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PELLAGRA, pe-l[=a]'gra, _n._ a loathsome skin disease supposed to be common in the rice-producing part of the north of Italy.--_n._ PELL[=A]'GRIN, one afflicted with pellagra.--_adj._ PELL[=A]'GROUS, like or afflicted with pellagra. [Gr. _pella_, skin, _agra_, seizure.]

PELLET, pel'et, _n._ a little ball, as of lint or wax: a small rounded boss: a small pill: a ball of shot.--_adj._ PELL'ETED, consisting of pellets: pelted, as with bullets. [O. Fr. _pelote_--L. _pila_, a ball.]

PELLICLE, pel'i-kl, _n._ a thin skin or film: the film or scum which gathers on liquors.--_adj._ PELLIC'ULAR.

PELLITORY, pel'i-tor-i, _n._ a genus of plants found most commonly on old walls and heaps of rubbish: the feverfew.--_n._ PELL'ITORY-OF-SPAIN, a plant which grows in Algeria, the root of which causes in the hands first a sensation of extreme cold, then one of a burning heat. [L. _parietaria_, the wall-plant--_parietarius_--_paries_, _parietis_, a wall.]

PELL-MELL, pel-mel', _adv._ in great confusion: promiscuously: in a disorderly manner--also written _Pele-mele_.--_n._ PELL-MELL' (same as PALL-MALL). [O. Fr. _pesle-mesle_ (Fr. _pele-mele_), _-mesle_ being from O.

Fr. _mesler_ (Fr. _meler_), to mix--Low L. _miscul[=a]re_--L. _misc[=e]re_; and _pesle_, a rhyming addition, perh. influenced by Fr. _pelle_, shovel.]

PELLUCID, pe-l[=u]'sid, _adj._ perfectly clear: letting light through: transparent.--_ns._ PELL[=U]CID'ITY, PELL[=U]'CIDNESS.--_adv._ PELL[=U]'CIDLY. [Fr.,--L. _pellucidus_--_per_, perfectly, _lucidus_, clear--_luc[=e]re_, to shine.]

PELMA, pel'ma, _n._ the sole of the foot.--_n._ PELMAT'OGRAM, the impression of the foot. [Gr.]

PELOPID, pel'[=o]-pid, _adj._ pertaining to _Pelops_.--_n._ one of his descendants.

PELOPONNESIAN, pel-[=o]-po-n[=e]'zi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to the _Peloponnesus_ or southern part of Greece.--_n._ an inhabitant or a native of the Peloponnesus.--PELOPONNESIAN WAR, a war between Athens and Sparta (431-404 B.C.). [Gr. _Pelops_, an ancient Greek hero, _n[=e]sos_, an island.]

PELORIA, p[=e]-l[=o]'ri-a, _n._ the appearance of regularity in flowers normally irregular--also PEL'ORISM.--_adjs._ P[=E]LOR'IATE, P[=E]LOR'IC.

[Gr. _pel[=o]r_, a monster.]

PELT, pelt, _n._ a raw hide: the quarry or prey of a hawk all torn.--_ns._ PELT'MONGER, a dealer in skins; PELT'RY, the skins of animals with the fur on them: furs. [M. E. _pelt_, _peltry_--O. Fr. _pelleterie_--_pelletier_, a skinner--L. _pellis_, a skin.]

PELT, pelt, _v.t._ to strike with something thrown: to cast.--_v.i._ to fall heavily, as rain.--_n._ a blow from something thrown.--_ns._ PEL'TER, a shower of missiles, a sharp storm of rain, &c.: a storm of anger; PEL'TING, an assault with a pellet, or with anything thrown. [Cf.


PELTA, pel'ta, _n._ a light buckler.--_n._ PEL'TAST, a soldier armed with this.--_adjs._ PEL'T[=A]TE, -D, shield-shaped; PELTAT'IFID, PEL'TIFORM.

[L.,--Gr. _pelt[=e]_.]

PELTING, pel'ting, _adj._ (_Shak._) paltry, contemptible.--_adv._ PELT'INGLY. [_Paltry_.]

