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LAMA, la'ma, _n._ a Buddhist priest in Tibet.--_ns._ La'MAISM, the religion prevailing in Tibet and Mongolia, being Buddhism corrupted by Sivaism, and by Shamanism or spirit-worship; La'MAIST; La'MASERY, a Tibetan monastery.


LAMANTIN, la-man'tin, _n._ the manatee. [Fr.]

LAMARCKISM, la-mar'kizm, _n._ the theory of the French naturalist, J. B. P.

A. de Monet de _Lamarck_ (1744-1829), that species have developed by the efforts of organisms to adapt themselves to new conditions--also LAMARCK'IANISM.---_adj._ LAMARCK'IAN.

LAMB, lam, _n._ the young of a sheep: the flesh of the young sheep: one innocent and gentle as a lamb: the Saviour of the world.--_v.i._ to bring forth young, as sheep.--_ns._ LAMB'-ALE, a feast at the time of lamb-shearing; LAMB'KIN, LAMB'LING, LAMB'IE (_Scot._), a little lamb.--_adj._ LAMB'-LIKE, like a lamb: gentle.--_ns._ LAMB'SKIN, the skin of a lamb dressed with the wool on, for mats, &c.: the skin of a lamb dressed for gloves: a kind of woollen cloth resembling this; LAMB'S'-LETT'UCE (same as CORN-SALAD); LAMB'S'-WOOL, fine wool: a wholesome old English beverage composed of ale and the pulp of roasted apples, with sugar and spices.--THE LAMB, LAMB OF GOD, the Saviour, typified by the paschal lamb. [A.S. _lamb_; Ger. _lamm_, Dut. _lam_.]

LAMBATIVE, lam'ba-tiv, _adj._ to be taken by licking.--_n._ a medicine of such a kind.

LAMBDA, lam'da, _n._ the Greek letter corresponding to Roman _l_.--_n._ LAMB'DACISM, a too frequent use of words containing _l_: a defective pronunciation of _r_, making it like _l_.--_adjs._ LAMB'DOID, -AL, shaped like the Greek capital [GREEK: L]--applied in anatomy to the suture between the occipital and the two parietal bones of the skull. [Gr.,--Heb.


LAMBENT, lam'bent, _adj._ moving about as if touching lightly: gliding over: flickering.--_n._ LAM'BENCY, the quality of being lambent: that which is lambent. [L. _lambens_--_lamb[)e]re_, to lick.]

LAMBOYS, lam'boiz, kilted flexible steel-plates worn skirt-like from the waist. [O. Fr.]

LAMBREQUIN, lam'bre-kin, _n._ a strip of cloth, leather, &c., hanging from a window, doorway, or mantelpiece, as a drapery: an ornamental covering, as of cloth, attached to a helmet. [Fr.]

LAME, l[=a]m, _adj._ disabled in the limbs: hobbling: unsatisfactory: imperfect.--_v.t._ to make lame: to cripple: to render imperfect.--_n._ LAME'-DUCK (_slang_), a bankrupt.--_adv._ LAME'LY.--_n._ LAME'NESS.--_adj._ LAM'ISH, a little lame: hobbling. [A.S. _lama_, lame; Dut. _lam_, Ger.


LAMELLA, la-mel'a, _n._ a thin plate or scale:--_pl._ LAMELL'ae.--_adjs._ LAM'ELLAR, LAM' LAMELLIBRANCHI[=A]'TA, a class of shell-fishes or molluscs in which the shell consists of two limy plates, lying one on each side of the body.--_adjs._ LAMELLIBRANCH'IATE; LAMELL' LAMELLICOR'NES, a very numerous family of beetles--the cockchafer, &c.--_adjs._ LAMELLIF'EROUS, producing lamellae; LAMELL'IFORM, lamellar in form; LAMELLIROS'TRAL, having a lamellose bill; LAM'ELLOSE, full of lamellae, lamellated in structure. [L.]

LAMENT, la-ment', _v.i._ to utter grief in outcries: to wail: to mourn.--_v.t._ to mourn for: to deplore.--_n._ sorrow expressed in cries: an elegy or mournful ballad.--_adj._ LAM'ENTABLE, deserving or expressing sorrow: sad: pitiful, despicable.--_adv._ LAM'ENTABLY.--_n._ LAMENT[=A]'TION, act of lamenting: audible expression of grief: wailing: (_pl._, _B._) a book of Jeremiah.--_p.adj._ LAMENT'ED, bewailed: mourned.--_adv._ LAMENT'INGLY, with lamentation. [Fr. _lamenter_--L.


