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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary.

Part 2.

by Various.


E the fifth letter in our own and the cognate alphabets, with four sounds--e.g. _e_ in _e_vil, _i_ in _E_ngland, _u_ in the last syllable of elev_e_n, Italian _e_ in pr_e_y. A subscript _e_ is commonly used to lengthen the previous vowel, as in not, not_e_; bit, bit_e_; (_mus._) the third note or sound of the natural diatonic scale, and the third above the tonic C.

EACH, [=e]ch, _adj._ every one in any number separately considered.--_adv._ EACH'WHERE, everywhere. [A.S. _['ae]lc_, supposed to be for _a-ge-lic_, from _a_ (=_aye_), pfx. _ge-_, and _lic_, like--i.e. aye-like.]

EADISH, obsolete form of EDDISH.

EAGER, [=e]'g[.e]r, _adj._ excited by desire: ardent to do or obtain: (_obs._) earnest: keen, severe, sour, acid, bitter.--_adv._ EA'GERLY.--_n._ EA'GERNESS. [O. Fr. _aigre_--L. _acer_, _acris_, sharp.]


EAGLE, [=e]'gl, _n._ a name given to many birds of prey in the family _Falconidae_: a military standard carrying the figure of an eagle: a gold coin of the United States, worth ten dollars.--_adjs._ EA'GLE-EYED, EA'GLE-SIGHT'ED, having a piercing eye: discerning; EA'GLE-FLIGHT'ED, mounting high.--_ns._ EA'GLE-HAWK, a name applied to several eagles of comparatively small size; EA'GLE-OWL, a genus of large owls, the largest in Europe; EA'GLE-STONE, a variety of argillaceous oxide of iron occurring in egg-shaped masses; EA'GLET, a young or small eagle.--_adj._ EA'GLE-WINGED, having an eagle's wings.--_ns._ EA'GLE-WOOD, another name for agalloch or calambac; SPREAD'-EA'GLE (see Spread). [O. Fr. _aigle_--L. _aquila_.]

EAGRE, [=e]'g[.e]r, _n._ rise of the tide in a river (same as Bore). [Ety.

dub.; hardly from A.S. _egor_, flood.]


EAN, [=e]n, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Shak._) to bring forth young.--_n._ EAN'LING, a young lamb. [A.S. _eanian_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _n._ a spike, as of corn.--_v.i._ to put forth ears.--_n._ EAR'-COCK'LE, a disease of wheat.--_adj._ EARED, of corn, having ears.

[A.S. _ear_; Ger. _ahre_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _v.t._ (_obs._) to plough or till.--_n._ EAR'ING (_obs._), ploughing. [A.S. _erian_; cf. L. _ar[=a]re_, Gr. _aroein_.]

EAR, [=e]r, _n._ the organ of hearing, or the external part merely: the sense or power of hearing: the faculty of distinguishing sounds: attention: anything like an ear.--_ns._ EAR'ACHE, an ache or pain in the ear; EAR'BOB, an earring; EAR'-CAP, a covering to protect the ear from cold; EAR'DROP, an ornamental pendant hanging from the ear; EAR'DRUM, the drum or middle cavity of the ear, tympanum (q.v.).--_adj._ EARED, having ears.--_n._ EAR'-HOLE, the aperture of the ear.--_adj._ EAR'-KISS'ING, whispered.--_n._ EAR'LAP, the tip of the ear: an ear-cap.--_adj._ EAR'LESS, wanting ears.--_ns._ EAR'LOCK, a curl near the ear worn by Elizabethan dandies; EAR'MARK, a mark set on the ears of sheep whereby their owners may distinguish them: a distinctive mark.--_v.t._ to put an earmark on.--_n._ EAR'-PICK, an instrument for clearing the ear.--_adj._ EAR'-PIERC'ING, shrill, screaming.--_ns._ EAR'RING, an ornamental ring worn in the ear; EAR'-SHELL, any shell of the family _Haliotidae_; EAR'SHOT, the distance at which a sound can be heard; EAR'-TRUM'PET, a tube to aid in hearing; EAR'WAX, a waxy substance secreted by the glands of the ear; EAR'WIG, an insect which was supposed to creep into the brain through the ear: a flatterer.--_v.t._ to gain the ear of: to bias: to torment by private importunities (A.S. _earwicga_, _eare_, ear, _wicga_, earwig).--_n._ EAR'WITNESS, a witness that can testify from his own hearing.--ABOUT ONE'S EARS, said of a house falling, &c.; BE ALL EARS, to give every attention; GIVE EAR, to attend; GO IN AT ONE EAR AND OUT AT THE OTHER, used of words which make no permanent impression; HAVE A PERSON'S EAR, to be secure of his favourable attention; HAVE ITCHING EARS, to be desirous of hearing novelties (2 Tim. iv. 3); LEND AN EAR, to listen; OVER HEAD AND EARS, overwhelmed: deeply engrossed or involved; SET BY THE EARS, to set at strife; SPEAK IN THE EAR, to whisper; TICKLE THE EAR, to flatter; TURN A DEAF EAR, to refuse to listen; WALLS HAVE EARS, a proverbial phrase implying that there may be listeners behind the wall. [A.S. _eare_; cf. L.

