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BANISH, ban'ish, _v.t._ to condemn to exile: to drive away: to expel (with _from_, _out of_).--_n._ BAN'ISHMENT, exile. [Fr. _bannir_--Low L.

_bannire_, to proclaim. See BAN.]

BANISTER, ban'ist[.e]r, _n._ a corr. of BALUSTER.

BANJO, ban'jo, _n._ a musical instrument of the guitar kind, played with the fingers, but without frets to guide the stopping, having a long neck, a body of stretched parchment like a drum, and from five to nine catgut strings. [Corr. of Fr. _bandore_ or _pandore_--L. _pandura_--Gr.


BANK, bangk, _n._ a mound or ridge of earth: the earthy margin of a river, lake, &c.: the raised edge of a road, railway cutting, &c.: (_min._) the surface at the pit-mouth, as in banksman: rising ground in the sea.--_v.t._ to enclose with a bank: to deposit or pile up: to make up a fire by covering it with a heap of fuel so pressed down as to remain a long time burning slowly--_banked fires_.--_n._ BANKS'MAN, an overseer at a pit-mouth.--FROM BANK TO BANK, from the time the collier begins to descend the pit for his spell of work till he reaches the top again. [M. E.

_banke_, of Scand. origin; cog. with BANK, BENCH.]

BANK, bangk, _n._ a bench in a galley: a tier or rank of oars: the bench on which judges sat. [O. Fr. _banc_, of Teut. origin, cog. with the foregoing word.]

BANK, bangk, _n._ a place where money is deposited: an institution for the keeping, lending, and exchanging, &c. of money: in games of hazard, the money the proprietor, who plays against all the others, has before him.--_v.t._ to deposit in a bank, as money.--_ns._ BANK'-[=A]'GENT, the head of a branch bank; BANK'-BILL, a bill drawn by one bank upon another, payable at a future date, or on demand; BANK'-CHEQUE, an order to pay issued upon a bank; BANK'ER, one who keeps a bank: one employed in banking business:--_fem._ BANK'ERESS; BANK'-HOL'IDAY, a day on which banks are legally closed, bills falling due on these being payable the following day; BANK'ING, the business of a banker.--_adj._ pertaining to a bank.--_ns._ BANK'-NOTE, a note issued by a bank, which passes as money, being payable to bearer on demand; BANK'-PAP'ER, bank-notes in circulation; BANK'-STOCK, a share or shares in the capital stock of a bank; BRANCH'-BANK, a branch office of a bank; SAV'INGS-BANK, one intended originally to develop a spirit of saving amongst the poor.--BANK ANNUITIES, the consolidated three per cent. annuities--British Government funds.--BANK OF ISSUE, one that issues its own notes, or promises to pay; JOINT-STOCK BANK, one of which the capital is subscribed by a large number of shareholders; PRIVATE BANK, one carried on by any number of persons less than ten.--TO BREAK THE BANK, to win, as in faro, from the management a certain sum which has been fixed upon as the limit the bank is willing to lose on any one day; TO PLAY AGAINST THE BANK, to take the risks of a game against the manager who holds the bank, as at rouge-et-noir, &c. [Fr. _banque_, of Teut. origin, cog.

with two foregoing words.]

BANKRUPT, bangk'rupt, _n._ one who breaks or fails in business; an insolvent person.--_adj._ insolvent: destitute (with _of_).--_n._ BANK'RUPTCY, the state of being or act of becoming bankrupt. [Fr.

_banque-route_, It. _banca rotta_.]

BANKSIA, bangk'sia, _n._ a genus of Australian shrubs, named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks (1744-1820).

BANNER, ban'[.e]r, _n._ a military standard: a flag or ensign bearing some device, as in processions, &c.--_adj._ BAN'NERED, furnished with banners.

[O. Fr. _banere_--Low L. _bandum_, _bannum_; cog. with BAND and BIND.]

BANNERET, ban'[.e]r-et, _n._ a higher class of knight, inferior to a baron.

[Fr. dim. of BANNER.]

BANNEROL, ban'[.e]r-ol, _n._ Same as BANDEROL.

BANNING, ban'ning, _n._ cursing. [See BAN.]

BANNOCK, ban'nok, _n._ a flat home-made cake of oatmeal, barley, or pease-meal. [Gael. _bannach_.]

BANNS, banz, a proclamation of marriage.--TO FORBID THE BANNS, to make formal objection to a projected marriage. [From BAN.]

BANQUET, bangk'wet, _n._ a feast: any rich treat or entertainment: a course of sweetmeats, fruit, and wine, separately, or after the principal meal--still used in the Scotch phrase, 'a cake and wine banquet.'--_v.t._ to give a feast to.--_v.i._ to fare sumptuously.--_ns._ BANQ'UETER, BANQ'UETEER; BANQ'UETING; BANQ'UETING-HOUSE. [Fr.;--_banc_, bench, like It.

