LITRE, l[=e]'tr, _n._ the unit of the French measures of capacity, both dry and liquid. It is the volume of a cubic decimetre, and contains a kilogramme of water at 4 C. in a vacuum, equal to .2200967 British imperial gallon, therefore less than a quart--4 litres being roughly equal to a gallon.
LITTER, lit'[.e]r, _n._ a heap of straw, &c., for animals to lie upon: materials for a bed: any scattered collection of objects, esp. of little value: a vehicle containing a bed for carrying about, a hospital stretcher: a brood of small quadrupeds.--_v.t._ to cover or supply with litter: to scatter carelessly about: to give birth to (said of small animals).--_v.i._ to produce a litter or brood.--_p.adj._ LITT'ERED. [O. Fr. _litiere_--Low L. _lectaria_--L. _lectus_, a bed.]
LITTeRATEUR, lit-[.e]r-a-t[.e]r', _n._ a literary man. [Fr.]
LITTLE, lit'l, _adj._ (_comp._ LESS; _superl._ LEAST) small in quantity or extent: weak, poor: brief.--_n._ that which is small in quantity or extent: a small space.--_adv._ in a small quantity or degree: not much.--_ns._ LITT'LE-EASE, discomfort, misery: a form of punishment, as the stocks; LITT'LE-END'IAN, one of the Lilliputian party who opposed the _Big-endians_, maintaining that boiled eggs should be cracked at the little end; LITT'LE-GO (see GO); LITT'LENESS; LITT'LE-OFF'ICE, a short service of psalms, hymns, collects, &c.--_adj._ LITT'LEWORTH, worthless.--BY LITTLE AND LITTLE, by degrees; IN LITTLE, on a small scale; NOT A LITTLE, considerably. [A.S. _ltel_.]
LITTORAL, lit'or-al, _adj._ belonging to the sea-shore.--_n._ the strip of land along it.--LITTORAL ZONE, the interval on a sea-coast between high and low water mark. [L.,--_litus_, _lit[)o]ris_, shore.]
LITURATE, lit'[=u]-r[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having spots formed by the abrasion of the surface: in entomology, marked with spots (_Liturae_) growing paler at one end.
LITURGY, lit'ur-ji, _n._ the form of service or regular ritual of a church--strictly, that used in the celebration of the Eucharist: in ancient Greece, a form of personal service to the state.--_n._ LITURGE', a leader in public worship.--_adjs._ LITUR'GIC, -AL.--_adv._ LITUR'GICALLY.--_ns._ LITUR'GICS, the doctrine of liturgies; LITURGIOL'OGIST, a student of liturgies; LITURGIOL'OGY, the study of liturgical forms; LIT'URGIST, a leader in public worship: one who adheres to, or who studies, liturgies.
[Fr.,--Gr. _leitourgia_--_laos_, the people, _ergon_, work.]
LITUUS, li-t[=u]'us, _n._ an augur's staff with recurved top: a spiral of similar form.--_adjs._ LIT'U[=A]TE, forked with the points turned outward; LIT'UIFORM. [L.]
LIVE, liv, _v.i._ to have, or continue in, life, temporal or spiritual: to last, subsist: to enjoy life: to direct one's course of life: to be nourished or supported: to dwell.--_v.t._ to spend: to act in conformity to:--_pr.p._ liv'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ lived.--_adj._ LIV'ABLE, capable of being lived: habitable.--_n._ LIV'ER.--LIVE DOWN, live so as to cause a slander, a grief, &c. to be forgotten by one's self or others; LIVE OUT, to continue alive until the end of anything: (_U.S._) to be from home in domestic service; LIVE UNDER, to be tenant to; LIVE UP TO, to rule one's life according to some standard. [A.S. _lifian_; Ger. _leben_.]
