) a soldier in full armour. [Gr.

_kataphrakt[=e]s_, a coat-of-mail--_kata_, inten., and _phrass-ein_, to enclose, protect.]

CATAPHYLLARY, kat-a-fil'ar-i, _adj._ pertaining to such rudimentary scale-leaves as are found on various parts of plants, esp.

underground.--_n._ CATAPHYLL'UM. [Gr. _kata_, down, _phyllon_, leaf.]

CATAPHYSICAL, kat-a-fis'i-kal, _adj._ (_rare_) unnatural. [Gr. _kata_, down, against, _physis_, nature.]

CATAPLASM, kat'a-plazm, _n._ a plaster or poultice. [Gr. _kataplasma_, a plaster--_kata-plassein_, to plaster over.]

CATAPLEXY, kat'a-plex-i, _n._ the kind of mesmeric sleep of animals under a sudden shock of terror--the state of 'shamming death.'--_adj._ CATAPLEC'TIC. [Gr. _katapl[=e]ssein_, to strike down.]

CATAPULT, kat'a-pult, _n._ anciently an engine of war, resembling the ballista, for throwing stones, arrows, &c.: a small forked stick having an elastic string fixed to the two prongs, used by boys for throwing small stones.--_adj._ CATAPUL'TIC.--_n._ CATAPULTIER'. [L. _catapulta_--Gr.

_katapelt[=e]s_--_kata_, down, _pallein_, to throw.]

CATARACT, kat'a-rakt, _n._ a great fall of water, water-spout, &c.: a waterfall or cascade: an opaque condition of the lens of the eye, painless, unaccompanied by inflammation, occasioning blindness, simply by obstructing the passage of the light. [L. _cataracta_--Gr. _kata_, down, _arass-ein_, to dash, to rush.]

CATARRH, kat-ar', _n._ a discharge of fluid from the inflammation of a mucous membrane, esp. of the nose, caused by cold in the head: the cold itself.--_adjs._ CATARRH'AL, CATARRH'OUS. [L. _catarrhus_--Gr.

_katarrhous_--_kata_, down, _rhe[=e]in_, to flow.]

CATARRHINE, CATARHINE, kat'ar-[=i]n, _adj._ pertaining to that one of the two divisions of Quadrumana, including all the Old-World monkeys, having a narrow partition between the nostrils. [Gr. _kata_, down, _hris_, _hrinos_, nose.]

CATASTA, kat-as'ta, _n._ a block on which slaves were exposed for sale: a stage or place for torture. [L.]

CATASTASIS, kat-as'tas-is, _n._ the part of the Greek drama in which the development of the action has reached its height: (_rhet._) that part of a speech which states the subject to be discussed. [Gr.]

CATASTROPHE, kat-as'tr[=o]-f[=e], _n._ an overturning: a final event: an unfortunate conclusion: a calamity.--_adj._ CATASTROPH'IC--_ns._ CATAS'TROPHISM, the theory in geology that accounts for 'breaks in the succession' by the hypothesis of vast catastrophes--world-wide destruction of floras and faunas, and the sudden introduction or creation of new forms of life, after the forces of nature had sunk into repose; CATAS'TROPHIST, a holder of the foregoing, as opposed to the _uniformitarian_ theory. [Gr., _kata_, down, _strephein_, to turn.]

CATAWBA, ka-taw'ba, _n._ a light sparkling wine, produced from a grape of the same name, first found on the banks of the _Catawba_ River in Carolina.



CATCH, kach, _v.t._ to take hold of: to apprehend or understand: to seize after pursuit: to trap or ensnare: to take a disease by infection: to take up anything by sympathy or imitation.--_v.i._ to be contagious: to be entangled or fastened in anything;--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ caught (kawt).--_n._ seizure: anything that seizes or holds: that which is caught: anything worth catching: a sudden advantage taken: a specially English form of musical composition, written generally in three or four parts, and in the canon form--originally synonymous with the _round_.--_adj._ CATCH'ABLE, that may be caught.--_ns._ CATCH'ER, one who catches; CATCH'FLY, a popular name of several plants belonging to the genus _Silene_, and of _Lychnis Viscaria_, whose glutinous stems often retain insects settling on them; CATCH'ING, the action of the verb 'to catch:' a nervous or spasmodic twitching.--_adj._ infectious: captivating, attractive.--_ns._ CATCH'MENT-B[=A]S'IN, a term applied to all that part of a river-basin from which rain is collected, and from which, therefore, the river is fed; CATCH'PENNY, any worthless thing, esp. a publication, intended merely to gain money--also _adj._; CATCH'WORD, among actors, the last word of the preceding speaker--the cue: the word at the head of the page in a dictionary or encyclopaedia: the first word of a page given at the bottom of the preceding page: any word or phrase taken up and repeated as the watchword or symbol of a party.--_adj._ CATCH'Y, attractive, deceptive, readily caught up, as an air, &c., fitful.--CATCH AT, to snatch at; CATCH FIRE, to become ignited, to be inspired by passion or zeal; CATCH HOLD OF, to seize; CATCH IT, to get a scolding or the like; CATCH ME! an emphatic colloquial phrase implying that there is not the remotest possibility of my doing something suggested; CATCH ON, to comprehend: to catch the popular fancy; CATCH OUT, to put a batsman out at cricket by catching the ball he has batted; CATCH SIGHT OF, suddenly to get a glimpse of; CATCH UP, to overtake; CATCH UP, or AWAY, to lay hold of forcibly. [From O. Fr.

