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LITANY, lit'a-ni, _n._ a prayer of supplication, esp. in processions: an appointed form of responsive prayer in public worship in which the same thing is repeated several times at no long intervals.--_ns._ LIT'ANY-DESK, -STOOL, in the English Church, a movable desk at which a minister kneels, facing the altar, while he recites the litany.--LESSER LITANY, the common formula, 'Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison.' [O. Fr.,--Low L.

_litania_--Gr. _litaneia_--_litesthai_, to pray.]

LITERAL, lit'[.e]r-al, _adj._ according to the letter: plain: not figurative or metaphorical: following the letter or exact meaning, word for word.--_v.t._ LIT'ERALISE.--_ns._ LIT'ERALISER; LIT'ERALISM, strict adherence to the letter: interpretation that is merely verbal: (_art_) exact and unimaginative rendering of objects; LIT'ERALIST; LITERAL'ITY.--_adv._ LIT'ERALLY.--_n._ LIT'ERALNESS. [Fr.,--L.

_literalis_--_litera_, a letter.]

LITERARY, lit'[.e]r-ar-i, _adj._ belonging to letters or learning: skilled in learning.--_n._ LIT'ERACY, state of being literate:--opp. to _Illiteracy_.--_adj._ LIT'ER[=A]TE, acquainted with letters of learning: learned.--_n._ one educated, but not having taken a university degree, esp.

a candidate for holy orders who has not been at a LITER[=A]'T[=I], men of letters, the learned (sing. forms, LITER[=A]'TUS, LITERa'TO).--_adv._ LITER[=A]'TIM, letter for letter: without the change of a letter.--_n._ LITER[=A]'TOR, a dabbler in learning: a man of letters, a literary man--sometimes in the French form _Litterateur_.--_adj._ LIT'EROSE, distinctively literary.--_n._ LITEROS'ITY. [L. _literarius_.]

LITERATURE, lit'[.e]r-a-t[=u]r, _n._ the science of letters or what is written: the whole body of literary compositions in any language, or on a given subject: all literary productions except those relating to positive science and art, usually confined, however, to the belles-lettres.--_adj._ LIT'ERATURED (_Shak._), learned, having literary knowledge.--LIGHT LITERATURE, books which can be read and understood without mental exertion: fiction; POLITE LITERATURE, belles-lettres. [Fr.,--L.

_literatura_--_litera_, a letter.]

LITH, lith, _n._ (_prov._) a joint, segment, or portion of anything. [A.S.

_li_, a member; Ger. _glied_.]

LITHAGOGUE, lith'a-gog, _adj._ expelling stone from the bladder or kidneys.--_n._ a medicine with this quality.

LITHANTHRAX, li-than'thraks, _n._ stone-coal, mineral coal.

LITHARGE, lith'arj, _n._ the semi-vitrified oxide of lead separated from silver in refining. [Fr.,--Gr. _lithargyros_--_lithos_, a stone, _argyros_, silver.]

LITHE, l[=i]th, _adj._ easily bent, flexible, active.--_adv._ LITHE'LY.--_n._ LITHE'NESS.--_adj._ LITHE'SOME.--_n._ LITHE'SOMENESS. [A.S.

_lie_; Ger. _lind_ and _gelinde_.]

LITHE, l[=i]th, _v.i._ (_obs._) to listen. [Ice. _hlydha_, to listen--_hljodh_, hearing.]

LITHEMIA, LITHaeMIA, li-th[=e]'mi-a, _n._ an excess of uric acid in the blood.--_adj._ LITH[=E]'MIC.

LITHER, l[=i]th'[.e]r, _adj._ (_Shak._) soft, yielding: (_obs._) bad, lazy.--_adj._ LITH'ERLY, mischievous.--_adv._ slowly: lazily. [A.S.

_lthre_, bad.]

LITHIA, lith'i-a, _n._ an alkali, the oxide of lithium, discovered in 1817 by Arfvedson: a mineral water good against the stone. [Low L.,--Gr.

_lithos_, stone.]

LITHIASIS, li-th[=i]'a-sis, _n._ a bodily condition in which uric acid is deposited as stone or gravel in the urinary canals. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone.]

LITHIC, lith'ik, _adj._ pertaining to, or obtained from, stone, specially from urinary calculi.--_ns._ LITH'ATE, a salt of lithic acid; LITHIFIC[=A]'TION, a hardening into stone. [Gr. _lithikos_--_lithos_, a stone.]

LITHIUM, lith'i-um, _n._ one of the alkaline metals, of a silvery appearance, found in several minerals combined with silica.--_adj._ LITH'IC. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone.]

LITHOCARP, lith'o-karp, _n._ a fossil fruit.

LITHOCHROMATIC, lith-o-kr[=o]-mat'ik, _adj._ pertaining to painting in oils on LITHOCHROMAT'ICS, this art. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

LITHOCLAST, lith'o-klast, _n._ an instrument for crushing bladder-stones.

[Gr. _lithos_, stone, _kl[=a]n_, to crush.]

LITHODOME, lith'[=o]-d[=o]m, _n._ a shellfish living in a hole in a rock.--_adj._ LITHOD'OMOUS.

LITHOFRACTEUR, lith-[=o]-frak't[.e]r, _n._ a blasting explosive.

LITHOGENOUS, li-thoj'e-nus, _adj._ stone-producing.--_n._ LITHOGEN'ESY, the science of the origin of minerals.

LITHOGLYPH, lith'o-glif, _n._ any engraving on stone, esp. a precious stone.--_adj._ LITHOGLYPH'IC.--_ns._ LITH'OGLYPHICS, LITHOGLYPT'ICS, the art of engraving on precious stones; LITHOG'LYPHITE, a fossil as if engraved by art. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _glyphein_, to carve.]