LIVE, l[=i]v, _adj._ having life: alive, not dead: active: containing fire: burning: vivid.--LIVED (l[=i]vd), used in compounds, as _long-lived_.--_ns._ LIVE'-AXLE, driving-axle; LIVE'-BAIT, a living worm or minnow used in fishing: LIVE'-CIR'CUIT, a circuit through which an electric current is flowing.--_n.pl._ LIVE'-FEATH'ERS, those plucked from the living fowl.--_n._ LIVE'-L[=E]'VER, that one of a pair of brake-levers to which the power is first applied:--opp. to _Dead-lever_.--_adj._ LIVE'-LONG, that lives or lasts long.--_ns._ LIVE'-OAK, an American oak, with durable wood; LIVE'-SHELL, a shell loaded and fused for firing, or fired and not yet exploded; LIVE'-STOCK, domestic animals, esp. horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs; LIVE'-WELL, the well in a fishing-boat where fish are kept alive.
LIVELIHOOD, l[=i]v'li-hood, _n._ means of living: support--(_obs._) LIVE'LIHED. [A.S. _lif_. life, _lad_, a way.]
LIVELY, l[=i]v'li, _adj._ showing life: vigorous, active: sprightly: spirited: vivid.--_adv._ vivaciously, vigorously.--_adv._ L[=I]VE'LILY.--_n._ L[=I]VE'LINESS.
LIVER, liv'[.e]r, _n._ the largest gland in the body, which secretes the bile.--_adjs._ LIV'ER-COL'OUR, of the colour of the liver: dark-red; LIV'ERED, in compounds, as _white-livered_, _lily-livered_=cowardly.--_n._ LIVER-FLUKE, a trematoid worm (_Distoma hepatica_).--_adj._ LIV'ER-GROWN, having a swelled liver.--_n._ LIVERWORT, any plant of the cryptogamic family _Hepaticae_, allied to mosses.--_adj._ LIV'ERY, resembling the liver.
[A.S. _lifer_; Ger. _leber_, Ice. _lifr_.]
LIVERY, liv'[.e]r-i, _n._ the dress or uniform worn by servants, esp.
men-servants: a dress peculiar to certain persons or things, as in the trade-guilds of London: any characteristic dress: the being kept and fed at a certain rate, as horses at livery: the whole body of liverymen in London: (_orig._) the distinctive dress worn by the household of a king or nobleman, so called because delivered or given at regular periods.--_adj._ LIV'ERIED, clothed in livery.--_ns._ LIV'ERY-COM'PANY, a guild of the city of London; LIV'ERYMAN, a man who wears a livery: a freeman of the city of London entitled to wear the livery and enjoy other privileges of his company; LIV'ERY-SER'VANT, a servant who wears a livery; LIV'ERY-ST[=A]'BLE, a stable where horses and vehicles are kept for hire.--SUE ONE'S LIVERY (_Shak._), to ask for the writ delivering a freehold into the possession of its heir. [Fr. _livree_--_livrer_--L.
_liber[=a]re_, to free.]
LIVES, l[=i]vz, _n._ plural of _life_.
LIVID, liv'id, _adj._ black and blue: of a lead colour: discoloured.--_ns._ LIVID'ITY, LIV'IDNESS. [Fr.,--L. _lividus_--_liv[=e]re_, to be of a lead colour.]
LIVING, liv'ing, _adj._ having life: active, lively: producing action or vigour: running or flowing, as opposed to stagnant.--_n._ means of subsistence: manner of life: a property: the benefice of a clergyman.--LIVING ROCK, rock in its native state or location; LIVING ROOM, a sitting-room for general family use; LIVING WAGE, a wage on which it is possible for a workman and his family to live fairly.--THE LIVING, those alive.
LIVRAISON, l[=e]-vr[=a]-zon', _n._ a number of a book published in parts.
LIVRE, l[=e]'vr, _n._ an old French coin, about the value of a franc, by which it was superseded in 1795: the ancient French unit of weight, equal to about 1 lb. avoirdupois. [Fr.,--L. _libra_, a pound.]
LIXIVIATION, liks-iv-i-[=a]'shun, _n._ the process of washing or steeping certain substances in a fluid, for the purpose of dissolving a portion of their ingredients, and so separating them from the insoluble residue.--_adjs._ LIXIV'IAL, LIXIV'IOUS.--_v.t._ LIXIV'IATE.--_n._ LIXIV'IUM, lye. [L. _lixivium_, lye.]
