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LAND-LOUPER, land'-lowp'[.e]r, _n._ a vagabond or vagrant.--Also LAND'-LOP'ER. [Dut. _landloopen_--_land_, land, _loopen_, to ramble; cf.

Ger. _landlaufer_.]

LANDSCAPE, land'-sk[=a]p, _n._ the appearance of that portion of land which the eye can at once view; the aspect of a country, or a picture representing it.--_ns._ LAND'SCAPE-GAR'DENING, the art of laying out grounds and so disposing water, buildings, trees, and other plants as to produce the effect of a picturesque landscape; LAND'SCAPE-PAINT'ER, one who practises this form of art; LAND'SCAPE-PAINT'ING, the art of representing natural scenery by painting. [Dut. _landschap_, from _land_ and _-schap_, a suffix=_-ship_.]

LANDSTHING, lans'ting, _n._ the upper house of the Danish Rigsdag or parliament. [Dan., _land_, land, _thing_, parliament.]

LANDSTURM, lant'st[=oo]rm, _n._ in Germany and Switzerland, a general levy in time of national emergency--in the former including all males between seventeen and forty-five: the force so called out. [Ger., _land_, land, _sturm_, alarm.]

LANDTAG, lant'tahh, _n._ the legislative assembly of one of the states forming the modern German empire, as Saxony, Bavaria, &c.: the provincial assembly of Bohemia or Moravia. [Ger., _land_, country, _tag_, diet, day.]

LANDWEHR, lant'v[=a]r, _n._ a military force in Germany and Austria forming an army reserve. [Ger., _land_, land, _wehr_, defence.]

LANE, l[=a]n, _n._ an open space between corn-fields, hedges, &c.: a narrow passage or road: a narrow street: a fixed route kept by a line of vessels across the ocean.--A BLIND LANE, a cul-de-sac. [A.S. _lane_; Scot, _loan_, _lonnin_.]

LANE, l[=a]n, a Scotch form of _lone_, _alone_,

LANG, a Scotch form of _long_.--_n._ LANG'SYNE, time long past.--THINK LANG, to weary.

LANGAHA, lan-ga'ha, _n._ a Madagascar wood-snake, with a flexible scaly extension on the snout.

LANGET, lang'get, _n._ a strong lace used in women's dress in Holland.

LANGSHAN, lang'shan, _n._ a small black Chinese hen.

LANGSPIEL, lang'sp[=e]l, _n._ a Shetland form of harp.

LANGUAGE, lang'gw[=a]j, _n._ that which is spoken by the tongue: human speech: speech peculiar to a nation: style or expression peculiar to an individual: diction: any manner of expressing thought.--_v.t._ to express in language.--_adjs._ LANG'UAGED, skilled in language; LANG'UAGELESS (_Shak._), speechless, silent; LANG'UED (_her._), furnished with a tongue.--DEAD LANGUAGE, one no longer spoken, as opp. to LIVING LANGUAGE, one still spoken; FLASH LANGUAGE (see FLASH). [Fr. _langage_--_langue_--L.

_lingua_ (old form _dingua_), the tongue, akin to L. _ling[=e]re_, Gr.


LANGUE D'OC, long dok, _n._ collective name for the Romance dialects spoken in the Middle Ages from the Alps to the Pyrenees--the tongue of the troubadours, often used as synonymous with Provencal, one of its chief branches. The name itself survived in the province LANGUEDOC, giving name to a class of wines.--LANGUE D'OUI (long dw[=e]), also LANGUE D'OIL, the Romance dialect of northern France, the language of the trouveres, the dominant factor in the formation of modern French. [O. Fr. _langue_--L.

_lingua_, tongue; _de_, of; Prov. _oc_, yes--L. _hoc_, this; O. Fr. _oui_, _ol_, yes--L. _hoc illud_, this (is) that, yes.]

LANGUETTE, lang'get, _n._ a 16th-century hood worn by women: the tongue of a reed of a harmonium or reed-organ: a key of a wind-instrument. [Fr.]

LANGUID, lang'gwid, _adj._ slack or feeble: flagging: exhausted: sluggish: spiritless.--_adj._ LANGUESC'ENT, growing languid.--_adv._ LANG'UIDLY.--_n._ LANG'UIDNESS. [Fr.,--L. _languidus_--_langu[=e]re_, to be weak.]

LANGUISH, lang'gwish, _v.i._ to become languid or enfeebled: to lose strength and animation: to pine: to become dull, as of trade.--_n._ (_Shak._) languishment.--_adjs._ LANG'UISHED, sunken in languor; LANG'UISHING, expressive of languor, or merely sentimental emotion.--_adv._ LANG'UISHINGLY.--_n._ LANG'UISHMENT, the act or state of languishing: tenderness of look. [Fr. _languir_, _languiss-_,--L.

