[Ety. unknown: hardly the Fr. _bonne maree_, good fresh sea-fish.]
BUMMER, bum'[.e]r, _n._ a plundering straggler or camp-follower during the American Civil War: a dissolute fellow, a loafer, a sponge.
BUMMLE, bum'l, _v.i._ (_prov._) to blunder.--_n._ an idle fellow.
BUMMOCK, bum'ok, _n._ (_Scot._) a brewing of ale. [Ety. unknown.]
BUMP, bump, _v.i._ to make a heavy or loud noise.--_v.t._ to strike with a dull sound: to strike against: to overtake and impinge upon the stern or side of a boat by the boat following, the bumper consequently taking the place of the bumped in rank--also 'to make a bump:' to spread out material in printing so as to fill any desired number of pages.--_n._ a dull heavy blow: a thump: a lump caused by a blow, one of the protuberances on the surface of the skull confidently associated by phrenologists with certain distinct qualities or propensities of the mind, hence colloquially for organ: the noise of the bittern.--_n._ BUMP'ER, a cup or glass filled to the brim for drinking a toast: anything large or generous in measure: a crowded house at a theatre or concert.--_adj._ as in a 'bumper house.'--_v.i._ to drink bumpers.--_n._ BUMPOL'OGY, phrenology.--_adj._ BUMP'Y. [Onomatopoeic.]
BUMPKIN, bump'kin, _n._ an awkward, clumsy rustic: a clown.--_adj._ BUMP'KINISH. [Prob. Dut. _boomken_, a log.]
BUMPTIOUS, bump'shus, _adj._ offensively self-assertive.--_adv._ BUMP'TIOUSLY.--_n._ BUMP'TIOUSNESS. [Prob. formed from BUMP.]
BUN, bun, _n._ a kind of sweet cake. [Prob. from O. Fr. _bugne_, a swelling.]
BUN, bun, _n._ a dry stalk: a hare's scut: a rabbit. [Prob. Gael. _bun_, a root.]
BUNCE, buns, _n._ (_slang_) extra gain--used as an interjection.
BUNCH, bunsh, _n._ a number of things tied together or growing together: a definite quantity fastened together, as of linen yarn (180,000 yards), &c.: a cluster: something in the form of a tuft or knot.--_v.i._ to swell out in a bunch.--_v.t._ to make a bunch of, to concentrate.--_adjs._ BUNCH'-BACKED (_Shak._), having a bunch on the back, crook-backed; BUNCHED, humped, protuberant.--_ns._ BUNCH'-GRASS, a name applied to several West American grasses, growing in clumps; BUNCH'INESS, the quality of being bunchy: state of growing in bunches.--_adj._ BUNCH'Y, growing in bunches or like a bunch, bulging.--BUNCH OF FIVES, the fist with the five fingers clenched. [Ety.
BUNCOMBE. See BUNKUM.
BUNDESRATH, b[=oo]n'des-rat, _n._ the Federal Council of the German Empire, its members annually appointed by the governments of the various states.
BUNDLE, bun'dl, _n._ a number of things loosely bound together: an aggregation of one or more kinds of tissue traversing other tissues: a definite measure or quantity, as two reams of paper, twenty hanks of linen yarn, &c.--_v.t._ to bind or tie into bundles.--_v.i._ to pack up one's things for a journey, to go hurriedly or in confusion (with _away_, _off_, _out_).--_n._ BUN'DLING, an old custom in Wales, New England, and elsewhere for sweethearts to sleep on the same bed without undressing.--TO BUNDLE OFF, BUNDLE OUT, to send away unceremoniously or summarily. [Conn. with BIND and BOND.]
BUNG, bung, _n._ the stopper of the hole in a barrel: a large cork: (_Shak._) a sharper.--_v.t._ to stop up with a bung: to thrash severely.--_ns._ BUNG'-HOLE, a hole in a cask through which it is filled, closed by a bung; BUNG'-VENT, a small hole in a bung to let gasses escape, &c.--BUNG UP, to bruise. [Ety. dub.]
