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BARD, bard, _n._ a poet and singer among the ancient Celts: a poet--dims.

BARD'LING, BARD'LET, poetaster.--_n._ BARD'-CRAFT (_Browning_).--_adj._ BARD'IC. [Gael. and Ir. _bard_.]

BARDED, bard'ed, _adj._ caparisoned, as horses.--_n._ BARD (_obs._), the protective covering of a war-horse or a man-at-arms. [Fr. _barde_--Sp.

_albarda_, pack-saddle, perh. from Ar. _al-barda'ah_; _al_, the, and _barda'ah_, mule's pack-saddle.]

BARE, b[=a]r, _adj._ uncovered: naked: open to view: poor, scanty: unadorned: (_Shak._) unarmed: mere or by itself: (_Shak._) paltry, desolate: empty: (_Spens._) rude.--_v.t._ to strip or uncover.--_adj._ BARE'BACKED, with bare back: unsaddled.--_n._ BARE'BONE (_Shak._), a very lean person.--_adj._ BARE'FACED, with the face uncovered: (_Shak._) avowed: impudent.--_adv._ BARE'FACEDLY.--_n._ BARE'FACEDNESS.--_adjs._ BARE'FOOT, -ED, having the feet bare, often of some monastic orders; BARE'-GNAWN (_Shak._), gnawed bare; BARE'HEADED, having the head bare; BAR'ISH (_Carlyle_), somewhat bare; BARE'LEGGED, having the legs bare.--_adv._ BARE'LY.--_ns._ BARE'NESS; BARE'SARK, a fierce Norse fighter, a berserker.--_adv._ in a shirt only. [A.S. _baer_; Ger. _baar_, _bar_; Ice.


BARE, b[=a]r, old _pa.t._ of BEAR.

BARAGE, ba-r[=a]zh', _n._ a light, silky dress-stuff, named from _Bareges_ in the Pyrenees.

BARGAIN, bar'gin, _n._ a contract or agreement: a favourable transaction: an advantageous purchase: (_Shak._) chaffering.--_v.i._ to make a contract or agreement: to chaffer: to count on, take into consideration (with _for_): to lose by bad bargaining (with _away_).--_n._ BAR'GAINER.--BARGAIN AND SALE, in law, a mode of conveyance whereby property may be assigned or transferred for valuable consideration.--INTO THE BARGAIN, over and above; TO MAKE THE BEST OF A BAD BARGAIN, to make the best of difficult circumstances; TO SELL ANY ONE A BARGAIN (_Shak._), to befool him; TO STRIKE A BARGAIN, to come to terms about a purchase. [O. Fr.

_bargaigner_--Low L. _barcaniare_; acc. to Diez from _barca_, a boat.]

BARGE, barj, _n._ flat-bottomed freight boat, with or without sails, used on rivers and canals: the second boat of a man-of-war: a large pleasure or state boat.--_ns._ BAR'GEE, a bargeman; BARGE'MAN, The manager of a barge; BARGE'-MAS'TER, the proprietor of a barge. [O. Fr. _barge_--Low L. _barga_.

Prob. a doublet of BARK, a barge.]


BARGE-BOARD, barj'-b[=o]rd, _n._ a board extending along the edge of the gable of a house to cover the rafters and keep out the rain. [The _barge_ here may be conn. with Low L. _bargus_, a gallows.]

BARGHEST, bar'gest, _n._ a dog-like goblin portending death. [Perh. conn.

with Ger. _berg-geist_, mountain-ghost.]


BARILLA, bar-il'a, _n._ an impure carbonate of soda obtained by burning several marine plants (that grow chiefly on the east coast of Spain), used in the manufacture of soap, glass, &c. [Sp. _barrilla_.]

BARITONE, bar'i-t[=o]n. Same as BARYTONE.

BARIUM, b[=a]'ri-um, _n._ the metal present in heavy spar (sulphate of baryta) and baryta, formerly thought to be white, but now known to possess a yellow colour.--_adj._ BAR'IC. [From BARYTA; cf. _soda_, _sodium_.]

BARK, bark, _n._ the abrupt cry uttered by a dog, wolf, &c.--_v.i._ to yelp like a dog: to clamour.--_v.t._ (_Spens._) to utter with a bark.--_n._ BARK'ER, a shop-tout: (_slang_) a pistol, cannon.--HIS BARK IS WORSE THAN HIS BITE, his angry expressions are worse than his actual deeds. [A.S.

_beorcan_, prob. a variety of _brecan_, to crack, snap. See BREAK.]