_languesc[)e]re_--_langu[=e]re_, to be faint.]

LANGUOR, lang'gwur, _n._ state of being languid or faint: dullness: listlessness: softness.--_adj._ LANG'UOROUS, full of languor: tedious: melancholy.--_v.t._ LANG'URE (_Spens._), to languish.


LANIARY, l[=a]'ni-a-ri, _n._ a place of slaughter: shambles.--_adj._ fitted for lacerating or tearing. [L. _laniarium_--_lanius_, a butcher.]

LANIFEROUS, lan-if'[.e]r-us, _adj._ wool-bearing.--Also LANIG'EROUS. [L.

_lanifer_, _laniger_--_lana_, wool, _ferre_, _ger[)e]re_, to bear.]

LANK, langk, _adj._ languid or drooping: soft or loose: thin: shrunken: straight and flat.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to become lank.--_adv._ LANK'LY.--_n._ LANK'NESS.--_adj._ LANK'Y, lank and tall. [A.S. _hlanc_; Dut. _slank_, Ger.

_schlank_, slender.]

LANNER, lan'[.e]r, _n._ a kind of falcon.--_n._ LANN'ARET, the male bird.

[Fr. _lanier_--L. _laniarius_.]

LANOLIN, lan'[=o]-lin, _n._ an unctuous substance, a mixture of the ethers of cholesterin with fatty acids, used as a basis for ointments, extracted from wool. [L. _lana_, wool, _oleum_, oil.]

LANSQUENET, lans'ke-net, _n._ a 16th-17th cent. mercenary pikeman: a game at cards. [Fr.,--Ger. _landsknecht_--_land_, country, _knecht_, a soldier.]

LANT, lant, _n._ stale urine, used in wool-scouring.

LANTERLOO, lant'[.e]r-l[=oo], _n._ a game at cards, commonly _Loo_. [Dut.


LANTERN, lant'[.e]rn, _n._ a case for holding or carrying a light, the light chamber of a lighthouse: an ornamental structure surmounting a dome to give light and to crown the fabric: the upper square cage which illuminates a corridor or gallery--obs. form, LANT'HORN, from the use of horn for the sides of lanterns.--_v.t._ to furnish with a lantern.--_n._ LANT'ERN-FLY, any insect of family _Fulgoridae_, supposed to emit a strong light in the dark.--_adj._ LANT'ERN-JAWED, LANT'ERN-JAWS, thin long jaws.--LANTERN OF THE DEAD, a tower having a small lighted chamber at the top, once common in French cemeteries; LANTERN WHEEL, a kind of cog-wheel, in which a circle of bars or spindles between two heads engages with the cogs of a spur-wheel.--CHINESE LANTERN, a collapsible paper lantern, generally decorated with flowers; DARK LANTERN, a lantern having an opaque slide, capable of being partly or wholly shut at pleasure; MAGIC LANTERN, an optical instrument by means of which magnified images of small pictures are thrown upon a wall or screen. [Fr.

_lanterne_--L. _lanterna_--Gr. _lampt[=e]r_--_lampein_, to give light.]

LANTHANUM, lan'tha-num, _n._ a metal discovered in 1839 in cerite, a hydrated silicate of cerium.--Also LAN'TH[=A]NIUM. [Gr. _lanthanein_, to conceal.]

LANUGINOUS, la-n[=u]'jin-us, _adj._ downy: covered with fine soft hair.--_n._ LAN[=U]'GO. [Fr.,--L. _lanuginosus_--_lanugo_, down, _lana_, wool.]

LANX, lanks, _n._ a platter or dish for serving meat at a Roman table:--_pl._ LAN'CES. [L.]

LANYARD, LANIARD, lan'yard, _n._ a short rope used on board ship for fastening or stretching, or for convenience in handling articles. [Fr.

_laniere_, perh. from L. _lanarius_, made of wool--_lana_, wool.]

LAOCOoN, l[=a]-ok'-o-on, _n._ a famous antique group in marble in the Vatican, representing the Trojan priest _Laocoon_ and his two sons being crushed in the folds of two enormous serpents.

LAODICEAN, l[=a]-od-i-s[=e]'an, _adj._ lukewarm in religion, like the Christians of _Laodicea_ (Rev. iii. 14-16).--_n._ LAODIC[=E]'ANISM, lukewarmness in religion.

LAP, lap, _v.t._ to lick up with the tongue: to wash or flow against.--_v.i._ to drink by licking up a liquid: to make a sound of such a kind:--_pr.p._ lap'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ lapped.--_n._ a motion or sound like lapping. [A.S. _lapian_; Low Ger. _lappen_; L. _lamb[)e]re_, Gr.