BUNGALOW, bung'ga-l[=o], _n._ the kind of house usually occupied by Europeans in the interior of India, and commonly provided for officers'
quarters in cantonments.--DaK-BUNGALOWS are houses for travellers. [Hind.
BUNGLE, bung'l, _n._ anything clumsily done: a gross blunder.--_v.i._ to act in a clumsy, awkward manner.--_v.t._ to make or mend clumsily: to manage awkwardly.--_p.adj._ BUNG'LED, done clumsily.--_n._ BUNG'LER.--_p.adj._ BUNG'LING, clumsy, awkward: unskilfully or ill done.--_adv._ BUNG'LINGLY. [Ety. obscure; prob. onomatopoeic; Prof. Skeat quotes a dial. Sw. _bangla_, to work ineffectually; Mr F. Hindes Groome suggests Gipsy _bongo_, left, awkward.]
BUNION, bun'yun, _n._ a lump or inflamed swelling on the ball of the great toe. [Ety. unknown; Prof. Skeat suggests It. _bugnone_, a botch.]
BUNK, bungk, _n._ a box or recess in a ship's cabin, a sleeping-berth anywhere.--_v.i._ to occupy the same bunk, sleep together.--_n._ BUNK'ER, a large bin or chest used for stowing various things, as coals, &c.: a hazard in a golf-links, originally confined to sand-pits, but now often used for hazards generally. [Prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Ice. _bunki_, Dan. _bunke_, a heap.]
BUNKO, BUNCO, bung'k[=o], _n._ (_U.S._) a form of confidence-trick by which a simple fellow is swindled or taken somewhere and robbed.--_v.t._ to rob or swindle in such a way.--_n._ BUNK'O-STEER'ER, that one of the swindling confederates who allures the victim.
BUNKUM, bung'kum, _n._ empty clap-trap oratory, bombastic speechmaking intended for the newspapers rather than to persuade the audience.--Also BUN'COMBE. [From _Buncombe_, the name of a county in North Carolina.
Bartlett quotes a story of how its member once went on talking in congress, explaining apologetically to the few hearers that remained that he was 'only talking for Buncombe.']
BUNNY, bun'i, _n._ a pet name for a rabbit. [Ety. unknown; prob. conn. with Gael. _bun_, a root.]
BUNODONT, b[=u]'n[=o]-dont, _adj._ having tuberculate molars--opp. to _Lophodont_. [Gr. _bounos_, a rounded hill, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]
BUNSEN, b[=oo]n'sen, or bun'sen, _adj._ applied to some of the inventions of the great chemist, R. W. _Bunsen_ of Heidelberg.--_n._ BUN'SEN-BURN'ER, a gas-burner in which a plentiful supply of air is caused to mingle with the gas before ignition, so that a smokeless flame of low luminosity but great heating power is the result.
BUNT, bunt, _n._ a parasitic disease of wheat and other grains.--_adjs._ BUNT'ED, BUNT'Y. [Ety. unknown.]
BUNT, bunt, _n._ the bagging part of a fishing-net, a sail, &c.--_v.i._ to belly, as a sail. [Ety. unknown.]
BUNT, bunt, _v.i._ to push with the horns, butt: to spring, rear.--_n._ a push.--_n._ BUNT'ING, pushing: a boys' game, played with sticks and a small piece of wood: a strong timber, a stout prop.
BUNTER, bunt'[.e]r, _n._ a rag-picker, a low woman.
BUNTING, bunt'ing, _n._ a thin worsted stuff of which ships' colours are made. [Ety. dub.]
BUNTING, bunt'ing, _n._ a genus of birds in the Finch family nearly allied to the crossbills.
BUNTLINE, bunt'l[=i]n, _n._ a rope passing from the foot-rope of a square sail, led up to the masthead and thence on deck, to help in hauling the sail up to the yard.
