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BUREAUCRACY, b[=u]r[=o]'kras-i, _n._ a system of government centralised in graded series of officials, responsible only to their chiefs, and controlling every detail of public and private life.--_ns._ BUREAU'CRAT, BUREAU'CRATIST, one who advocates government by bureaucracy.--_adj._ BUREAUCRAT'IC, relating to or having the nature of a bureaucracy.--_adv._ BUREAUCRAT'ICALLY. [BUREAU, and Gr. _kratein_, to govern.]

BURETTE, b[=u]-ret', _n._ a flask-shaped vessel for holding liquids, an altar-cruet. [Fr.]

BURGAGE, bur'g[=a]j, _n._ a tenure in socage for a yearly rent: a tenure in Scotland in royal burghs under nominal service of watching. [O. Fr.]


BURGANET, bur'ga-net, _n._ a 16th-century helmet.--Also BUR'GONET. [Lit.


BURGEE, bur'j[=e], _n._ a swallow-tailed flag or pennant: a kind of small coal for furnaces.

BURGEON, bur'jun, _n._ and _v.i._ Same as BOURGEON.

BURGH, bur'[=o], _n._ the Scotch word corresponding to the English BOROUGH.--_ns._ BURG (same as BOROUGH); BURG'AGE, a system of tenure where the king or other person is lord of an ancient borough, city, or town, by which the citizens hold their lands or tenements, for a certain annual rent; BURGESS (bur'jes), BUR'GHER, an inhabitant of a borough: a citizen or freeman: a magistrate of certain towns: one able to take the usual burgesses' oath (see ANTIBURGHER).--_adj._ BUR'GHAL, relating to a burgh.--_n._ BURG'OMASTER, the chief magistrate of a German or a Dutch borough, answering to the English term mayor.--BURGH OF BARONY, a corporation consisting of the inhabitants of a determinate tract of land within the _barony_, and municipally governed by magistrates and a council whose election is either vested in the baron superior of the district, or vested in the inhabitants themselves; BURGH OF REGALITY, a burgh of barony, spiritual or temporal, enfranchised by crown charter, with regal or exclusive criminal jurisdiction within their own territories.--PARLIAMENTARY BURGH, one like Paisley, Greenock, Leith, whose boundaries, as first fixed in 1832, were adopted for municipal purposes, with regard to which they stand practically in the same position as royal burghs; POLICE BURGH, a burgh constituted by the sheriff for purposes of improvement and police, the local authority being the police commissioners; ROYAL BURGH, a corporate body deriving its existence, constitution, and rights from a royal charter, such being either actual and express, or presumed to have existed.

BURGLAR, burg'lar, _n._ one who breaks into a house by night to steal.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to commit burglary.--_adj._ BURGL[=A]R'IOUS.--_adv._ BURGL[=A]R'IOUSLY.--_v.t._ BURG'LARISE.--_n._ BURG'LARY, breaking into a house by night to steal. [Ety. dub.]


BURGOO, bur'g[=oo], _n._ a dish made of boiled oatmeal seasoned with salt, butter, and sugar, used by seamen. [Derivation unknown.]

BURGRAVE, bur'gr[=a]v, _n._ the governor of a town or castle. [Ger.


BURGUNDY, bur'gun-di, _n._ a generous French red wine, so called from _Burgundy_, the district where it is made.

BURIAL, ber'i-al, _n._ the act of laying a dead body in the grave: interment.--_ns._ BUR'IAL-AISLE, an aisle in a church used for burials; BUR'IAL-GROUND, BUR'IAL-PLACE, a piece of ground set apart for burying.--BURIAL SERVICE, a religious service or form of ritual accompanying a burial; BURIAL SOCIETY, an insurance society for providing the expenses of burial. [A.S. _byrgels_, a tomb. See BURY.]

BURIN, b[=u]r'in, _n._ a kind of chisel of tempered steel, used in copper engraving--the distinctive style of a master is frequently described by such expressions as a _soft_, a _graphic_, or a _brilliant_ burin.--_n._ BUR'INIST, an engraver. [Fr.; from root of BORE.]

BURKE, burk, _v.t._ to murder, esp. by stifling: hence (_fig._) to put an end to quietly. [From _Burke_, an Edinburgh Irishman (hanged 1829), who committed the crime in order to sell the bodies of his victims for dissection.]

BURL, burl, _n._ a small knot in thread, a knot in wood.--_v.t._ to pick knots, &c., from, in finishing cloth.--_ns._ BUR'LING-[=I]'RON; BUR'LING-MACHINE'.--_adj._ BUR'LY, knotty.

BURLAP, bur'lap, _n._ a coarse canvas for wrappings, &c.--usually in _pl._ [Origin unknown.]

