SOBEIT, s[=o]-b[=e]'it, _conj._ if it be so.
SOBER, s[=o]'b[.e]r, _adj._ not wild or passionate: self-possessed: sedate: grave: calm: regular: simple in colour, sombre: not drunk: temperate, esp.
in the use of liquors: (_Scot._) poor, feeble.--_v.t._ to make sober: to free from intoxication.--_adj._ S[=O]'BER-BLOOD'ED, cool.--_v.t._ S[=O]'BERISE, to make sober.--_adv._ S[=O]'BERLY.--_adj._ S[=O]'BER-MIND'ED, habitually calm and temperate.--_ns._ S[=O]'BER-MIND'EDNESS, the state of being sober-minded: freedom from inordinate passion: calmness; S[=O]'BERNESS; S[=O]'BERSIDES, a sedate and solemn person.--_adj._ S[=O]'BER-SUIT'ED, dressed in a suit of sad-coloured clothes.--_n._ S[=O]BR[=I]'ETY, state or habit of being sober: calmness: gravity. [Fr. _sobre_--L. _sobrius_--_se_, apart, not, _ebrius_, drunk.]
SOBOL, s[=o]'bol, _n._ the Russian sable. [Polish.]
SOBOLES, sob'[=o]-l[=e]z, _n._ (_bot._) a shoot or sucker.--_adj._ SOBOLIF'EROUS. [L. _suboles_--_sub_, under, _ol[=e]re_, to grow.]
SOBRANJE, s[=o]-bran'ye, _n._ the national assembly of Bulgaria.--Also SOBRAN'YE. [Bulg.]
SOBRIQUET, s[=o]-br[=e]-k[=a]', _n._ a contemptuous nickname: an assumed name.--Also SOUBRIQUET'. [Fr.,--O. Fr. _soubzbriquet_, a chuck under the chin, _soubz_, _sous_--L. _sub_, under, _briquet_, breast; cf. _Brisket_.]
SOCAGE, SOCCAGE, sok'[=a]j, _n._ the tenure of lands by service fixed and determinate in quality.--_ns._ SOC'AGER, SOC'MAN, a tenant by socage; SOC'MANRY, tenure by socage. [A.S. _soc_, a right of holding a court--_soc_, _pa.t._ of _sacan_, to contend.]
SO-CALLED, s[=o]'-kawld, _adj._ See under SO.
SOCIABLE, s[=o]'sha-bl, _adj._ inclined to society: fit for company: companionable: affording opportunities for intercourse.--_n._ a four-wheeled open carriage with seats facing: a tricycle for two persons side by side: a couch with a curved S-shaped back: (_U.S._) an informal party, a social church meeting.--_ns._ S[=O]CIABIL'ITY, S[=O]'CIABLENESS, quality of being sociable: good-fellowship.--_adv._ S[=O]'CIABLY.--_adj._ S[=O]'CIAL, pertaining to society or companionship: relating to men united in a society: inclined for friendly intercourse: consisting in mutual converse: convivial: associating together, gregarious: growing in patches.--_v.t._ S[=O]'CIALISE, to reduce to a social state: to render social.--_ns._ S[=O]'CIALISM, the name given to any one of various schemes for regenerating society by a more equal distribution of property, and esp.
by substituting the principle of association for that of competition; S[=O]'CIALIST, an adherent of socialism.--_adj._ SOCIALIST'IC.--_ns._ SOCIAL'ITY, S[=O]'CIALNESS.--_adv._ S[=O]'CIALLY.--_adjs._ S[=O]'CI[=A]TIVE, expressing association; SOCIET[=A]'RIAN, SOC[=I]'ETARY, of or pertaining to society.--_ns._ SOC[=I]'ETY, fellowship, companionship: a number of persons associated for a common interest: a community or partnership: the civilised body of mankind, those who are recognised as the leaders in fashionable life, the fashionable world generally: persons who associate: any organised association for purposes literary, scientific, philanthropic, or ecclesiastical; SOC[=I]'ETY-HOUSE, a printing office which conforms to the rules of a trade-union; SOC[=I]'ETY-VERSE, poetry light and entertaining, treating of the topics of society so called.--SOCIAL SCIENCE, sociology, esp. the branch treating of the existing institutions of men as members of society, the science which treats of social relations; SOCIAL War, the war (90-88 b.c.) in which the Italian tribes known as the allies (_Socii_) fought for admission into Roman citizenship.--SOCIALISM OF THE CHAIR, a term first applied about 1872 in ridicule to the doctrines of a school of political economists in Germany whose aim was mainly to better the condition of the working-classes through remedial state-legislation, by factory-acts, savings-banks, insurances against sickness and old age, shortening the hours of labour, sanitation, &c.--also called PROFESSORIAL SOCIALISM, and having much the same ends and methods as the STATE SOCIALISM of Bismarck.--CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM, a movement for applying Christian ethics to social reform, led by Maurice, Kingsley, and others about 1848-52.--THE SOCIETIES, bodies that began to be organised in 1681 for the maintenance of Presbyterian worship in the face of persecution--ultimately forming the Reformed Presbyterian Church.