_auris_, Ger. _ohr_.]


EARL, [.e]rl, _n._ an English nobleman ranking between a marquis and a viscount:--_fem._ COUNT'ESS.--_ns._ EARL'DOM, the dominion or dignity of an earl; EARL'-MAR'SHAL, an English officer of state, president of the Heralds' College--the Scotch form _Earl-marischal_. [A.S. _eorl_, a warrior, hero; cf. Ice. _jarl_.]


EARLY, [.e]r'li, _adj._ in good season: at or near the beginning of the day: relating to the beginning: happening in the near future.--_adv._ near the beginning: soon.--_n._ EAR'LINESS.--EARLY AND LATE, at all times; EARLY BIRD, an early riser; EARLY ENGLISH (_archit._), generally applied to the form of Gothic in which the pointed arch was first employed in Britain. The Early English succeeded the _Norman_ towards the end of the 12th century, and merged into the _Decorated_ at the end of the 13th.--KEEP EARLY HOURS, to rise and go to bed betimes; SMALL AND EARLY (_coll._), applied to evening parties; THE EARLY BIRD CATCHES THE WORM, a proverb in favour of early rising. [A.S. _arlice_--_['ae]r_, before.]

EARN, [.e]rn, _v.t._ to gain by labour: to acquire: to EARN'INGS, what one has earned: money saved. [A.S. _earnian_, to earn; cog.

with Old High Ger. _aran_, to reap; Ger. _ernte_, harvest.]

EARN, [.e]rn, _v.i._ to yearn. [A variant of _yearn_.]

EARNEST, [.e]r'nest, _adj._ showing strong desire: determined: eager to obtain: intent: sincere: serious.--_n._ seriousness: reality.--_adv._ EAR'NESTLY.--_n._ EAR'NESTNESS. [A.S. _eornost_, seriousness; Ger.


EARNEST, [.e]r'nest, _n._ money given in token of a bargain made--also EAR'NEST-MON'EY, EAR'NEST-PENN'Y: a pledge: first-fruits. [ETY. obscure; possibly conn. with _arles_.]

EARST, obsolete form of ERST.

EARTH, [.e]rth, _n._ the name applied to the third planet in order from the sun: the matter on the surface of the globe: soil: dry land, as opposed to sea: the world: the inhabitants of the world: dirt: dead matter: the human body: a fox's hole: (_pl._) the name applied by the alchemists and earlier chemists to certain substances now known to be oxides of metal, which were distinguished by being infusible, and by insolubility in water.--_v.t._ to hide or cause to hide in the earth: to bury.--_v.i._ to burrow: to hide.--_ns._ EARTH'-BAG, a sack of earth used in fortifications; EARTH'-BATH, a bath of earth or mud; EARTH'-BOARD, the board of a plough, or other implement, that turns over the earth.--_adjs._ EARTH'-BORN, born from or on the earth; EARTH'-BOUND, bound or held by the earth, as a tree; EARTH'-BRED, mean, grovelling.--_n._ EARTH'-CLOS'ET, a system consisting of the application of earth to the deodorisation of faecal matters.--_adjs._ EARTH'-CRE[=A]'TED, made of earth; EARTH'EN, made of earth or clay: earthly.--_ns._ EARTH'ENWARE, crockery; EARTH'-FALL, a landslide.--_adj._ EARTH'-FED, contented with earthly things.--_ns._ EARTH'FLAX, asbestos; EARTH'-HOG (see AARDVARK); EARTH'-HOUSE, the name given to the ancient underground dwellings in Ireland and Scotland, also called _Picts' houses_; EARTH'-HUNG'ER, the passion for acquiring land; EARTH'INESS; EARTH'LINESS; EARTH'LING, a dweller on the earth.--_adjs._ EARTH'LY, belonging to the earth: vile: worldly; EARTH'LY-MIND'ED, having the mind intent on earthly things.--_ns._ EARTH'LY-MIND'EDNESS; EARTH'-NUT, the popular name of certain tuberous roots growing underground; EARTH'-PEA, the hog-peanut; EARTH'-PLATE, a buried plate of metal forming the earth-connection of a telegraph-wire, lightning-conductor, &c.; EARTH'QUAKE, a quaking or shaking of the earth: a heaving of the ground; EARTH'-SHINE, the faint light visible on the part of the moon not illuminated by the sun; EARTH'-TREM'OR, a slight earthquake.--_adv._ EARTH'WARD, toward the earth.--_ns._ EARTH'WORK, a fortification of earth; EARTH'-WORM, the common worm: a mean person, a poor creature.--_adj._ EARTH'Y, consisting of, relating to, or resembling earth: inhabiting the earth: gross: unrefined. [A.S. _eorthe_; cf. Dut. _aarde_, Ger. _erde_.]