BURLESQUE, bur-lesk', _n._ a ludicrous representation--in speaking, acting, writing, drawing--a low and rude grade of the comic, whose legitimate office is to turn to laughter pretension and affectation.--_adj._ jocular: comical.--_v.t._ to turn into burlesque: to ridicule.--_p.adj._ BURLESQUED', caricatured.--_adv._ BURLESQUE'LY. [It. _burlesco_; prob. from Low L. _burra_, a flock of wool, a trifle.]

BURLETTA, bur-let'a, _n._ a musical farce: comic opera. [It.;--dim. of _burla_, a jest.]

BURLY, bur'li, _adj._ bulky: boisterous, bluff.--_n._ BUR'LINESS. [M. E.

_borlich_; prob. Old High Ger. _burl[=i]h_, high, _b[=o]r_, a height.]

BURMESE, bur'm[=e]z, _adj._ relating to _Burma_ in Farther India, or its language.--_n._ a native of Burma, or the language of Burma--also BUR'MAN.

BURN, burn, _n._ a small stream or brook: a spring or fountain. [A.S.

_burna_; cog. with Dut. and Ger. _born_.]

BURN, burn, _v.t._ to consume or injure by fire.--_v.i._ to be on fire: to feel excess of heat: to be inflamed with passion:--_pa.p._ burned or burnt.--_n._ a hurt or mark caused by fire.--_ns._ BURN'ER, the part of a lamp or gas-jet from which the flame arises; BURN'ING, act of consuming by fire: conflagration: inflammation.--_adj._ very hot: scorching: ardent: excessive.--_ns._ BURN'ING-GLASS, a convex lens concentrating the sun's rays at its focus; BURN'ING-HOUSE, a kiln; BURN'ING-MIRR'OR, a concave mirror for producing heat by concentrating the sun's rays; BURN'ING-POINT, the temperature at which a volatile oil in an open vessel will take fire from a match held close to its surface; BURNT'-EAR, a kind of smut in oats, wheat, &c., caused by a microscopic fungus; BURNT'-OFF'ERING, something offered and burned upon an altar as a sacrifice--amongst the Hebrews, apparently offerings of dedication and to some extent of expiation; BURNT'-SIENN'A (see SIENNA); BURN'-THE-WIND (_Scot._), a blacksmith.--BURN A HOLE IN ONE'S POCKET, said of money, when one is eager to spend it; BURN BLUE, to burn with a bluish flame like that of brimstone; BURN DAYLIGHT (_Shak._), to waste time in superfluous actions; BURN DOWN, to burn to the ground; BURN IN, to eat into, as fire: to fix and render durable, as colours, by means of intense heat, to imprint indelibly on the mind; BURNING BUSH, the emblem of the Presbyterian churches of Scotland, with the motto, 'Nec tamen consumebatur,' adopted from Ex. iii. 2, in memory of the unconquerable courage of the Covenanters under the cruel persecutions of the 17th century; BURNING QUESTION, one being keenly discussed; BURN ONE'S BOATS, to cut one's self off, as Cortes did, from all chance of retreat, to stake everything on success; BURN ONE'S FINGERS, to suffer from interfering in others' affairs, from embarking in speculations, &c.; BURN OUT, to destroy by means of burning: to burn till the fire dies down from want of fuel; BURN THE WATER, to spear salmon by torchlight; BURN UP, to consume completely by fire: to be burned completely. [A.S.; the weak verb _boernan_, _boernde_, _boerned_, has been confused with _beornan_, _byrnan_, _barn_, _bornen_; cf. Ger. _brennen_, to burn.]

BURNET, bur'net, _n._ the English name of two closely united genera of _Rosaceae_--the Great Burnet common in meadows all over Europe; the Common Burnet growing on chalky soils, its slightly astringent leaves used in salads or soups, also as an ingredient in 'cool tankard.' [From its _brown_ flowers.]

BURNISH, burn'ish, _v.t._ to polish: to make bright by rubbing.--_n._ polish: lustre.--_ns._ BURN'ISHER, an instrument employed in burnishing; BURN'ISHING; BURN'ISHMENT.

BURNOUS, bur-n[=oo]s', _n._ a mantle with a hood much worn by the Arabs.

[Fr.--Ar. _burnus_.]

BURNT, _pa.p._ of BURN (q.v.).

BURR. Same as BUR (q.v.).

BURREL, bur'el, _n._ a kind of coarse russet cloth in medieval times. [See BUREAU.]

BURRO, bur'[=o], _n._ a donkey. [Sp.]

BURROCK, bur'ok, _n._ a small weir or dam in a river, to direct the current toward fish-traps.

BURROW, bur'[=o], _n._ a hole in the ground dug by certain animals for shelter or defence.--_v.i._ to make holes underground as rabbits: to dwell in a concealed place.--_ns._ BURR'OW-DUCK, the sheldrake or bergander; BURR'OWING-OWL, a small long-legged diurnal American owl nesting in burrows; BURR'OWSTOWN (_Scot._), a town that is a burgh. [Ety. obscure; prob. a variant of Borough--A.S. _beorgan_, to protect.]