PELVIS, pel'vis, _n._ the bony cavity at the lower end of the trunk, forming the lower part of the abdomen.--_adjs._ PEL'VIC, of or pertaining to the pelvis; PEL'VIFORM, openly cup-shaped.--_ns._ PELVIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the diameters of the pelvis; PELVIM'ETRY. [L.

_pelvis_, a basin.]

PEMMICAN, PEMICAN, pem'i-kan, _n._ a North American Indian preparation, consisting of lean venison, dried, pounded, and pressed into cakes, now made of beef and used in Arctic expeditions, &c.

PEMPHIGUS, pem'fi-gus, _n._ an affection of the skin with pustules.--_adj._ PEM'PHIGOID. [Gr.]

PEN, pen, _v.t._ to shut up: to confine in a small enclosure:--_pr.p._ pen'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ penned or pent.--_n._ a small enclosure: a fold for animals: a coop. [A.S. _pennan_, to shut up, in comp. _on pennan_, to unpen. Prop. to fasten with a _pin_.]

PEN, pen, _n._ one of the large feathers of the wing of a bird: an instrument used for writing, formerly made of the feather of a bird, but now of steel, &c.: style of writing: a female swan--opp. to _Cob_.--_v.t._ to write, to commit to paper:--_pr.p._ pen'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ penned.--_adj._ PEN'-AND-INK', written, literary: executed with pen and ink, as a drawing.--_ns._ PEN'-CASE, a holder for a pen or pens; PEN'CRAFT, skill in penmanship: the art of composition; PEN'-DRIV'ER, a clerk; PEN'FUL, what one can write with one dip of ink; PEN'-HOLD'ER, a holder for pens or nibs; PEN'-W[=I]'PER, a piece of cloth, leather, &c. for wiping pens after use; PEN'-WOM'AN, a female writer. [O. Fr. _penne_--L. _penna_, a feather.]

PENAL, p[=e]'nal, _adj._ pertaining to, incurring, or constituting punishment: used for punishment.--_v.t._ P[=E]'NALISE, to lay under penalty.--_adv._ P[=E]'NALLY.--PENAL LAWS, laws prohibiting certain actions under penalties; PENAL SERVITUDE, hard labour in a prison as a punishment for crime--introduced in England in 1853 instead of transportation; PENAL STATUTE, a statute imposing a penalty or punishment for crime. [Fr.,--L.

_poenalis_--_poena_, Gr. _poin[=e]_, punishment.]

PENALTY, pen'al-ti, _n._ punishment: suffering in person or property for wrong-doing or for breach of a law: a fine or loss which a person agrees to pay or bear in case of his non-fulfilment of some undertaking: a fine.--UNDER PENALTY OF, so as to suffer, or (after a negative) without suffering the punishment of.

PENANCE, pen'ans, _n._ repentance: external acts performed to manifest sorrow for sin, to seek to atone for the sin and to avert the punishment which, even after the guilt has been remitted, may still remain due to the offence--also the sacrament by which absolution is conveyed (involving contrition, confession, and satisfaction): any instrument of self-punishment.--_v.t._ to impose penance on: to punish. [O. Fr.; cf.


PENANG-LAWYER, pe-nang'-law'y[.e]r, _n._ a walking-stick made from the stem of a Penang palm. [Prob. a corr. of _Penang liyar_, the wild areca.]

PENANNULAR, p[=e]-nan'[=u]-lar, _adj._ shaped almost like a ring. [L.

_paena_, almost, _annularis_, annular.]

PENATES, p[=e]-n[=a]'t[=e]s, the household gods of ancient Rome who presided over and were worshipped by each family. [L., from root _pen-_ in L. _penitus_, within, _penetralia_, the inner part of anything.]

PENCE, pens, _n._ plural of _penny_ (q.v.).