[Fr.,--L. _sociabilis_--_soci[=a]re_, to associate--_socius_, a companion.]
SOCINIAN, s[=o]-sin'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Socinus_, the name of two celebrated heresiarchs, uncle and nephew, who in the 16th century denied the doctrine of the Trinity, the deity of Christ, &c.--_n._ a follower of Laelius and Faustus Socinus, one who refuses to accept the divinity of Christ, a Unitarian.--_n._ SOCIN'IANISM, the doctrines of SOCINUS.
SOCIOLOGY, s[=o]-shi-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science that treats of man as a social being, in the origin, organisation, and development of human society and human culture, esp. on the side of social and political institutions, including ethics, political economy, &c.--_ns._ SOCIOG'ENY, the science of the origin of society; SOCIOG'RAPHY, the branch of sociology devoted to noting and describing the results of observation.--_adjs._ SOCIOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ SOCIOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ SOCIOL'OGIST, one devoted to the study of sociology; S[=O]'CIUS, an associate: a fellow of an academy, &c. [A hybrid from L. _socius_, a companion, and Gr. _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]
SOCK, sok, _n._ a kind of half-stocking: comedy, originally a low-heeled light shoe, worn by actors of comedy. [A.S. _socc_--L. _soccus_.]
SOCK, sok, _n._ a ploughshare. [O. Fr. _soc_--Celt., Bret. _souc'h_, Gael.
SOCK, sok, _v.t._ (_prov._ and _slang_) to throw: to strike hard, to give a drubbing.
SOCKDOLOGER, sok-dol'[=o]-j[.e]r, _n._ (_Amer. slang_) a conclusive argument: a knock-down blow: anything very big, a whopper: a form of fish-hook. [A corr. of _doxology_ as the closing act of a service.]
SOCKET, sok'et, _n._ a hollow into which something is inserted, the receptacle of the eye, &c.: a hollow tool for grasping and lifting tools dropped in a well-boring: the hollow of a candlestick: a steel apparatus attached to the saddle to protect thighs and legs.--_v.t._ to provide with or place in a socket.--_n._ SOCK'ET-BOLT, a bolt for passing through a thimble placed between the parts connected by the bolt.--_p.adj._ SOCK'ETED, provided with, placed in, or received in a socket. [A dim. of sock.]
SOCLE, s[=o]'kl, _n._ (_archit._) a plain, square, flat member used instead of a pedestal to support a column, &c.: a plain face or plinth at the foot of a wall. [Fr.--It. _zoccolo_--L. _socculus_, dim. of _soccus_, a high-heeled shoe, as if a support.]
SOCRATIC, -AL, s[=o]-krat'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to _Socrates_, a celebrated Greek philosopher (469-399 B.C.), to his philosophy, or to his manner of teaching, which was an art of inducing his interlocutors to discover their own ignorance and need of knowledge by means of a series of simple questions.--_adv._ SOCRAT'ICALLY.--_ns._ SOC'RATISM, the philosophy of SOCRATES; SOC'RATIST, a disciple of SOCRATES.
SOD, sod, _n._ any surface of earth grown with grass, &c.: turf.--_adj._ consisting of sod.--_v.t._ to cover with sod.--_adj._ SOD'DY, covered with sod: turfy.--THE OLD SOD, one's native soil. [Low Ger. _sode_; Ger. _sode_; perh. conn. with A.S. _seath_, a well--seothan (pa.p. _soden_), to boil.]