EASE, [=e]z, _n._ freedom from pain or disturbance: rest from work: quiet: freedom from difficulty: naturalness.--_v.t._ to free from pain, trouble, or anxiety: to relieve: to calm.--_adj._ EASE'FUL, ease-giving: quiet, fit for rest.--_n._ EASE'MENT, relief: assistance: support: gratification.--_adv._ EAS'ILY.--_n._ EAS'INESS.--_adj._ EAS'Y, at ease: free from pain: tranquil: unconstrained: giving ease: not difficult: yielding: not straitened (in circumstances): not tight: not strict, as in 'easy virtue.'--_interj._ EASY! a command to lower, or to go gently, to stop rowing, &c.--_n._ EAS'Y-CHAIR, an arm-chair for ease or rest.--_adj._ EAS'Y-G[=O]'ING, good-natured: indolent.--EASE ONE'S SELF, to relieve nature.--CHAPEL OF EASE (see CHAPEL); FREE AND EASY (see FREE).--HONOURS EASY, when the honours are evenly divided at whist: ILL AT EASE, uncomfortable; STAND AT EASE, used of soldiers, when freed from 'attention;' TAKE IT EASY, to be quite unconcerned: to be in no hurry; TAKE ONE'S EASE, to make one's self comfortable. [O. Fr. _aise_; cog. with It.

_agio_; Prov. _ais_, Port. _azo_.]

EASEL, [=e]z'l, _n._ the frame on which painters support their pictures while painting. [Dut. _ezel_, or Ger. _esel_, an ass.]

EASLE, [=e]s'l, _n._ (_Burns_) hot ashes. [A.S. _ysle_; cf. Ice. _usli_.]

EASSEL, a Scotch form for _eastward_, easterly.

EAST, [=e]st, _n._ that part of the heavens where the sun first shines or rises: one of the four cardinal points of the compass.--_adj._ toward the rising of the sun.--_ns._ EAST'-END, the eastern part of London, the habitation of the poorer classes; EAST'-END'ER.--_adjs._ EAST'ER, EAST'ERN, toward the east: connected with the east: dwelling in the east.--_n._ EAST'ERLING, a native of the East: a trader from the shores of the Baltic.--_adj._ EAST'ERLY, coming from the eastward: looking toward the east.--_adv._ on the east: toward the east.--_adjs._ EAST'ERNMOST, EAST'MOST, situated farthest east.--_ns._ EAST'-IN'DIAMAN, a vessel used in the East India trade; EAST'ING, the course gained to the eastward: distance eastward from a given meridian; EAST'LAND, the land in the East.--_adv._ EAST'WARD, toward the east.--EAST-BY-SOUTH (NORTH), 11 degrees from due east; EAST-SOUTH (NORTH)-EAST, 22 degrees from due east.--EASTWARD POSITION, the position of the celebrant at the Eucharist, when he stands in front of the altar and facing it, instead of the usual practice of standing at the north end of the altar, facing southward.--ABOUT EAST (_slang_), in proper manner; THE EAST, the countries to the east of Europe; TURNING TO THE EAST, a practice for both clergy and laity during service, esp. while singing the creeds, the _Gloria Patri_, and the _Gloria in Excelsis._ [A.S.

_east_; Ger. _ost_; akin to Gr. _[=e][=o]s_, the dawn.]

EASTER, [=e]st'[.e]r, _n._ a Christian festival commemorating the resurrection of Christ, held on the Sunday after Good-Friday.--_n._ EAST'ER-DAY, Easter EAST'ER-DUES, -OFF'ERINGS, 'customary sums' which from time immemorial have been paid to the parson by his people at Easter.--_ns._ EAST'ER-EGG, eggs stained of various colours, given as presents on Easter; EAST'ERTIDE, Eastertime, either Easter week or the fifty days between Easter and Whitsuntide. [A.S. _eastre_; Ger. _ostern_.