PENCHANT, pang'shang, _n._ inclination: decided taste: bias. [Fr., pr.p. of _pencher_, to incline, through a form _pendic[=a]re_, from L. _pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENCIL, pen'sil, _n._ a small hair brush for laying on colours: any pointed instrument for writing or drawing without ink: a collection of rays of light converging to a point: the art of painting or drawing.--_v.t._ to write, sketch, or mark with a pencil: to paint or draw:--_pr.p._ pen'cilling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pen'cilled.--_ns._ PEN'CIL-CASE, a holder for a pencil; PEN'CIL-COM'PASS, a compass having a pencil on one of its legs for use in drawing.--_adjs._ PEN'CILLED, written or marked with a pencil: having pencils of rays: radiated: (_bot._) marked with fine lines, as with a pencil; PEN'CILLIFORM, having the form of a pencil, as of rays.--_ns._ PEN'CILLING, the art of writing, sketching, or marking with a pencil: marks made with a pencil: fine lines on flowers or the feathers of birds: a sketch; PEN'CIL-SKETCH, a sketch made with a pencil. [O. Fr.

_pincel_ (Fr. _pinceau_)--L. _penicillum_, a painter's brush, dim. of _penis_, a tail.]

PEND, pend, _n._ (_obs._) an enclosure: (_Scot._) a narrow close leading off a main street.

PEND, pend, _v.i._ to hang, as in a balance, to impend.--_adj._ PEND'ING, hanging: remaining undecided: not terminated.--_prep._ during.

PENDANT, pen'dant, _n._ anything hanging, esp. for ornament: an earring: a lamp hanging from the roof: an ornament of wood or of stone hanging downwards from a roof: a long narrow flag, at the head of the principal mast in a royal ship: something attached to another thing of the same kind, an appendix, a companion picture, poem, &c.--_ns._ PEN'DENCE, PEN'DENCY, a hanging in suspense: state of being undecided.--_adj._ PEN'DENT, hanging: projecting: supported above the ground or base: (_bot._) hanging downwards, as a flower or a leaf.--_n._ PENDEN'TIVE (_archit._), the triangular portion of a dome cut off between two supporting arches at right angles to each other.--_adv._ PEN'DENTLY.--_ns._ PEN'DICLE, an appendage: something attached to another, as a privilege, a small piece of ground for cultivation; PEN'D[=U]LET, a pendant. [Fr. _pendant_, pr.p. of _pendre_, to hang--L. _pendens_, _-entis_--_pr.p._ of _pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENDRAGON, pen-drag'on, _n._ a chief leader: an ancient British chief.--_n._ PENDRAG'ONSHIP. [W. _pen_, head, _dragon_, a chief.]

PENDULUM, pen'd[=u]-lum, _n._ any weight so hung from a fixed point as to swing freely: the swinging weight which regulates the movement of a clock: a lamp, &c., pendent from a ceiling: a guard-ring of a watch by which it is attached to a chain.--_adj._ PEN'DULAR, relating to a pendulum.--_v.i._ PEN'DULATE, to swing, vibrate.--_adjs._ PEN'DULENT, pendulous; PEN'DULINE, building a pendulous nest; PEN'DULOUS, hanging loosely: swinging freely, as the pensile nests of birds: (_bot._) hanging downwards, as a flower on a curved stalk.--_adv._ PEN'DULOUSLY.--_ns._ PEN'DULOUSNESS, PEN'DULOSITY.--PENDULUM WIRE, a kind of flat steel wire for clock pendulums.--COMPENSATION PENDULUM, a pendulum so constructed that its rod is not altered in length by changes of temperature; COMPOUND PENDULUM, every ordinary pendulum is _compound_, as differing from a SIMPLE PENDULUM, which is a material point suspended by an ideal line; INVARIABLE PENDULUM, a pendulum for carrying from station to station to be oscillated at each so as to fix the relative acceleration of gravity; LONG and SHORT PENDULUM, a pendulum for determining the absolute force of gravity by means of a bob suspended by a wire of varying length. [L., neut. of _pendulus_, hanging--_pend[=e]re_, to hang.]

PENEIAN, p[=e]-n[=e]'yan, _adj._ relating to the river _Peneus_ in the famous Vale of Tempe in Thessaly.

PENELOPISE, p[=e]-nel'o-p[=i]z, _v.i._ to act like _Penelope_, the wife of Ulysses, who undid at night the work she did by day, to gain time from her suitors.