LAP, lap, _n._ the loose or overhanging flap of anything: the part of a substance extending over or partly over the rear of another, or the extent of such extension: the part of the clothes lying on the knees when a person sits down: the part of the body thus covered, esp. with reference to nursing, &c.: a fold: a course or round of the track, as in foot-racing, &c.: at euchre, &c., a carrying over to the next game of a surplus of points from the last: the space over which a steam-engine slide-valve travels after the closing of the steam-passage to or from the cylinder: a rotating disc of lead, copper, leather, &c., charged with an abrasive powder, used in cutting gems, &c.--_v.t._ to lay over or on.--_v.i._ to be spread on or over: to be turned over or upon.--_ns._ LAP'-BOARD, a flat wide board resting on the lap, used by tailors and seamstresses; LAP'-DOG, a small dog fondled in the lap: a pet dog; LAP'FUL, as much as fills a lap.--_adj._ LAP'-JOINT'ED, having joints formed by overlapping edges.--_ns._ LAP'-STONE, a stone which shoemakers hold in the lap to hammer leather on; LAP'-STREAK, a clinker-built boat--also _adj._; LAP'WORK, work containing lap-joints. [A.S. _laeppa_, a loosely hanging part; Ice. _lapa_, to hang loose, Ger. _lappen_, a rag.]

LAP, lap, _v.t._ to wrap, fold, involve.--_ns._ LAP'PER, one who wraps or folds: in cotton manufacturing, a machine which compacts the scutched cotton into a fleece upon the surface of a roller called a lap-roller; LAP'PING, the process of forming a lap or fleece of fibrous material for the carding-machine: the rubbing or polishing of a metal surface: the process of rubbing away the _lands_, or metal between the grooves of a rifled gun, to increase the bore. [M. E. _wlappen_, being a form of _wrap_.]

LAPEL, LAPPEL, LAPELLE, la-pel', _n._ the part of the breast of a coat which laps over and is folded back.--_adj._ LAPELLED'. [Dim. of _lap_.]

LAPIDARY, lap'i-dar-i, _adj._ pertaining to stones and the cutting of stones: pertaining to inscriptions and monuments.--_n._ a cutter of stones, esp. precious stones: a dealer in precious stones--also LAPID[=A]'RIAN, LAP'IDARIST, LAP'IDIST.--_v.t._ LAP'IDATE (_rare_), to pelt with stones.--_n._ LAPID[=A]'TION, punishment by stoning.--_adj._ LAPID'EOUS, stony.--_n._ LAPIDESC'ENCE.--_adj._ LAPIDESC'ENT, becoming stone: petrifying.--_adj._ LAPIDIF'IC.--_n._ LAPIDIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ LAPID'IFY, to make into stone.--_v.i._ to turn into stone:--_pr.p._ lapid'ifying; _pa.p._ lapid'ified.--_adj._ LAPIL'LIFORM, having the form of small stones.--_ns._ LAPIL'LUS, a fragment of lava ejected from a volcano:--_pl._ LAPIL'LI; L[=A]'PIS, a kind of calico-printing with indigo, the resists acting as methods for other dyes, as madder or quercitron; L[=A]'PIS-LAZ'ULI, a mineral of beautiful ultramarine colour, used largely in ornamental and mosaic work, and for sumptuous altars and shrines.--LAPIS-LAZULI BLUE, a deep blue, sometimes veined with gold, used in decoration, and in the manufacture of Sevres and Oriental porcelain; LAPIS-LAZULI WARE, the name given by Josiah Wedgwood to a particular pebble ware veined with gold upon blue. [L. _lapidarius_--_lapis_, _lapidis_, a stone.]

LAPP, lap, _n._ a Laplander.--_n._ LAP'LANDER, a native or inhabitant of _Lapland_.--_adjs._ LAP'LANDISH; LAPP'ISH.--_n._ the language of the Lapps.

LAPPER-MILK, lap'[.e]r-milk, _n._ (_Scot._) loppered or curdled milk. [Same word as _lopper_ (_obs._)--M. E. _loper_, curdled, prob. conn. with A.S.

_hleapan_, to leap, run. Cf. _rennet_, _runnet_, from _run_.]

LAPPET, lap'et, _n._ a little lap or flap.--_adj._ LAPP'ETED.--_n._ LAPP'ET-HEAD, a head-dress made with lappets for lace pendants. [Dim. of _lap_.]

LAPSE, laps, _v.i._ to slip or glide: to pass by degrees: to fall from the faith or from virtue: to fail in duty: to pass to another proprietor, &c., by the negligence of a patron, to become void: to lose certain privileges by neglect of the necessary conditions.--_n._ a slipping or falling: a failing in duty: a fault.--_adj._ LAP'SABLE.--THE LAPSED, the name applied in the early Christian Church to those who, overcome by heathen persecution, fell away from the faith. [L. _labi_, _lapsus_, to slip or fall, _lapsus_, a fall, akin to _lap_.]

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