LIZARD, liz'ard, _n._ a family of four-footed scaly reptiles, a saurian or lacertilian.--_n._ LIZ'ARD-STONE, a Cornish serpentine. [Fr. _lezard_--L.
LLAMA, la'ma, or l[=a]'ma, _n._ a South American ruminant of the camel family, used for transport in the Andes.
LLANO, la'n[=o], or lya'n[=o], _n._ one of the vast steppes or plains in the northern part of South America:--_pl._ LLA'NOS.--_n._ LLANERO (lya-n[=a]'r[=o]), an inhabitant of the llanos. [Sp.,--L. _planus_, plain.]
LLOYD'S, loidz, _n._ a part of the London Royal Exchange frequented by ship-owners, underwriters, &c. to obtain shipping intelligence and transact marine insurance.--LLOYD'S REGISTER, a list of sea-going vessels classified according to seaworthiness (as A1, &c.), annually prepared by an association of members of Lloyd's. [From their originally meeting in the coffee-house in Tower Street kept by Edward _Lloyd_ in the 17th century.]
LO, l[=o], _interj._ look! see! behold! [A.S. _la_; imit.]
LOACH, LOCHE, l[=o]ch, _n._ a small river-fish.--Also _Beardie_. [Fr.
_loche_, Sp. _loja_.]
LOAD, l[=o]d, _v.t._ to lade or burden: to put on as much as can be carried: to heap on: to put on overmuch: to confer or give in great abundance: to weigh down, to oppress: to weight by something specially added: to charge, as a gun: to make heavy, as a thin wine: to mix with white: to lay on colour in masses.--_v.i._ to put or take on a load: to charge a gun: to become loaded or burdened.--_n._ a lading or burden: as much as can be carried at once: freight or cargo: a measure: any large quantity borne: a quantity sustained with difficulty: that which burdens or grieves: a weight or encumbrance.--LOAD'EN, old _pa.p._ of load.--_ns._ LOAD'ER, one who, or that which, loads; LOAD'ING, the act of lading: a charge, cargo, or lading; LOAD'ING-MACHINE', a contrivance for loading cartridge-shells; LOAD'ING-TRAY, an iron frame on which a shot or shell is placed and brought forward into the opening in the breech of a gun; LOAD'-LINE, a line along the ship's side to mark the depth to which her proper cargo causes her to sink--also _Plimsoll's mark_.--LOAD A CANE, WHIP, to weight it with lead, &c.; LOAD DICE, to make one side heavier than the other, for purposes of cheating; LOAD WINE, to falsify by mixing it with distilled liquor, sugar, &c. [A.S. _hladan_, pa.t. _hlod_, to load.]
LOADSTAR. Same as LODESTAR.
LOADSTONE. Same as LODESTONE.
LOAF, l[=o]f, _n._ a regularly shaped mass of bread: a mass of sugar: any lump:--_pl._ LOAVES (l[=o]vz).--_n._ LOAF'-SUG'AR, refined sugar in the form of a cone.--LOAVES AND FISHES, temporal benefits, the main chance for one's self--from John, vi. 26. [A.S. _hlaf_.]
LOAF, l[=o]f, _v.i._ to loiter, pass time idly.--_n._ LOAF'ER.--_adj._ LOAF'ERISH. [Prob. directly Ger. _laufer_, a runner, _laufen_, to run about.]
LOAM, l[=o]m, _n._ a muddy soil, of clay, sand, and animal and vegetable matter.--_v.t._ to cover with loam.--_adj._ LOAM'Y. [A.S. _lam_; Ger.
_lehm_; cf. _lime_.]
LOAN, l[=o]n, _n._ a lane: an open space for passage left between fields of corn: a place for milking cows.--Also LOAN'ING. [_Lane_.]