PENETRATE, pen'[=e]-tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to thrust into the inside: to pierce into: to affect the mind or feelings: to enter and to fill: to understand: to find out.--_v.i._ to make way: to pass inwards.--_ns._ PENETRABIL'ITY, PEN'ETRABLENESS.--_adj._ PEN'ETRABLE, that may be penetrated or pierced by another body: capable of having impressions made upon the mind.--_adv._ PEN'ETRABLY, so as to be PENETR[=A]'LIA, the inmost parts of a building: secrets: mysteries.--_ns._ PEN'ETRANCE, PEN'ETRANCY, the quality of being penetrant.--_adjs._ PEN'ETRANT, subtle, penetrating; PEN'ETRATING, piercing or entering: sharp: subtle: acute: discerning.--_adv._ PEN'ETRATINGLY.--_n._ PENETR[=A]'TION, the act or power of penetrating or entering: acuteness: discernment: the space-penetrating power of a telescope.--_adj._ PEN'ETRATIVE, tending to penetrate: piercing: sagacious: affecting the mind.--_adv._ PEN'ETRATIVELY, in a penetrative manner.--_n._ PEN'ETRATIVENESS, the quality of being penetrative: penetrative power. [L. _penetr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_penes_, within.]

PEN-FISH, pen'-fish, _n._ a sparoid fish of genus _Calamus_.


PENGUIN, pen'gwin, _n._ an aquatic bird in the southern hemisphere, unable to fly, but very expert in diving--also PIN'GUIN.--_n._ PEN'GUINERY, a breeding-place of penguins. [Ety. dub.; a corr. of _pen-wing_, or from W.

_pen_, head, _gwen_, white.]

PEN-GUN, pen'-gun, _n._ a pop-gun.

PENICIL, pen'i-sil, _n._ a brush of hairs: a pledget for wounds, &c.--_adjs._ PEN'ICILLATE, PENICIL'LIFORM.--_n._ PENICIL'LIUM, one of the blue-moulds.

PENINSULA, p[=e]-nin's[=u]-la, _n._ land so surrounded by water as to be almost an island.--_adj._ PENIN'SULAR, pertaining to a peninsula: in the form of a peninsula: inhabiting a peninsula.--_n._ PENINSULAR'ITY, state of being, or of inhabiting, a peninsula: narrow provincialism.--_v.t._ PENIN'SULATE, to form into a peninsula: to surround almost entirely with water.--PENINSULAR WAR, the war in Spain and Portugal, carried on by Great Britain against Napoleon's marshals (1804-1814).--THE PENINSULA, Spain and Portugal. [L.,--_paene_, almost, _insula_, an island.]

PENIS, p[=e]'nis, _n._ the characteristic external male organ.--_adj._ P[=E]'NIAL. [L., a tail.]

PENISTONE, pen'i-st[=o]n, _n._ a coarse frieze.--PENISTONE FLAGS, a kind of sandstone for paving and building, brought from _Penistone_ in Yorkshire.

PENITENT, pen'i-tent, _adj._ suffering pain or sorrow for sin: contrite: repentant.--_n._ one who is sorry for sin: one who has confessed sin, and is undergoing penance.--_ns._ PEN'ITENCE, PEN'ITENCY, state of being penitent: sorrow for sin.--_adj._ PENITEN'TIAL, pertaining to, or expressive of, penitence.--_n._ a book of rules relating to penance.--_adv._ PENITEN'TIALLY.--_adj._ PENITEN'TIARY, relating to penance: penitential.--_n._ a penitent: an office at the court of Rome for examining and issuing secret bulls, dispensations, &c.: a book for guidance in imposing penances: a place for the performance of penance: a house of correction and punishment for offenders.--_adv._ PEN'ITENTLY.--PENITENTIAL GARMENT, a rough garment worn for penance; PENITENTIAL PSALMS, certain psalms suitable for being sung by penitents, as the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d. [Fr.,--L. _poenitens_, _-entis_--_poenit[=e]re_, to cause to repent.]

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