BARK, BARQUE, bark, _n._ a barge: a ship of small size, square-sterned, without head-rails: technically, a three-masted vessel whose mizzen-mast is _fore-and-aft_ rigged instead of being square-rigged, like the fore and main masts--barks of over 3000 tons are now frequently built.--_ns._ BAR'KANTINE, BAR'QUENTINE, a three-masted vessel, with the fore-mast square-rigged, and the main-mast and mizzen-mast fore-and-aft rigged. [Fr.

_barque_--Low L. _barca_; perh. from Gr. _baris_, a Nile-boat.]

BARK, bark, _n._ the rind or covering of the trunk and branches of a tree: that used in tanning or dyeing, or the residue thereof, laid upon a street to deaden the sound, &c.: the envelopment or outer covering of anything.--_v.t._ to strip or peel the bark from: to rub off (_skin_).--_n._ BARK'-BED, a hotbed made of spent bark.--_v.t._ BARK'EN, to dry up into a barky substance.--_v.i._ to become like bark.--_adjs._ BARK'LESS; BARK'Y.--CINCHONA, JESUITS', PERUVIAN BARK, the bark of the cinchona, from which quinine is made. [Scand. _borkr_; Dan. _bark_.]

BARKER'S MILL, bark'[.e]rz mil, a water-wheel invented in the 18th century by Dr _Barker_.

BARLEY, bar'li, _n._ a hardy grain used for food, but chiefly for making malt liquors and spirits.--_ns._ BAR'LEY-BREE, -BROTH, strong ale; BAR'LEY-CORN, personified as _John Barleycorn_, the grain from which malt is made: a single grain of barley: a measure of length = 1/3 of an inch; BAR'LEY-SU'GAR, a mixture of sugar with a decoction of pearl-barley, boiled till it is candied; BAR'LEY-WAT'ER, a decoction of pearl-barley; PEARL'-BAR'LEY, the grain stripped of husk and pellicle, and completely rounded by grinding; POT'-BAR'LEY, the grain deprived by milling of its outer husk, used in making broth, &c. [A.S. _baerlic_, _bere_, and suffix _-lic_.]

BARLEY, bar'li, _interj._ (_Scot._) a term used in games in demand of a truce, parley (of which it is most prob. a corruption).

BARLEY-BRAKE, bar'li-br[=a]k, _n._ an old country game, originally played by three couples, of which one, left in a middle den called 'hell,' had to catch the others, who could break or separate when about to be overtaken.

[Perh. from the grain, _barley_, because often played in a barley-field; or perh. from the word preceding.]

BARM, barm, _n._ froth of beer or other fermenting liquor, used as leaven: yeast.--_adjs._ BARM'Y; BARM'Y-BRAINED, flighty. [A.S. _beorma_; cog. with Dan. _barme_, Ger. _barme_.]

BARMBRACK, barm'brak, _n._ a currant-bun. [Ir. _bairigen breac_, speckled cake.]

BARM-CLOTH, barm'-kloth, _n._ (_Morris_) an apron. [A.S. _barm_, bosom, _-beran_, to bear, and CLOTH.]

BARMECIDE, bar'me-s[=i]d, _n._ one who offers an imaginary or pretended banquet or other benefit.--_adjs._ BAR'MECIDE, BARMEC[=I]'DAL. [From a story in the _Arabian Nights_, in which a beggar is entertained to an imaginary feast by one of the _Barmecides_, a Persian family who attained to great influence at the court of the Abbasside caliphs.]

BARMKIN, barm'kin, _n._ the rampart of a castle.

BARN, barn, _n._ a building in which grain, hay, &c. are stored.--_v.t._ to store in a barn.--_ns._ and _adjs._ BARN'-DOOR, BARN'-YARD, as in barn-yard fowl.--_n._ BARN'-OWL, the commonest of British owls.--BARN-DOOR, in cricket, used of a player who blocks every ball: humorously, any large target. [A.S. _bere-ern_, contracted _bern_, from _bere_, barley, _ern_, a house.]

BARNABY, barn'a-bi, _n._ form of _Barnabas_, the apostle.--_n._ BAR'NABITE, a member of the congregation of regular canons of St Paul, founded at Milan in 1530, so called from their preaching in the church of St Barnabas there.--BARNABY-DAY, BARNABY BRIGHT, or LONG BARNABY, St Barnabas' Day, 11th June, in Old Style reckoned the longest day.