SOD, sod, obsolete _pa.t._ of _seethe_.
SODA, s[=o]'da, _n._ oxide of sodium, or its hydrate: the alkali obtained from the ashes of marine vegetables, or by decomposing sea-salt: (_coll._) soda-water.--_ns._ S[=O]'DA-ASH, sodium carbonate; S[=O]'DA-CRACK'ER, a biscuit made of flour and water, with salt, bicarbonate of soda, and cream of tartar; S[=O]'DA-FOUNT'AIN, a metal or marble case for holding water charged with carbonic-acid gas.--_adj._ SOD[=A]'IC, pertaining to, or containing, soda.--_ns._ S[=O]'DA-LIME, a mixture of caustic soda and quicklime; S[=O]'DALITE, a mineral composed chiefly of soda, along with silica, alumina, and hydrochloric acid; S[=O]'DA-P[=A]'PER, a paper saturated with sodium carbonate; S[=O]'DA-SALT, a salt having soda for its base; S[=O]'DA-WA'TER, water containing soda charged with carbonic acid; S[=O]'DIUM, a yellowish-white metal, the base of soda. [It. _soda_--L.
SODALITY, s[=o]-dal'i-ti, _n._ a fellowship or fraternity. [L.
_sodalitas_--sodalis, a comrade.]
SODDEN, sod'n, _pa.p._ of _seethe_, boiled: soaked thoroughly: boggy: doughy, not well baked: bloated, saturated with drink.--_n._ SOD'DENNESS.--_adj._ SOD'DEN-WIT'TED (_Shak._), heavy, stupid.
SODOMY, sod'om-i, _n._ unnatural sexuality, so called because imputed to the inhabitants of _Sodom_.--_n._ SOD'OMITE, an inhabitant of SODOM: one guilty of sodomy.--_adj._ SODOMIT'ICAL.--_adv._ SODOMIT'ICALLY.
SOEVER, s[=o]-ev'[.e]r, _adv._ generally used to extend or render indefinite the sense of _who_, _what_, _where_, _how_, &c.
SOFA, s[=o]'fa, _n._ a long seat with stuffed bottom, back and arms--formerly S[=O]'PHA.--_n._ S[=O]'FA-BED, a piece of furniture serving as a sofa by day, capable of being made into a bed at night. [Fr.,--Ar.
_suffah_--_saffa_, to arrange.]
SOFFIT, sof'it, _n._ a ceiling, now generally restricted to the ornamented under-sides of staircases, entablatures, archways, &c.; also the larmier or drip. [Fr.,--It.,--L. _suffixa_, pa.p. of _suffig[)e]re_, to fasten beneath--_sub_, under, _fig[)e]re_, to fix.]
SOFI, SOFISM. See SUFI, SUFISM.
SOFT, soft, _adj._ easily yielding to pressure: easily cut or acted upon: malleable: not rough to the touch: smooth: pleasing or soothing to the senses: easily yielding to any influence: mild: sympathetic: gentle: effeminate: gentle in motion: easy: free from lime or salt, as water: bituminous, as opposed to _anthracitic_, of coal: unsized, of paper: wet, rainy: warm enough to melt ice, thawing: (_phon._) pronounced with a somewhat sibilant sound, not guttural or explosive: vocal or sonant: not bony, cartilaginous, not spinous: soft-rayed, soft-shelled: of silk, having the natural gum cleaned or washed off--opp. to _Hard_.--_n._ a silly person, a fool.--_adv._ gently: quietly.--_interj._ hold! not so fast!--_adjs._ SOFT'-BOD'IED, having a soft body; SOFT'-CON'SCIENCED, having a sensitive conscience.--_v.t._ SOFT'EN, to make soft or softer: to mitigate: to tone down, make less glaring, make smoother in sound.--_v.i._ to grow soft or softer.--_ns._ SOFT'ENER; SOFT'ENING.--_adjs._ SOFT'-EYED, having gentle or tender eyes; SOFT'-FINNED, having no fin-spines.--_n.pl._ SOFT'-GOODS, cloth, and cloth articles, as opposed to _hardware_, &c.--_adjs._ SOFT'-HAND'ED, having soft hands, unused to work, slack in discipline; SOFT'-HEAD'ED, of weak intellect; SOFT'-HEART'ED, kind-hearted: gentle: meek.--_n._ SOFT-HEART'EDNESS.--_adj._ SOFT'ISH, rather soft.--_adv._ SOFT'LY.--_n._ SOFT'NESS.--_v.t._ SOFT'-SAW'DER (_U.S._), to flatter, blarney.--_n._ flattery.--_v.t._ SOFT'-SOAP, to flatter for some end.--_n._ flattery.--_adj._ SOFT-SP[=O]'KEN, -VOICED, having a mild or gentle voice: mild, affable.--_n._ SOFT'Y, a silly person, a weak fool.--A soft thing, a snug place where the pay is good and the work light. [A.S.