_cachier_--Late L. _capti[=a]re_ for _capt[=a]re_, inten. of _cap[)e]re_, to take. See CHASE.]

CATCHPOLE, -POLL, kach'p[=o]l, _n._ a constable, petty officer of justice.

[Through O. Fr. from Low L. _cachepolus_, _chassipullus_, one who chases fowls. See CHASE and PULLET.]



CATECHISE, kat'e-k[=i]z, _v.t._ to instruct by question and answer: to question as to belief: to examine systematically, to take to task.--_adjs._ CATECHET'IC, -AL, relating to a catechism or oral instruction in the first principles, esp. of Christianity.--_adv._ CATECHET'ICALLY.--_ns._ CATECHET'ICS, the art or practice of teaching by question and answer: that part of theology which treats of CATECH[=E]'SIS, or primary oral instruction, as that given to catechumens; CAT'ECHISER; CAT'ECHISING, an examination by questioning; CAT'ECHISM, any compendious system of teaching drawn up in the form of question and answer; CAT'ECHIST, one who catechises, a teacher of catechumens, a native teacher in a mission church.--_adjs._ CATECHIST'IC, -AL, CATECHIS'MAL, pertaining to a catechist or catechism. [L. _catechismus_, formed from Gr. _kat[=e]chiz-ein_, _kat[=e]che-ein_, to din into the ears--_kata_, down, _[=e]ch[=e]_, a sound.]

CATECHU, kat'e-shoo, _n._ a substance used in tanning and dyeing, and medicinally as an astringent, obtained from the heart-wood of several East Indian trees, as the betel-nut, &c. [Tamil.]

CATECHUMEN, kat-e-k[=u]'men, _n._ one who is being taught the rudiments of Christianity: the appellation given in the early Christian Church to those converted Jews and heathens who had not yet received baptism, but were undergoing a course of training and instruction preparatory to it.--_adj._ CATECHUMEN'ICAL.--_adv._ CATECHUMEN'ICALLY.--_ns._ CATECH[=U]'MENSHIP, CATECH[=U]'MENISM, CATECH[=U]'MENATE. [Gr. _kat[=e]choumenos_, being taught, pr.p. pass. of _kat[=e]che-ein_, to teach.]

CATEGORY, kat'e-gor-i, _n._ what may be affirmed of a class: a class or order.--_adjs._ CATEGOREMAT'IC, capable of being used by itself as a term; CATEGOR'ICAL, positive: absolute: without exception.--_adv._ CATEGOR'ICALLY, absolutely: without qualification: expressly.--_n._ CATEGOR'ICALNESS, the quality of being absolute and CAT'EGORIES (_phil._), the highest classes under which objects of philosophy can be systematically arranged, understood as an attempt at a comprehensive classification of all that exists: in Kant's system, the root-notions of the understanding, the specific forms of the _a priori_ or formal element in rational cognition (_quantity_, _quality_, _relation_, _modality_, &c.).--_v.t._ CAT'EGORISE, to place in a category or list: to class.--_n._ CATEGOR'IST, one who categorises.--CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE, in the ethics of Kant, the absolute unconditional command of the moral law, irrespective of every ulterior end or aim--universally authoritative, belonging to the fixed law of nature--'Act from a maxim at all times fit for law universal.' [Gr. _kat[=e]goria_, _kat[=e]goros_, an accuser, _kata_, down, against, _agora_, assembly.]

CATELECTRODE, kat-[=e]-lek'tr[=o]d, _n._ a negative electrode or cathode.

[Gr. _kata_, down, and ELECTRODE.]

CATENARY, kat-[=e]'nar-i, _n._ the curve formed by a flexible homogeneous cord (such as a chain), hanging freely between two points of support, and acted on by no other force than gravity.--_adj._ relating to a chain, like a chain--also CATEN[=A]'RIAN.--_n._ CAT[=E]'NA, a chain or connected series, as in CATENA PATRUM, a chronological series of extracts from the Fathers on any doctrine of theology.--_v.t._ CAT'EN[=A]TE to connect as in a chain.--_n._ CATEN[=A]'TION. [L. _catenarius_, pertaining to a chain--_cat[=e]na_, chain.]

