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GEHENNA, ge-hen'a, _n._ the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, in which the Israelites sacrificed their children to Moloch, and to which, at a later time, the refuse of the city was conveyed to be slowly burned--hence (_N.T._) hell. [L.,--Heb. _Ge_, valley of, and _Hinnom_.]

GEISHA, g[=a]'sha, _n._ a Japanese dancing-girl.

GEIST, g[=i]st, _n._ spirit, any inspiring or dominating principle. [Ger.]

GELASTIC, jel-as'tik, _adj._ risible.

GELATINE, GELATIN, jel'a-tin, _n._ an animal substance which dissolves in hot water and forms a jelly when cold.--_adj._ GELATIG'ENOUS, producing gelatine.--_vs.t._ GELAT'IN[=A]TE, GELAT'IN[=I]SE, to make into gelatine or jelly.--_vs.i._ to be converted into gelatine or jelly.--_ns._ GELATIN[=A]'TION, GELATINIS[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ GELATIN'IFORM, having the form of gelatine; GELA'TINOID, like gelatine; GELAT'INOUS, resembling or formed into jelly.--_n._ GEL[=A]'TION, solidification by cold.--EXPLOSIVE GELATINE, a powerful explosive made by gently heating nitro-glycerine in a water-bath, then dissolving gun-cotton in it. [Fr.,--It. _gelatina_, _gelata_, jelly.]

GELD, geld, _n._ a historical term meaning money: tribute. [A.S. _geld_, _gyld_, payment; Ice. _giald_, money.]

GELD, geld, _v.t._ to emasculate, castrate: to spay: to deprive of anything essential, to enfeeble: to deprive of anything objectionable.--_ns._ GELD'ER; GELD'ING, act of castrating: a castrated animal, esp. a horse.

[Ice. _gelda_; Dan. _gilde_.]


GELID, jel'id, _adj._ icy cold: cold.--_adv._ GEL'IDLY.--_ns._ GEL'IDNESS, GELID'ITY. [L. _gelidus_--_gelu_, frost.]

GELOTOMETER, jel-ot-om'e-ter, _n._ (_Landor_) a gauge for measuring laughter.

GELSEMIUM, jel-s[=e]'mi-um, _n._ the yellow or Cardina jasmine, a climbing plant of the Atlantic Southern United States, having large fragrant blossoms and perennial dark-green leaves. [It. _gelsomino_, jasmine.]

GELT, gelt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _geld_.

GELT, gelt, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as GILT.

GEM, jem, _n._ any precious stone, esp. when cut: anything extremely valuable or attractive, a treasure.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to bud: to adorn with gems: to bespangle:--_pr.p._ gem'ming; _pa.p._ gemmed.--_ns._ GEM'-CUT'TING, the art of cutting and polishing precious stones; GEM'-ENGRAV'ING, the art of engraving figures on gems.--_adj._ GEM'MEOUS, pertaining to gems.--_n._ GEM'MERY, gems generally.--_adj._ GEM'MY, full of gems, brilliant. [A.S. _gim_; Old High Ger. _gimma_--L. _gemma_, a bud.]

GEMARA, ge-mar'a, _n._ the second part of the Talmud, consisting of commentary and complement to the first part, the Mishna. [Aramaic, 'completion.']

GEMATRIA, ge-m[=a]'tri-a, _n._ a cabbalistic method of interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures by interchanging words whose letters have the same numerical value when added. [Rabbinical Heb.,--Gr. _ge[=o]metria_, geometry.]

GEMEL-RING, jem'el-ring, _n._ a ring with two or more links.--_n._ GEM'EL, a twin.--_adj._ GEMELLIP'AROUS, producing twins. [O. Fr. _gemel_ (Fr.

_jumeau_)--L. _gemellus_, dim. of _geminus_, twin, and _ring_.]

GEMINATE, jem'in-[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) in pairs.--_v.t._ (_rare_) to double.--_n._ GEMIN[=A]'TION, a doubling: repetition of a word to add emphasis: (_philol._) the doubling of a consonant originally single. [L.

_gemin[=a]re_, _[=a]tum_--_geminus_, twin.]

GEMINI, jem'i-n[=i], the twins, a constellation containing the two bright stars Castor and Pollux.--_adj._ GEM'INOUS (_bot._), double, in pairs.--_n._ GEM'INY (_Shak._), twins, a pair: used as a mild oath or interjection, from the common Latin oath _O Gemini_, or simply _Gemini_--spelt also _geminy_, _gemony_, _jiminy_. [L., pl. of _geminus_, twin-born.]