LOAN, l[=o]n, _n._ anything lent: the act of lending: permission to use: money lent for interest.--_v.t._ to lend.--_adj._ LOAN'ABLE.--_ns._ LOAN'-OFF'ICE, a public office at which loans are negotiated, a pawnbroker's shop; LOAN'-SOC[=I]'ETY, a society organised to lend money to be repaid with interest by instalments; LOAN'-WORD, one taken into one language from another--like _Loafer_ above. [A.S. _l['ae]n_; Ice. _lan_, Dan. _laan_, cf. Ger. _lehen_, a fief.]
LOATH, LOTH, l[=o]th, _adj._ disliking: reluctant, unwilling.--_adv._ LOATH'LY.--_n._ LOATH'NESS. [A.S. _la_, hateful--_lian_, to travel; Ger.
LOATHE, l[=o]_th_, _v.t._ to dislike greatly, to feel disgust at.--_adj._ LOATH'FUL, full of loathing, hate, or abhorrence: exciting loathing or disgust.--_n._ LOATH'ING, extreme hate or disgust: abhorrence.--_adj._ hating.--_adv._ LOATH'INGLY.--_adjs._ LOATH'LY, LOATH'Y (_obs._), loathsome; LOATH'SOME, exciting loathing or abhorrence: detestable.--_adv._ LOATH'SOMELY.--_n._ LOATH'SOMENESS. [A.S. _laian_--_la_; cf. _loath_.]
LOB, lob, _n._ a clumsy person, the last in a race: a lobworm: the coal-fish: at cricket, a long slow ball: something thick and heavy.--_v.t._ to throw gently, slowly, or with underhand delivery: at lawn-tennis, to strike the ball high over an opponent's head into the end of the court: to hang wearily down.--_n._ LOBS'POUND, a prison.--LOB LIE BY THE FIRE, Milton's _lubber-fiend_, a brownie who works by night for his bowl of cream. [W. _llob_; cf. _Lubber_.]
LOBBY, lob'i, _n._ a small hall or waiting-room: a passage serving as a common entrance to several apartments: the ante-chamber of a legislative hall, frequented by outsiders for the purpose of influencing votes.--_ns._ LOBB'YING, frequenting the lobby to collect political intelligence, &c.; LOBB'YIST, LOBB'Y-MEM'BER, a journalist, &c., who frequents a lobby in the interest of some cause or of a newspaper. [Low L. _lobia_--Middle High Ger.
_loube_ (Ger. _laube_), a portico, arbour--_laub_, a leaf.]
LOBE, l[=o]b, _n._ the lower part of the ear: (_anat._) a division of the lungs, brain, &c.: (_bot._) a division of a leaf.--_adjs._ LOB'AR, LOB'[=A]TE, LOBED, LOB'OSE; LOBE'-FOOT'ED, L[=O]'BIPED, having lobate feet, as a coot, grebe, or phalarope.--_ns._ LOBE'LET, LOB'ULE, a small lobe.--_adjs._ LOB'ULAR, LOB'UL[=A]TED.--_ns._ LOB'ULUS, any small lobe or lobe-like structure:--_pl._ LOB'UL[=I]; L[=O]'BUS, a lobe:--_pl._ L[=O]'B[=I].--LOBAR PNEUMONIA, inflammation of a whole lobe of the lungs, as distinguished from LOBULAR PNEUMONIA, which attacks the lungs in patches. [Fr., prob. through Low L. from Gr. _lobos_, lobe; cf. _lap_, to fold.]
LOBELIA, lob-[=e]'li-a, _n._ an ornamental flower, its roots medicinal.
[_Lobel_, a Flemish botanist.]
LOBLOLLY, lob'lol-i, _n._ a loutish person: medicine.--_n._ LOB'LOLLY-BOY, a ship-surgeon's attendant.
LOBSCOUSE, lob'skows, _n._ a stew or hash with vegetables, a dish used at sea. [Origin dub.]
LOBSTER, lob'st[.e]r, _n._ a shellfish with large claws, used for food: (_slang_) a British soldier. [A.S. _loppestre_, _lopust_--L. _locusta_, a lobster.]
LOBWORM, lob'wurm, _n._ a large worm used as bait. [Perh. _lob_--W. _llob_, a dull fellow, and worm.]