_softe_, _sefte_; Dut. _zacht_, Ger. _sanft_.]
SOFTA, sof'ta, _n._ a Moslem theological student, attached to a mosque.
SOGER, s[=o]'j[.e]r, _n._ (_naut._) one who skulks his work.--_v.i._ to shirk one's work.
SOGGY, sog'i, _adj._ soaked with water.--_n._ SOG, a bog.
SO-HO, s[=o]-h[=o]', _interj._ (_Shak._) a form of call from a distance, a sportsman's halloo.
SOI-DISANT, swo-d[=e]-zong', _adj._ self-styled, pretended. [Fr.]
SOIL, soil, _n._ the ground: the mould on the surface of the earth which nourishes plants: country.--_adj._ SOIL'-BOUND, attached to the soil.--_n._ SOIL'-CAP, the covering of soil on the bed-rock.--_adj._ SOILED, having soil. [O. Fr. _soel_, _suel_, _sueil_--Low L. _solea_, soil, ground, L.
_solea_, sole, allied to L. _solum_, ground, whence Fr. _sol_, soil.]
SOIL, soil, _n._ dirt: dung: foulness: a spot or stain: a marshy place in which a hunted boar finds refuge.--_v.t._ to make dirty: to stain: to manure.--_v.i._ to take a soil: to tarnish.--_n._ SOIL'INESS, stain: foulness.--_adj._ SOIL'LESS, destitute of soil.--_ns._ SOIL'-PIPE, an upright discharge-pipe which receives the general refuse from water-closets, &c., in a building; SOIL'URE (_Shak._), stain: pollution.
[O. Fr. _soil_, _souil_ (Fr. _souille_), wallowing-place--L. _suillus_, piggish--_sus_, a pig, a hog.]
SOIL, soil, _v.t._ to feed at the stall for the purpose of fattening. [O.
Fr. _saouler_--_saol_, _saoul_--L. _satullus_--_satur_, full.]
SOIReE, swa-r[=a]', _n._ an evening party: an evening social meeting with tea, &c. [Fr.,--_soir_, evening (Prov. _sera_)--L. _serus_, late.]
SOJOURN, s[=o]'jurn, _v.t._ to stay for a day: to dwell for a time.--_n._ a temporary residence.--_ns._ S[=O]'JOURNER; S[=O]'JOURNING, S[=O]'JOURNMENT, the act of dwelling in a place for a time. [O. Fr. _sojourner_--L. _sub_, under, _diurn[=a]re_, to stay--Low L. _jornus_--L. _diurnus_, relating to day--_dies_, a day.]
SOKE, s[=o]k, _n._ the same as _Soc_ (_q.v._).--_ns._ SOKE'MAN=_Socman_; S[=O]'KEN, a district held by tenure of socage: a miller's right to the grinding of all the corn within a certain manor.
SOL, sol, _n._ the sun, Phoebus: (_her._) a tincture, the metal or, or gold, in blazoning by planets. [L.]
SOL, sol, _n._ an old French coin, 1/20th of a livre, equal to 12 deniers, now superseded by the sou. [O. Fr. _sol_--L. _solidus_, solid.]
SOLA, s[=o]-la', _interj._ a cry to a person at a distance.
SOLA, s[=o]'la, _n._ the hat-plant or sponge-wood, also its pith.--Also S[=O]'LAH. [Hind. _shol[=a]_.]