LAMETER, LAMITER, l[=a]'met-[.e]r, _n._ a cripple.

LAMETTA, la-met'a, _n._ foil of gold, silver, &c. [It.]

LAMIA, l[=a]'mi-a, _n._ in Greek and Roman mythology, a female phantom, a serpent witch who charmed children and youths in order to suck their blood.

LAMIGER, lam'i-j[.e]r, _n._ (_prov._) a cripple.

LAMINA, lam'i-na, _n._ a thin plate: a thin layer or coat lying over another:--_pl._ LAM'INae.--_adjs._ LAM'INABLE; LAM'INAR, LAM'INARY, in laminae or thin plates: consisting of, or resembling, thin plates.--_n._ LAMIN[=A]'RIA, a genus of dark-spored seaweeds, with large expanded leathery-stalked fronds.--_adjs._ LAM'IN[=A]TE, -D, in laminae or thin plates: consisting of scales or layers, over one another.--_ns._ LAMIN[=A]'TION, the arrangement of stratified rocks in thin laminae or layers.--_adjs._ LAMINIF'EROUS, consisting of laminae or layers; LAM'INIFORM, laminar.--_n._ LAMIN[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the laminae of a horse's hoof. [L. _lamina_, a thin plate, a leaf.]

LAMMAS, lam'as, _n._ the feast of first-fruits on 1st August.--_n._ LAMM'AS-TIDE, Lammas-day, 1st August. [A.S. _hlaf-maesse_ and _hlammaesse_--_hlaf_, loaf, _maesse_, feast.]

LAMMER, lam'[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._) amber. [Fr. _l'ambre_.]

LAMMERGEIER, lam'm[.e]r-g[=i]-[.e]r, _n._ the great bearded vulture of the mountains of southern Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. [Ger.

_lammergeier_--_lammer_, lambs, _geier_, vulture.]

LAMMY, lam'i, _n._ a thick quilted outside jumper worn in cold weather by sailors.--Also LAMM'IE.

LAMP, lamp, _n._ a vessel for burning oil with a wick, and so giving light: a light of any kind.--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to shine.--_ns._ LAMP'AD (_rare_), a lamp or candlestick, a torch; LAMP'ADARY, in the Greek Church, one who looks after the lamps and carries a lighted taper before the patriarch; LAMPADED'ROMY, an ancient Greek torch-race in honour of Prometheus, &c.; LAMP'ADIST, one who ran in a torch-race; LAMPAD'OMANCY, the art of divining by the flame of a lamp or torch; LAMP'BLACK, the black substance formed by the smoke of a lamp: the soot or amorphous carbon obtained by burning bodies rich in that element, such as resin, petroleum, and tar, or some of the cheap oily products obtained from it; LAMP'-BURN'ER, that part of a lamp in which the wick is held; LAMP'-CHIM'NEY, LAMP'-GLASS, a glass funnel placed round the flame of a lamp; LAMP'-FLY (_Browning_), a firefly.--_adj._ LAMP'IC, pertaining to, or derived from, a lamp or flame.--_ns._ LAMP'ION, a kind of small lamp; LAMP'-LIGHT, the light shed by a lamp or lamps; LAMP'-LIGHT'ER, a person employed to light street-lamps: that by which a lamp is lighted, as a spill or torch; LAMP'-POST, the pillar supporting a street-lamp; LAMP'-SHELL, a terebratuloid or related brachiopod having a shell like an antique lamp.--SMELL OF THE LAMP, to show signs of great elaboration or study. [Fr.

_lampe_--Gr. _lampas_, _-ados_--_lampein_, to shine.]

LAMP, lamp, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to run wild, to scamper: to go jauntily.

LAMPAS, lam'pas, _n._ a material of silk and wool used in upholstery. [Fr.]

LAMPASS, lam'pas, _n._ (_Shak._) a swelling of the roof of the mouth in horses. [Fr. _lampas_.]

LAMPERN, lam'p[.e]rn, _n._ a river lamprey.