CATER, k[=a]'t[.e]r, _v.i._ to provide food, entertainment, &c. (with _for_).--_ns._ C[=A]'TERER; C[=A]'TERESS; C[=A]'TERING. [Lit. to act as a _cater_, the word being orig. a substantive, and spelled _catour_, an aphetised form of _acater_, _acatour_. See ACATER.]

CATERAN, kat'er-an, _n._ a Highland reiver or freebooter, a robber or brigand generally. [Gael. _ceathairne_, peasantry, Ir. _ceithern_, a band of soldiers.]

CATER-COUSIN, k[=a]'t[.e]r-kuz'n, _n._ a term implying familiarity, affection, sympathy, rather than kindred. [More prob. conn. with CATER than _quatre_ or _quarter_.]

CATERPILLAR, kat'[.e]r-pil-ar, _n._ a grub that lives upon the leaves of plants. [Prob. O. Fr. _chatepeleuse_, 'hairy cat;' _chate_, a she-cat--L.

_catus_, _peleuse_, hairy--L. _pilosus_, _pilum_.]

CATERWAUL, kat'[.e]r-wawl, _n._ the shriek or cry emitted by the cat when in heat.--_v.i._ to make such a noise, to make any discordant sound: to behave lasciviously: to quarrel like cats.--_n._ CAT'ERWAULING. [The second part is prob. imit.]

CATES, k[=a]tz, dainty food.


CATHARIST, kath'ar-ist, _n._ one professing a higher standard of purity in life and doctrine, a puritan: esp. a member of a Manichean heretical sect of the Middle Ages, which spread over the whole of southern and western Europe--confounded with the kindred sect of Paulicians, reaching the greatest numbers in southern France, where, as the Albigenses, they were ruthlessly stamped out by the Inquisition.--_n._ CATH'ARISM. [Gr.

_katharistai_, _katharizein_, to purify.]

CATHARTIC, -AL, kath-art'ik, -al, _adj._ having the power of cleansing the stomach and bowels: purgative.--_v.t._ CATH'ARISE, to render absolutely clean.--_ns._ CATHAR'SIS, evacuation of the bowels; CATHART'IC, a purgative medicine; CATHAR'TIN, the purgative principle of senna. [Gr. _kathartikos_, fit for cleansing, _katharos_, clean.]


CATHEDRAL, kath-[=e]d'ral, _n._ the principal church of a diocese, in which is the seat or throne of a bishop.--_adj._ belonging to a cathedral.--_n._ CATHED'RA, a bishop's seat, the episcopal dignity--EX CATHEDRA, from the chair, officially given forth.--_adjs._ CATHEDRAL'IC, CATHEDRALESQUE', CATHED'RALED, vaulted like a cathedral.--_n._ CATHED'RALISM, the cathedral system.--_adj._ CATHEDRAT'IC, promulgated _ex cathedra_, authoritative. [L.

_cathedra_--Gr. _kathedra_, a seat.]

CATHERINE-WHEEL, kath'e-rin-hw[=e]l, _n._ (_archit._) an ornamented window or compartment of a window, of a circular form, with radiating divisions of various colours: (_her._) a wheel set round with teeth: a kind of firework which in burning rotates like a wheel.--CATHERINE PEAR, a small and early variety of pear.--TURN CATHERINE-WHEELS, to make a series of somersaults sideways. [From St _Catherine_ of Alexandria, whom legend makes to suffer martyrdom in the 4th century by torture on a wheel.]

CATHETER, kath'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a tube to be introduced through the urethra into the bladder to draw off the urine, or for injecting air or fluids into the Eustachian tube.--_ns._ CATH'ETERISM; CATHETOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring small differences of level of different liquids in tubes; CATH'ETUS, a straight line falling perpendicularly on another straight line or surface. [Gr. _kathetos_, perpendicular, _kathet[=e]r_, from _kathienai_, to send down.]

CATHISMA, ka-thiz'ma, _n._ in Greek use, a portion of the psalter, there being altogether twenty cathismata: a troparion or short hymn used as a response. [Gr., _kathizein_, to sit down.]

CATHODE, kath-[=o]d', _n._ the negative pole or electrode of a galvanic battery, as opposed to _anode_: the surface in contact with the negative pole: the object to be coated in electroplating--_adj._ CATH'ODAL. [Gr.

_kathodos_, a going down, _kata_, down, _hodos_, a way.]


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