BUOY, boi, _n._ a floating cask or light piece of wood fastened by a rope or chain to indicate shoals, the position of a ship's anchor, &c.--_v.t._ to fix buoys or marks: to keep afloat, bear up, or sustain: to raise the spirits.--_ns._ BUOY'AGE, a series of buoys or floating beacons to mark the course for vessels: the providing of buoys; BUOY'ANCY, capacity for floating lightly on water or in the air: specific lightness: (_fig._) lightness of spirit, cheerfulness.--_adj._ BUOY'ANT, light: cheerful.--_n._ BUOY'ANTNESS. [Dut. _boei_, buoy, fetter, through Romance forms (Norman _boie_), from Low L. _boia_, a collar of leather.]
BUPHAGA, b[=u]'f[=a]-ga, _n._ a small genus of African perching birds, nearly related to the starlings, feeding on the larvae of gadflies and the like, which they find on the backs of cattle, camels, &c.--Also _Beef-eater_ and _Ox-pecker_. [Gr., _bous_, an ox, _phagein_, to eat.]
BUPRESTIS, b[=u]-pres'tis, _n._ a genus of beetles, typical of a large family, _Buprestidae_, those occurring in warmer countries having lively colour and metallic sheen--some known as Golden Beetles. [L.,--Gr.
_bouprestis_, _bous_, an ox, _pr[=e]thein_, to swell.]
BUR, BURR, bur, the prickly seed-case or head of certain plants, which sticks to clothes: any impediment or inconvenient adherent: any lump, ridge, &c., more or less sharp, a knot on a tree, knot in thread, knob at the base of a deer's horn, &c.: waste raw silk: the sweetbread or pancreas: (_Scot._) club-moss: the name for various tools and appliances, as the triangular chisel for clearing the corners of mortises, &c.: the blank driven out of a piece of sheet-metal by a punch: a partly vitrified brick.--_ns._ BUR'DOCK, a dock with a bur or prickly head; BUR'-THIS'TLE, the spear-thistle.--BUR IN THE THROAT, something seeming to stick in the throat, producing a choking sensation. [Cog. with Dan. _borre_, a bur.]
BUR, BURR, bur, _n._ the rough sound of _r_ pronounced in the throat, as in Northumberland--_v.i._ to whisper hoarsely, to murmur. [Usually associated with preceding, but perh. from the sound.]
BUR, bur, _n._ in an engraving, a slight ridge of metal raised on the edges of a line by the graver or the dry point, producing an effect like a smear, but dexterously used by some etchers, as Rembrandt, to deepen their shadows.
BURBLE, burb'l, _n._ trouble, disorder.--_v.t._ to trouble, confuse.
[Scot.; prob. conn. with O. Fr. _barbouiller_, to confound.]
BURBOT, bur'bot, _n._ a fresh-water fish, like the eel, having a longish beard on its lower jaw. [Fr. _barbote_--L. _barba_, a beard.]
BURD, burd, _n._ (_obs._) for BIRD, a poetic name for a girl or lady.--_n._ BUR'DALANE, the last surviving child of a family.
BURDASH, burd'ash, _n._ a fringed sash worn round the waist by fine gentlemen in the time of Anne and George I.
BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ a load: weight: cargo: that which is grievous, oppressive, or difficult to bear, as blame, sin, sorrow, &c.: birth.--_v.t._ to load: to oppress: to encumber.--_adjs._ BUR'DENOUS, BUR'DENSOME, heavy: oppressive.--BURDEN OF PROOF, in legal procedure, signifies the obligation to establish by evidence certain disputed facts.
[A.S. _byrthen_--_beran_, to bear.]
BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ part of a song repeated at the end of every stanza, refrain: the leading idea of anything: a load of care, sorrow, or responsibility. [Fr. _bourdon_, a humming tone in music--Low L. _burdo_, a drone or non-working bee.]
BURDEN, bur'dn, _n._ (_Spens._) a pilgrim's staff. [See BOURDON.]
BURDOCK. See BUR (1).
BUREAU, b[=u]r'[=o], _n._ a writing-table or chest of drawers: a room or office where such a table is used: a department for the transacting of public business:--_pl._ BUREAUX (b[=u]r'[=o]), BUREAUS (b[=u]r'[=o]z). [Fr.
_bureau_--O. Fr. _burel_, russet cloth--L. _burrus_, red.]