BARNACLE, bar'na-kl, _n._ a shellfish which adheres to rocks and the bottoms of ships: a companion who sticks closely.--_n._ BAR'NACLE-GOOSE, a species of wild goose belonging to the Northern seas, so called from a notion that they were produced from the barnacles mentioned. [O. Fr.

_bernaque_--Low L. _bernaca_; by some referred to a supposed form _pernacula_, dim. of _perna_, a kind of shellfish; by others to a Celtic origin.]

BARNACLE, bar'na-kl, _n._ an instrument consisting of two branches joined by a hinge, placed on the nose of horses to keep them quiet: (_pl._) a colloquial term for 'spectacles.'--_adj._ BAR'NACLED. [O. Fr. _bernac_, of which _bernacle_ seems to be a dim. form. The sense of 'spectacles' has been traced to O. Fr. _bericle_, eye-glass--_berillus_, beryl; but this is improbable.]

BARNEY, bar'ni, _n._ (_slang_) humbug: a prize-fight.

BARNUMISE, bar'num-[=i]z, _v.t._ to advertise and display on a great scale.--_n._ BAR'NUMISM. [From _Barnum_, a great showman (1810-91).]

BAROGRAPH, bar'o-graf, _n._ a barometer which records automatically variations of atmospheric pressure. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _graphein_, to write.]

BAROMETER, bar-om'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument by which the weight or pressure of the atmosphere is measured, and changes of weather, or heights above sea-level, indicated.--_adj._ BAROMET'RIC.--_adv._ BAROMET'RICALLY.--_n._ BAROM'ETRY. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _metron_, measure.]

BAROMETZ, bar'o-metz, _n._ the hairy prostrate stem of a fern found near the Caspian Sea, at one time supposed to be at once plant and animal, to grow on a stalk, and to eat grass like a lamb, &c.; hence also called, as by Mandeville, the _Scythian Lamb_. [Erroneous form of Russ. _baranetz_, dim. of _baran_, ram.]


BARON, bar'on, _n._ a title of rank, the lowest in the House of Peers: formerly a title of the judges of the Court of Exchequer: in feudal times the tenants-in-chief of the Crown, later the peers or great lords of the realm generally: till 1832, the name for the parliamentary representatives of the Cinque Ports: in Germany, the signification, instead of becoming restricted as in England, has become extended--the greater or dynasty barons having all been elevated to higher titles, a large number being designated barons in virtue of a diploma from some reigning prince, the title being used also by all his descendants.--_ns._ BAR'ONAGE, the whole body of barons; BAR'ON-BAIL'IE, a magistrate appointed by the lord-superior in a burgh of barony; BAR'ONESS, a baron's wife, or a lady holding a baronial title in her own right.--_adj._ BAR[=O]N'IAL, pertaining to a baron or barony.--_n._ BAR'ONY, the territory of a baron: in Ireland, a division of a county: in Scotland, a large freehold estate, or manor, even though not carrying with it a baron's title and rank: the rank of baron.--BARON OF BEEF, a joint consisting of two sirloins left uncut at the backbone. [O. Fr. _barun_, _-on_--Low L. _baro_, _-onem_; in the Romance tongues the word meant a man as opposed to a woman, a strong man, a warrior; traced by some to Celt. _bar_, a hero; by others to Old High Ger.

_bero_, bearer, carrier.]

BARONET, bar'on-et, _n._ the lowest hereditary title in the United Kingdom (of England--now of Great Britain--since 1611; of Scotland--or of Nova Scotia--since 1625; of Ireland, since 1619).--_ns._ BAR'ONETAGE, the whole body of baronets: a list of such; BAR'ONETCY.--_adj._ BARONET'ICAL. [Dim.

of BARON.]

BAROQUE, bar-[=o]k', _adj._ originally a jeweller's term, but applied in art generally to extravagant ornamental designs: whimsical, odd. [Fr.

_baroque_; perh. from L. _verruca_, wart, but referred by some to Ar.

_bur[=a]q_, hard earth mixed with stones.]

BAROSCOPE, bar'[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for indicating changes in the density of the air. [Gr. _baros_, weight, _skopein_, to see.]

BAROUCHE, ba-r[=oo]sh', _n._ a double-seated four-wheeled carriage with a falling top. [It. _baroccio_--L. _birotus_, two-wheeled, from _bis_, twice, _rota_, a wheel.]

BARQUE. Same as BARK (2).

BARQUENTINE, bar'ken-t[=e]n, _n._ same as BARKANTINE (q.v. under BARK, a ship). [Formed from BARQUE, like BRIGANTINE from BRIG.]

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