BURSA, bur'sa, _n._ a pouch or sac, esp. a synovial cavity formed where tendons pass over the harder parts of the body:--_pl._ BUR'Sae (-s[=e]).--_adj._ BUR'SAL.--_ns._ BURS[=A]'LIS, a muscle moving the nictitating membrane, as in birds; BURSAL'OGY, knowledge about the bursae.


BURSAR, burs'ar, _n._ one who keeps the purse, a treasurer: in Scotland, a student maintained at a university by funds derived from endowment.--_adj._ BURSAR'IAL.--_ns._ BURS'ARSHIP, the office of a bursar; BURS'ARY, in Scotland, the allowance paid to a bursar; BURSE, a purse, an obsolete form of BOURSE.--_adjs._ BURSIC'ULATE, bursiform: resembling a small pouch, or provided with such; BURS'IFORM, pouch-shaped. [Low L. _bursarius_--_bursa_, a purse--Gr. _byrsa_, skin or leather.]

BURSCH, b[=oo]rsh, _n._ a German student:--_pl._ BURSCH'EN.--_n._ BURSCH'ENISM. [Ger. _bursch_, a companion, student.]

BURST, burst, _v.t._ to break into pieces: to break open suddenly or by violence: to disturb, interrupt.--_v.i._ to fly open or break in pieces: to break forth or away: to break into some sudden expression of feeling--e.g.

'to burst into song:'--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ burst.--_n._ a sudden outbreak: a hard gallop: a spurt: a drunken bout.--BURST IN, to force one's way violently into; BURST INTO BLOSSOM, to begin to blossom; BURST INTO TEARS, to fall a-crying; BURST OUT, to force one's way out violently; BURST UP (_coll._), to explode: to fail, become bankrupt.--A BURST UP, a collapse, failure.--ON THE BURST, on the spree. [A.S. _berstan_; Ger. _bersten_; Gael. _brisd_, to break.]

BURSTEN, bur'stn, _obs. pa.p._ of BURST.

BURTHEN, bur'thn, _n._ and _v.t._ For BURDEN.

BURTON, bur'ton, _n._ a tackle variously used.

BURY, ber'i, _v.t._ to hide in the ground: to cover: to place in the grave, as a dead body: to hide or blot out of remembrance:--_pr.p._ bur'ying; _pa.p._ bur'ied.--_ns._ BUR'YING-GROUND, BUR'YING-PLACE, ground set apart for burying the dead: a graveyard.--BURY THE HATCHET, to cease strife.

[A.S. _byrgan_, to bury; Ger. _bergen_, to hide.]

BURY, ber'i, _n._ a delicate pear of several varieties.--Also BURR'EL, BURR'EL-PEAR. [Cf. the Fr. _beurre_, as in '_Beurre_ d'Angouleme.']

BUS, BUSS, bus, _n._ Short for OMNIBUS.

BUSBY, bus'bi, _n._ a fur hat with short bag hanging down from the top on its right side, of the same colour as the facings of the regiment, worn by hussars, and, in the British army, by horse artillerymen also. [Prob.


BUSCON, bus'kon, _n._ (_U.S._) a miner paid by a percentage of the ore he raises. [Sp.]

BUSH, boosh, _n._ a shrub thick with branches: anything of bushy tuft-like shape: any wild uncultivated country, esp. at the Cape or in Australia: a bunch of ivy hung up as a tavern sign, a tavern itself--'Good wine needs no bush.'--_v.i._ to grow thick or bushy.--_v.t._ to set bushes about, support with bushes: to cover seeds by means of the bush-harrow.--_n._ BUSH'-CAT, the serval.--_adj._ BUSHED, lost in the bush.--_ns._ BUSH'-HARR'OW, a light kind of harrow used for covering grass-seeds, formed of a barred frame interwoven with bushes or branches; BUSH'INESS; BUSH'MAN, a settler in the uncleared land of America or the Colonies, a woodsman: one of a native race in South Africa (Dut. _boschjesman_); BUSH'-RANG'ER, in Australia, a lawless fellow, often an escaped criminal, who takes to the bush and lives by robbery; BUSH'-SHRIKE, a tropical American ant-thrush; BUSH'TIT, a small long-tailed titmouse of West America, building a large hanging-nest.--_v.i._ BUSH'-WHACK, to range through the bush: to fight in guerilla warfare.--_ns_. BUSH'-WHACK'ER, a guerilla fighter: a country lout: a short heavy scythe for cutting bushes; BUSH'-WHACK'ING, the habits or practice of bush-whackers: the process of forcing a way for a boat by pulling at the bushes overhanging a stream.--_adj._ BUSH'Y, full of bushes: thick and spreading.--BEAT ABOUT THE BUSH, to go round about anything, to evade coming to the point. [M. E. _busk_, _busch_; from a Teut. root found in Ger. _busch_, Low L. _boscus_, Fr. _bois_.]

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