GEMMAN, jem'an, _n._ gentleman.--Also GEM'MAN.

GEMMATION, jem-m[=a]'shun, _n._ (_bot._) act or time of budding: arrangement of buds on the stalk.--_n._ GEM'MA, a bud:--_pl._ GEM'Mae.--_adjs._ GEMM[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to leaf-buds; GEM'M[=A]TE, having buds; GEM'MATIVE; GEMMIF'EROUS, producing buds.--_n._ GEMMIPAR'ITY.--_adj._ GEMMIP'AROUS (_zool._), reproducing by buds growing on the body.--_n._ GEM'M[=U]LE, a little gem or leaf-bud.--_adj._ GEMMULIF'EROUS, bearing gemmules. [Fr.,--L. _gemm[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

GEMOT, GEMOTE, ge-m[=o]t', _n._ a meeting or assembly. [A.S. _gemot_. Cf.


GEMSBOK, jemz'bok, _n._ a species of antelope, found in South Africa, about the size of a stag, with long straight horns. [Dut.]

GENAPPE, je-nap', _n._ a smooth worsted yarn used with silk in fringes, braid, &c. [_Genappe_ in Belgium.]

GENDARME, jang-darm', _n._ originally a mounted lancer, but since the Revolution one of a corps of military police, divided into legions and companies:--_pl._ GENDARMES', GENSDARMES'.--_n._ GENDAR'MERIE, the armed police of France. [Fr. _gendarme_, sing. from pl. _gens d'armes_, men-at-arms--_gens_, people, _de_, of, _armes_, arms.]

GENDER, jen'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to beget.--_v.i._ (_B._) to copulate. [An abbrev. of _engender_.]

GENDER, jen'd[.e]r, _n._ kind, esp. with regard to sex: (_gram._) the distinction of nouns according to sex. [Fr. _genre_--L. _genus_, _generis_, a kind, kin.]

GENEALOGY, jen-e-al'o-ji, _n._ history of the descent of families: the pedigree of a particular person or family.--_adj._ GENEALOG'ICAL.--_adv._ GENEALOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ GENEAL'OGISE, to investigate or treat of genealogy.--_n._ GENEAL'OGIST, one who studies or traces genealogies or descents.--GENEALOGICAL TREE, the lineage of a family or person under the form of a tree with roots, branches, &c. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr.

_genealogia_--_genea_, birth, _legein_, to speak of.]


GENERAL, jen'[.e]r-al, _adj._ relating to a genus or whole class: including many species: not special: not restricted: common: prevalent: public: loose: vague.--_n._ a class embracing many species: an officer who is head over a whole department: a military officer who commands a body of men not less than a brigade (often _general officer_): the chief commander of an army in service: (_R.C. Church_) the head of a religious order, responsible only to the Pope: (_Shak._) the public, the vulgar.--_n._ GENERAL'[=E], esp. in _pl._ GENERALIA, general principles.--_adj._ GENERAL[=I]'SABLE.--_n._ GENERALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ GENERAL[=I]SE', to include under a general term: to infer (the nature of a class) from one or a few instances.--_v.i._ to reason inductively.--_n._ GENERAL'ITY.--_advs._ GEN'ERALLY, GEN'ERAL (_obs._), in a general or collective manner or sense: in most cases: upon the whole.--_n._ GEN'ERALSHIP, the position of a military commander: military tactics.--GENERAL ASSEMBLY (see ASSEMBLY); GENERAL EPISTLE, one addressed to the whole Church (same as CATHOLIC EPISTLE); GENERAL PRACTITIONER, a physician who devotes himself to general practice rather than to special diseases; GENERAL PRINCIPLE, a principle to which there are no exceptions within its range of application; GENERAL SERVANT, a servant whose duties are not special, but embrace domestic work of every kind.--IN GENERAL, mostly, as a general rule. [O. Fr.,--L.


GENERALISSIMO, jen-[.e]r-al-is'i-mo, _n._ the chief general or commander of an army of two or more divisions, or of separate armies. [It.]