_banchetto_, from _banco_.]

BANQUETTE, bang-ket', _n._ a raised way inside a parapet; the long seat behind the driver in a French diligence. [Fr.; It. _banchetta_, dim. of _banca_, seat.]

BANSHEE, ban'sh[=e], _n._ a female fairy in Ireland and elsewhere, who makes herself known by wailings and shrieks before a death in the particular family to which she is attached. [Ir. _bean sidhe_, Old Ir. _ben side_, woman of the fairies.]

BANTAM, ban'tam, _n._ a small variety of the common domestic fowl, supposed to be named from _Bantam_ in Java, notable for courage.--_adj._ of bantam-breed: little and combative.

BANTER, bant'[.e]r, _v.t._ to assail with good-humoured raillery: to joke or jest at: (_arch._) to impose upon, trick.--_n._ humorous raillery: jesting.--_ns._ BANT'ERER; BANT'ERING.--_adv._ BANT'ERINGLY.--_adj._ BANT'ERY (_Carlyle_). [Ety. quite unknown.]

BANTING, bant'ing, _n._ a system of diet for reducing superfluous fat.--_n._ BANT'INGISM. [From W. _Banting_ (1797-1878), a London cabinetmaker, who recommended it to the public in 1863.]

BANTLING, bant'ling, _n._ a child. [So called from the _bands_ in which it is wrapped.]

BANTU, ban't[=oo], _n._ a native name sometimes applied to the South African family of languages and the peoples speaking these, including Kaffirs and Zulus, Bechuans, and the peoples from the Hottentot country to the Gulf of Guinea.

BANXRING, bangks'ring, _n._ a small insectivorous animal of Java and Sumatra. [Jav.]


BAOBAB, b[=a]'o-bab, _n._ a magnificent tree, native to tropical Western Africa, whose trunk is 20 to 30 feet thick, called also the _Monkey-bread Tree_. [African.]

BAPHOMET, baf'[=o]-m[.e]t, _n._ the alleged name of a mysterious idol the Templars were accused of worshipping.--_adj._ BAPH'OMETIC. [A medieval corr. of the name _Mahomet_.]

BAPTISE, bapt-[=i]z', _v.t._ to administer baptism to: to christen, give a name to.--_n._ BAPT'ISM, immersion in or sprinkling with water as a religious ceremony--a sign and seal of the covenant of grace. It is symbolic of spiritual purification, and as a religious rite marks initiation into the Christian community.--_adj._ BAPTIS'MAL.--_adv._ BAPTIS'MALLY.--_ns._ BAPT'IST, one who baptises: one who approves only of baptising by immersion, and that only to persons who profess their faith in Christ; BAP'TISTERY, a place where baptism is administered, either a separate building or a portion of a church.--BAPTISMAL REGENERATION, the doctrine of the remission of sin original and actual, and of the new birth into the life of sanctifying grace, in and through the sacrament of baptism; BAPTISM BY DESIRE, the grace given to a believer who ardently desires baptism, but dies before he can receive it; BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD, the vicarious baptism of a living Christian for an unbaptised dead Christian, who was thereby accounted baptised and received into bliss--it is supposed to be alluded to in 1 Cor. xv. 29; BAPTISM OF BLOOD, martyrdom for Christ's sake; BAPTISM OF FIRE, the gift of the Holy Spirit: martyrdom by fire for Christ's sake: (_fig._) any trying ordeal to be endured, as a young soldier's first experience of being under fire; CLINICAL BAPTISM, baptism administered to sick persons; CONDITIONAL (or HYPOTHETICAL) BAPTISM, baptism administered to those about whom it is doubtful whether they were baptised or whether the form of their earlier baptism was valid; NAME OF BAPTISM, the Christian or personal name given at baptism; PRIVATE BAPTISM, baptism administered at home, or elsewhere, not in the church.

[Gr. _baptiz-ein_--_bapt-ein_, to dip in water.]

BAR, bar, _n._ a rod of any solid substance: a bolt: a hindrance or obstruction--the barrier of a city or street, as the bars of York, Temple Bar, a toll-bar: a bank of sand or other matter at the mouth of a river: any terminus or limit (of life)--e.g. as in TO CROSS THE BAR: the railing that encloses a space in a tavern, the counter across which drinks are served, a public-house: the wooden rail dividing off the JUDGE'S SEAT, at which prisoners are placed for arraignment or sentence--hence, TO APPEAR AT THE BAR, TO PASS THE BAR = to be formally referred for trial from a lower court to a higher: any tribunal: the pleaders in a court as distinguished from the judges: a division in music.--_v.t._ to fasten or secure, as with a bar: to hinder or exclude:--_pr.p._ bar'ring; _pa.p._ barred.--_ns._ BAR'-[=I]'RON, iron in malleable bars; BAR'MAID, a female waiter at the bar of a tavern or hotel.--_prep._ BAR'RING, excepting, saving.--_ns._ BAR'RING-OUT, the shutting of the school-room doors and windows by the pupils against the master, in order to enforce assent to their demands; BAR'WOOD, a kind of red dye-wood imported from Africa in bars. [O. Fr.