LAMPOON, lam-p[=oo]n', _n._ a personal satire in writing: low censure.--_v.t._ to assail with personal satire: to satirise:--_pr.p._ lamp[=oo]n'ing; _pa.p._ lamp[=oo]ned'.--_ns._ LAMPOON'ER, one who writes a lampoon; LAMPOON'RY, practice of lampooning: written personal abuse or satire. [O. Fr. _lampon_, orig. a drinking-song, with the refrain _lampons_=let us drink--_lamper_ (or _lapper_, to lap), to drink.]

LAMPREY, lam'pre, _n._ a genus of cartilaginous fishes resembling the eel, so called from their attaching themselves to rocks or stones by their mouths. [O. Fr. _lamproie_--Low L. _lampreda_, _lampetra_--L. _lamb[)e]re_, to lick, _petra_, rock.]

LANA, la'na, _n._ the tough, close-grained wood of a Guiana tree.

LANATE, -D, l[=a]'n[=a]t, -ed, _adjs._ woolly: (_bot._) covered with a substance resembling wool.--_n._ L[=A]'NARY, a wool-store. [L.

_lanatus_--_lana_, wool.]

LANCASTERIAN, lang-kas-t[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to Joseph _Lancaster_ (1778-1838), or the method of teaching younger pupils by those more advanced (_monitors_) in primary schools.

LANCASTRIAN, lang-kas'tri-an, _adj._ pertaining to the dukes or the royal house of _Lancaster_.--_n._ an adherent of the house of Lancaster, as against the Yorkists, in the Wars of the Roses (1455-85).

LANCE, lans, _n._ (_Spens._) balance, poise. [L. _lanx_, _lancis_, a dish or scale.]

LANCE, lans, _n._ a long shaft of wood, with a spear-head, and bearing a small flag: the bearer of a lance.--_v.t._ to pierce with a lance: to open with a lancet.--_ns._ LANCE'-COR'PORAL, a private soldier doing the duties of a corporal; LANCE'LET (see AMPHIOXUS); LAN'CER, a light cavalry soldier armed with a lance: (_pl._) a popular set of quadrilles, first in England about 1820: the music for such; LANCE'-WOOD, a wood valuable for its strength and elasticity, brought chiefly from Jamaica, Guiana, &c.--_adjs._ LANCIF'EROUS, bearing a lance; LAN'CIFORM, lance-shaped. [Fr.,--L.

_lancea_; Gr. _longch[=e]_, a lance.]

LANCEGAY, lans'g[=a], _n._ (_obs._) a kind of spear. [O. Fr.,--_lance_, a lance, _zagaye_, a pike. See ASSAGAI.]

LANCEOLATE, -D, lan'se-o-l[=a]t, -ed, _adjs._ (_bot._) having the form of a lance-head: tapering toward both ends--also LAN'CEOLAR.--_adv._ LAN'CEOLATELY. [L. _lanceolatus_--_lanceola_, dim. of _lancea_.]


LANCET, lan'set, _n._ a surgical instrument used for opening veins, abscesses, &c.: a high and narrow window, terminating in an arch acutely pointed, often double or triple, common in the first half of the 13th century. [O. Fr. _lancette_, dim. of _lance_.]


LANCINATE, lan'sin-[=a]t, _v.t._ to lacerate.--_n._ LANCIN[=A]'TION, sharp, shooting pain. [L. _lancin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to tear.]