GENERATE, jen'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to produce: to bring into life: to originate.--_adj._ GEN'ERABLE, that may be generated or produced.--_ns._ GEN'ERANT (_math._), a line, point, or figure that produces another figure by its motion; GENER[=A]'TION, a producing or originating: a single stage in natural descent: the people of the same age or period: offspring, progeny, race: (_pl._) genealogy, history (_B._); GENER[=A]'TIONISM, traducianism.--_adj._ GEN'ER[=A]TIVE, having the power of generating or producing.--_ns._ GEN'ER[=A]TOR, begetter or producer: the principal sound in music; GEN'ER[=A]TRIX (_geom._), the point, line, or surface which, by its motion, generates another magnitude.--_adjs._ GENET'IC, -AL, pertaining to genesis or production.--_adv._ GENET'ICALLY.--_ns._ GEN'ETRIX, GEN'ITRIX, a female parent; GEN'ITOR, a progenitor; GEN'ITURE, birth.--ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS, a complication in the life-history of plants, when the organism produces offspring unlike itself, but giving rise in turn to forms like the original parents; SPONTANEOUS GENERATION, the origination of living from non-living matter: abiogenesis. [L.

_gener[=a]re_, -_[=a]tum_--_genus_, a kind.]


GENEROUS, jen'[.e]r-us, _adj._ of a noble nature: courageous: liberal: bountiful: invigorating in its nature, as wine: (_obs._) nobly born.--_adv._ GEN'EROUSLY.--_ns._ GEN'EROUSNESS, GENEROS'ITY, nobleness or liberality of nature: (_arch._) nobility of birth. [Fr. _genereux_--L.

_generosus_, of noble birth--_genus_, birth.]

GENESIS, jen'e-sis, _n._ generation, creation, or production: the first book of the Bible, so called from its containing an account of the Creation:--_pl._ GEN'ES[=E]S.--_adjs._ GENES'IAC, -AL, GENESIT'IC, pertaining to Genesis. [L.,--Gr.,--_gignesthai_, to beget.]


GENET, jen'et, _n._ a carnivorous animal, allied to the civet, of a gray colour, marked with black or brown, a native of Africa, Asia, and Southern Europe: its fur, made into muffs and tippets.--Also GEN'ETTE. [Fr.

_genette_--Sp. _gineta_--Ar. _jarnait_, a genet.]

GENETHLIAC, -AL, j[=e]-neth'li-ak, -al, _adj._ pertaining to a birthday or nativity.--_n._ a birthday poem.--_n._ GENETHL[=I]'ACON, a birthday ode.--_adjs._ GENETHLIALOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ GENETHLIAL'OGY, the art of casting nativities.

GENEVA, je-n[=e]'va, _n._ a spirit distilled from grain and flavoured with juniper-berries, also called _Hollands_.--_n._ GENEVETTE', a wine made from wild fruits flavoured with juniper-berries. [Dut. _genever_, _jenever_, O.

Fr. _genevre_ (Fr. _genievre_)--L. _juniperus_, the juniper; corrupted to _Geneva_ by confusion with the town of that name. See GIN.]

GENEVAN, j[=e]-n[=e]'van, _adj._ pertaining to _Geneva_.--_n._ an inhabitant of Geneva: an adherent of Genevan or Calvinistic theology.--_adjs._ and _ns._ GEN[=E]'VAN, GENEV[=E]SE'.--_n._ GEN[=E]'VANISM, Calvinism.--GENEVA BIBLE, a version of the Bible with racy notes produced by English exiles at Geneva in 1560; GENEVA CONVENTION, an international agreement of 1865 providing for the neutrality of hospitals, and the security of sanitary officers, naval and military chaplains; GENEVA CROSS, a red cross on a white ground displayed for protection in war of persons serving in hospitals, &c.; GENEVA GOWN, the dark, loose preaching gown affected by the early Geneva reformers, and still the common form of pulpit-gown among Presbyterians; GENEVAN THEOLOGY, so called from Calvin's residence in Geneva and the establishment of his doctrines there.

GENIAL, j[=e]'ni-al, _adj._ pertaining to generation, producing: cheering: kindly: sympathetic: healthful.--_v.t._ G[=E]'NIALISE, to impart geniality to.--_ns._ GENIAL'ITY, G[=E]'NIALNESS.--_adv._ G[=E]'NIALLY. [Fr.--L.

_genialis_, from _genius_, the spirit of social enjoyment.]

GENIAL, jen'i-al, _adj._ of or pertaining to the chin. [Gr.

_geneion_--_genys_, the jaw.]

GENICULATE, -D, je-nik'[=u]-l[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) bent abruptly like the knee: jointed: knotted.--_v.t._ GENIC'ULATE, to form joints in.--_n._ GENICUL[=A]'TION. [L. _genicul[=a]re_, -[=a]tum--_geniculum_, a little knee--_genu_, the knee.]

GENIE, j[=e]'ni, _n._ a jinnee. [Fr. _genie_--L. _genius_.]

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