_barre_--Low L. _barra_, perh. of Celt. origin.]


BARAGOUIN, ba-rag-w[=e]n, _n._ any jargon or unintelligible language. [Fr.; from Bret. _bara_, bread, and _gwin_, wine, supposed to have originated in the Breton soldiers' astonishment at white bread.]

BARB, barb, _n._ the beard-like jag near the point of an arrow, fish-hook, &c.--_v.t._ to arm with barbs, as an arrow, &c.: to shave, trim, mow, to pierce, as with a barb.--_adjs._ BARB'ATE (_bot._), bearing a hairy tuft; BARB'ATED, barbed, bearded.--_n._ BARBE, a term applied by the Waldenses to their teachers.--_adjs._ BARBED, furnished with a barb: of a horse, armed or caparisoned with a barb or bard; BARB'ELLATE (_bot._), having barbed or bearded bristles. [Fr.--L. _barba_, a beard.]

BARB, barb, _n._ a swift kind of horse, the breed of which came from _Barbary_ in North Africa.


BARBAROUS, bar'bar-us, _adj._ uncivilised: rude: savage: brutal.--_adjs._ BAR'BARESQUE, pertaining to _Barbary_: barbarous, esp. in art; BARB[=A]R'IAN, uncivilised: savage: without taste or refinement: foreign.--_n._ an uncivilised man, a savage: a cruel, brutal man.--_adj._ BARBAR'IC, foreign: uncivilised.--_n._ BARBARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ BAR'BARISE, to make barbarous: to corrupt as a language.--_ns._ BAR'BARISM, savage life: rudeness of manners: an incorrect form of speech; BARBAR'ITY, savageness: cruelty.--_adv._ BAR'BAROUSLY.--_n._ BAR'BAROUSNESS. [L.--Gr.

_barbaros_, foreign, lit. stammering, from the unfamiliar sound of foreign tongues.]

BARBARY APE, bar'bar-i [=a]p, _n._ the magot, or small tailless ape found in Africa and also on the rock of Gibraltar.

BARBECUE, barb'e-k[=u], _v.t._ to roast whole, as a pig: to cure flesh by exposing it on a barbecue.--_n._ a framework on which to dry and smoke meat above a fire: an animal roasted whole: an open floor on which coffee-beans and the like are spread out to dry: (_Amer._) a large social or political entertainment, where the hospitalities are on a lavish scale. [Sp.

_barbacoa_--Haytian _barbaca_, a framework of sticks set upon posts.]

BARBEL, barb'el, _n._ a fresh-water fish with beard-like appendages at its mouth. [O. Fr. _barbel_--Low L. _barbellus_--L. _barba_, a beard.]

BARBER, barb'[.e]r, _n._ one who shaves beards and dresses hair.--_ns._ BARB'ER-MONG'ER (_Shak._), a man decked out by his barber, a fop; BARB'ER-SUR'GEON, one who let blood and drew teeth as well as shaved--the company of Barber-surgeons was incorporated in 1461, but by an act in 1545 barbers were confined to the more humble function.--BARBER'S BLOCK, a round block on which wigs are made; BARBER'S POLE, the barber's sign in England, a pole striped spirally with alternate bands of colours, generally red or black and white, having often a brass basin hung at the end. [Fr.--L.

_barba_, a beard.]

BARBERRY, bar'ber-i, _n._ a thorny shrub with yellow flowers and red berries, common in hedges. [Low L. _berberis_; the Ar. _barbaris_ is borrowed.]

BARBETTE, bar-b[.e]t', _n._ an earthen terrace inside the parapet of a rampart, serving as a platform for heavy guns: in ironclad ships, a heavily armoured redoubt amidships. [Fr.]

BARBICAN, bar'bi-kan, _n._ a projecting watch-tower over the gate of a castle or fortified town, esp. the outwork intended to defend the drawbridge. [O. Fr. _barbacane_, also in Sp., Port., and It. forms; perh.

of Ar. or Pers. origin. Col. Yule suggests _b[=a]bkh[=a]nah_, gate-house, name in the East for a towered gateway.]

BARBULE, barb'[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) a small barb or beard: a pointed barb-like process fringing the barbs of a feather. [See BARBEL.]

BARCAROLLE, bar'ka-r[=o]l, _n._ a boat-song of the Venetian gondoliers: a musical composition of a similar character. [It. _barcaruolo_, a boatman, from _barca_, a bark, a barge, a boat.]

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