LAND, land, _n._ earth, the solid portion of the surface of the globe: a country: a district: soil: real estate: a nation or people: (_Scot._) a group of dwellings or tenements under one roof and having a common entry.--_v.t._ to set on land or on shore.--_v.i._ to come on land or on shore.--_ns._ LAND'-[=A]'GENT, a person employed by the owner of an estate to let farms, collect rents, &c.; LAND'-BREEZE, a breeze setting from the land towards the sea; LAND'-CRAB, a family of crabs which live much or chiefly on land.--_v.t._ LAND'DAMN (_Shak._), to banish from the land.--_adj._ LAND'ED, possessing land or estates: consisting in land or real estate.--_ns._ LAND'ER, one who lands; LAND'FALL, a landslip: an approach to land after a voyage, also the land so approached; LAND'-FISH (_Shak._), a fish on land, any one acting contrary to his usual character; LAND'-FLOOD, a flooding or overflowing of land by water: inundation; LAND'FORCE, a military force serving on land, as distinguished from a naval force; LAND'-GRAB'BER, one who acquires land by harsh and grasping means: one who is eager to occupy land from which others have been evicted; LAND'-GRAB'BING, the act of the land-grabber; LAND'-HERD, a herd of animals which feed on land; LAND'-HOLD'ER, a holder or proprietor of land; LAND'-HUNG'ER, greed for the acquisition of land; LAND'ING, act of going on land from a vessel: a place for getting on shore: the level part of a staircase between the flights of steps.--_adj._ relating to the unloading of a vessel's cargo.--_ns._ LAND'ING-NET, a kind of scoop-net for landing a fish that has been caught; LAND'ING-PLACE, a place for landing, as from a vessel; LAND'ING-STAGE, a platform for landing passengers or goods carried by water, often rising and falling with the tide; LAND'-JOB'BER, a speculator in land; LAND'-JOB'BING; LAND'LADY, a woman who has property in land or houses: the mistress of an inn or lodging-house.--_adj._ LAND'LESS (_Shak._), without land or property.--_v.t._ LAND'LOCK, to enclose by land.---_adj._ LAND'-LOCKED, almost shut in by land, protected by surrounding masses of land from the force of wind and waves.--_ns._ LAND'LORD, the owner of land or houses: the master of an inn or lodging-house; LAND'LORDISM, the authority or united action of the landholding class; LAND'-LUBB'ER, a landsman (a term used by sailors); LAND'MARK, anything serving to mark the boundaries of land: any object on land that serves as a guide to seamen: any distinguishing characteristic; LAND'-MEAS'URE, a system of square measure used in the measurement of land; LAND'-MEAS'URING, the art of estimating the superficial content of portions of land; LAND'-OWN'ER, one who owns land; LAND'-OWN'ERSHIP.--_adj._ LAND'-OWN'ING.--_ns._ LAND'-P[=I]'LOT, (_Milt._), a guide on land; LAND'-P[=I]'RATE, a highway robber: a fellow who makes a practice of swindling sailors in port; LAND'RAIL, the crake or corncrake, so named from its cry; LAND'-RAK'ER (_Shak._), a vagabond; LAND'-REEVE, the assistant to the land-steward of a great estate; LAND'-ROLL, a clod-crusher; LAND'-SCRIP (_U.S._), negotiable government certificate entitling to possession of certain public land by individuals or corporate bodies; LAND'-SHARK, a land-grabber: one who plunders sailors on shore; LAND'SKIP (same as LANDSCAPE); LAND'SLIDE, LAND'SLIP, a portion of land that falls down, generally from the side of a hill, usually due to the undermining effect of water; LANDS'MAN, LAND'MAN, one who lives or serves on land: one inexperienced in seafaring; LAND'-SPRING, water lying near the surface, easily drawn upon by shallow wells; LAND'-STEW'ARD, a person who manages a landed estate; LAND'-SURVEY'ING (see SURVEYING); LAND'-TAX, a tax upon land; LAND'-TURN, a land-breeze; LAND'-WAIT'ER, a custom-house officer who attends on the landing of goods from ships.--_adv._ LAND'WARD, toward the land.--_adj._ lying toward the land, away from the sea-coast: situated in or forming part of the country, as opposed to the town: rural.--_n._ LAND'WIND, a wind blowing off the land.--LAND LEAGUE, an association founded in Ireland by Michael Davitt in 1879, and organised by C. S.

Parnell, to procure reduction and rearrangement of rents, and to promote the substitution of peasant-proprietors for landlords--condemned as an illegal conspiracy in 1881; LANDED INTEREST, the combined interest of the land-holding class in a community.--MAKE THE LAND, to discover the land as the ship approaches it; SET THE LAND, to observe by the compass how the shore bears from the ship. [A.S. _land_; Dut., Ger. _land_.]

LANDAMMAN, lan'dam-man, _n._ the president of the Swiss Diet: the head official in some Swiss cantons.

LANDAU, lan'daw, _n._ a coach or carriage with a top which may be opened and thrown back. [Ger. _landauer_, from Landau.]

LANDE, land, _n._ an uncultivated healthy plain, esp. a sandy track along the sea-shore in south-western France. [Fr.]

LANDGRAVE, land'gr[=a]v, _n._ a German graf, count, or earl:--_fem._ LANDGRAVINE (land'gra-v[=e]n).--_n._ LANDGR[=A]'VI[=A]TE, the territory of a landgrave. [Dut. _landgraaf_--_land_, land, _graaf_, count.]

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