LITHOGRAPH, lith'o-graf, _v.t._ to write or engrave on stone and transfer to paper by printing.--_n._ a print from stone.--_n._ LITHOG'RAPHER.--_adjs._ LITHOGRAPH'IC, -AL, belonging to lithography.--_adv._ LITHOGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ LITHOG'RAPHY, the art of writing or engraving on stone and printing therefrom.--LITHOGRAPHIC STONE, SLATE, a yellowish, compact, fine-grained, slaty limestone used in lithography. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone, _graphein_, to write.]

LITHOID, -AL, lith'oid, -al, _adj._ resembling a stone.

LITHOLABE, lith'[=o]-l[=a]b, _n._ an instrument for grasping a calculus and holding it while being crushed.

LITHOLATRY, li-thol'a-tri, _n._ the worship of stones.--_adj._ LITHOL'ATROUS.

LITHOLOGY, lith-ol'o-ji, _n._ the science that treats of rocks as mineral masses: that part of medical science concerned with the calculi found in the human body.--_adjs._ LITHOLOG'IC, -AL.--_n._ LITHOL'OGIST, one skilled in lithology. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone, _logos_, discourse.]

LITHOLOPAXY, lith'ol-o-pak-si, _n._ the operation of crushing stone in the bladder, and of at once removing the fragments by suction. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _hapax_, once only.]

LITHOMANCY, lith'o-man-si, _n._ divination by stones. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone, _manteia_, divination.]

LITHOMARGE, lith'o-marj, _n._ a clay-like mineral substance, sometimes called _Mountain marrow_, soft, greasy to the touch, white, yellow, or red.

[Gr. _lithos_, stone, L. _marga_, marl.]

LITHOPHAGOUS, lith-of'a-gus, _adj._ eating stones: perforating stones, as certain molluscs. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _phagein_, to eat.]

LITHOPHANE, lith'o-f[=a]n, _n._ ornamental porcelain with pictures which show through the transparency. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _phainesthai_, to appear.]

LITHOPHOTOGRAPHY, lith-o-fo-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of printing from lithographic stones photographic pictures developed upon them.

LITHOPHYL, lith'[=o]-f[=i]l, _n._ a fossil leaf.

LITHOPHYTE, lith'o-f[=i]t, _n._ any one of the polyps whose substance is stony or hard, as corals. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _phyton_, plant.]

LITHOTINT, lith'o-tint, _n._ the process of producing coloured pictures from lithographic stones: a picture so produced. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, and _tint_.]

LITHOTOMY, lith-ot'o-mi, _n._ cutting for stone in the bladder.--_n._ LITH'OTOME, a mineral resembling a cut gem: a cystotome.--_adjs._ LITHOTOM'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or performed by, lithotomy.--_n._ LITHOT'OMIST, one who practises lithotomy. [Gr. _lithos_, a stone, _tom[=e]_, a cutting--_temnein_, to cut.]

LITHOTRITY, lith'[=o]-tr[=i]-ti, _n._ the operation of crushing a stone in the bladder, so that its fragments may be removed through the urethra--also LITH'OTRIPSY.--_ns._ LITHOTHRYP'TIST, LITH'OTHRYPTOR, LITHOTRIP'TIST, LITH'OTRIPTOR, LITH'OTRITIST, one who practises lithotrity; LITH'OTHRYPTY; LITH'OTRITE, LITH'OTRITOR, an apparatus for crushing a stone in the bladder.--_adjs._ LITHOTRIT'IC, LITHOTRIP'TIC--also LITHOTHRYP'TIC. [Gr.

_lithos_, stone, _tribein_, to rub.]

LITHOTYPY, lith'[=o]-t[=i]-pi, _n._ the process of making a kind of stereotype plates by filling a mould with a composition which, when cooled, becomes hard.--_n._ LITH'OTYPE, a stereotype plate, produced by lithotypy.--_v.t._ to prepare for printing by lithotypy. [Gr. _lithos_, stone, _typos_, type.]

LITIGATE, lit'i-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to contest in law.--_v.i._ to carry on a lawsuit.--_adjs._ LIT'IGABLE, that may be contested in law; LIT'IGANT, contending at law: engaged in a lawsuit.--_n._ a person engaged in a lawsuit.--_ns._ LITIG[=A]'TION; LIT'IG[=A]TOR, one who litigates; LITIGIOS'ITY, LITIG'IOUSNESS.--_adj._ LITIG'IOUS, inclined to engage in lawsuits: subject to contention.--_adv._ LITIG'IOUSLY. [L. _litig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_lis_, _litis_, a strife, _ag[)e]re_, to do.]

LITMUS, lit'mus, _n._ a dye obtained from certain lichens, originally red, but becoming blue on the addition of alkalies or of lime.--LITMUS PAPER, paper used in chemical testing, tinged blue by litmus, reddened by an acid, made blue again by an alkali. [For _lakmose_--Dut. _lakmoes_--_lak_, lac, _moes_, pulp.]

LITOTES, lit'[=o]-t[=e]z, _n._ (_rhet._) an affirmation made indirectly by the negation of its contrary, as 'a citizen of no mean city'='of an illustrious city.' [Gr. _litot[=e]s_, simplicity--_litos_, plain.]

LITRAMETER, lit-ram'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids by the height to which they rise in vertical tubes under a definite air-pressure. [Gr. _litra_, a pound, _metron_, measure.]

LITRE, l[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ (_her._) a hatchment consisting of a black belt, charged with the arms of the deceased. [Fr.; prob. orig. _listre_=_liste_, border.]

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