Bede derives the word from _Eastre_, a goddess whose festival was held at the spring equinox.]

EAT, [=e]t, _v.t._ to chew and swallow: to consume: to corrode.--_v.i._ to take food:--_pr.p._ eat'ing; _pa.t._ ate ([=a]t or et); _pa.p._ eaten ([=e]tn) or (_obs._) eat (et).--_adj._ EAT'ABLE, fit to be eaten.--_n._ anything used as food (chiefly _pl._).--_ns._ EAT'AGE, grass or fodder for horses, &c.: the right to eat; EAT'ER, one who, or that which, eats or corrodes; EAT'ING, the act of taking food.--_p.adj._ that eats: corroding.--_ns._ EAT'ING-HOUSE, a place where provisions are sold ready dressed: a restaurant; GOOD'-EAT'ING, something good for food.--EAT AWAY, to destroy gradually: to gnaw; EAT IN, used of the action of acid; EAT ITS HEAD OFF, used of an animal which costs as much for food as it is worth; EAT ONE'S HEART, to pine away, brooding over misfortune; EAT ONE'S TERMS, to study for the bar, with allusion to the number of times in a term that a student must dine in the hall of an Inn of Court; EAT ONE'S WORDS, to retract: to recant; EAT OUT, to finish eatables: to encroach upon; EAT THE AIR (_Shak._) to be deluded with hopes; EAT UP, to devour: to consume, absorb; EAT WELL, to have a good appetite. [A.S. _etan_; cf. Ger. _essen_, Ice. _eta_, L. _ed[)e]re_, Gr. _edein_.]

EATH, [=e]th, _adj._ (_obs._) easy.--_adv._ EATH'LY. [A.S. _eathe_, easily; cf. Old High Ger. _odi_, easy.]

EAU, [=o], _n._ the French word for water, used in English in various combinations.--EAU CReOLE, a fine Martinique liqueur, made by distilling the flowers of the mammee-apple with spirit of wine; EAU DE COLOGNE (see under COLOGNE-EARTH); EAU DE VIE, brandy.

EAVES, [=e]vz, the projecting edge of the roof: anything projecting.--_ns._ EAVES'DRIP, EAVES'DROP, the water which falls from the eaves of a house: the place where the drops fall.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ EAVES'DROP, to stand under the eaves or near the windows of a house to listen: to listen for secrets.--_ns._ EAVES'DROPPER, one who thus listens: one who tries to overhear private conversation; EAVES'DROPPING. [A.S.

_efes_, the clipped edge of thatch; cf. Ice. _ups_.]

EBB, eb, _n._ the going back or retiring of the tide: a decline or decay.--_v.i._ to flow back: to sink: to decay.--_n._ EBB'-TIDE, the ebbing or retiring tide. [A.S. _ebba_; Ger. _ebbe_; cog. with _even_.]

EBENEZER, eb-en-[=e]z'er, _n._ a memorial stone set up by Samuel after the victory of Mizpeh (1 Sam. vii. 12): a name sometimes applied to a chapel or meeting-house. [Heb., 'stone of help.']

EBIONITE, [=e]'bi-on-[=i]t, _n._ a name applied to Jewish Christians who remained outside the Catholic Church down to the time of Jerome. They held the Mosaic laws binding on Christians, and denied the apostolate of Paul and the miraculous birth of Jesus.--_v.t._ E'BIONISE.--_adj._ EBIONIT'IC.--_ns._ EBION[=I]T'ISM, E'BIONISM. [Heb. _eby[=o]n_, poor.]

EBLIS, eb'lis, _n._ the chief of the fallen angels or wicked jinns in Mohammedan mythology.--Also IB'LEES.

EBON, eb'on, EBONY, eb'on-i, _n._ a kind of wood almost as heavy and hard as stone, usually black, admitting of a fine polish.--_adj._ made of ebony: black as ebony.--_v.t._ EB'ONISE, to make furniture look like ebony.--_ns._ EB'ONIST, a worker in ebony; EB'ONITE, vulcanite (see under VULCAN).

[L.,--Gr. _ebenos_; cf. Heb. _hodn[=i]m_, pl. of _hobni_, _obni_--_eben_, a stone.]

eBOULEMENT, [=a]-bool'mong, _n._ the falling in of the wall of a fortification: a landslide or landslip. [Fr.]

EBRACTEATE, -D, e-brak't[=e]-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ (_bot._) without bracts.

EBRIATED, [=e]'bri-[=a]t-ed, _adj._ intoxicated.--_n._ EBR[=I]'ETY, drunkenness.--_adj._ E'BRI[=O]SE, drunk.--_n._ EBRIOS'ITY. [L.

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