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ANAEROBIA, an-[=a]-[.e]r-[=o]'bi-a, (_biol._) bacteria which flourish without free oxygen.--_adj._ ANAER[=O]'BIC.

ANaeSTHETIC, an-[=e]s-thet'ik, _adj._ producing insensibility to external impressions.--_n._ a substance, as chloroform or cocaine, that produces insensibility, whether general or local.--_ns._ ANaeSTH[=E]'SIA, ANaeSTH[=E]'SIS, loss of feeling, insensibility.--_adv._ ANaeSTHET'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANaeS'THETISE. [Gr. _a_, _an_, neg., _aisth[=e]sis_, sensation--_aisthanomai_, to feel.]

ANAGLYPH, an'a-glif, _n._ an ornament carved in low relief.--_adj._ ANAGLYPT'IC. [Gr.; _ana_, up, _glyph-ein_, to carve.]

ANAGLYPTOGRAPHY, an-a-glip-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of engraving so as to give the subject the appearance of being raised from the surface of the paper as if embossed--used in representing coins, &c. [Gr. _anaglyptos_, embossed, and _graphia_, writing.]

ANAGOGY, an'a-goj-i, _n._ the mystical interpretation or hidden sense of words.--_adjs._ ANAGOG'IC, ANAGOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ANAGOG'ICALLY. [Gr.

_anag[=o]g[=e]_, elevation, _an-ag-ein_, to lift up.]

ANAGRAM, an'a-gram, _n._ a word or sentence formed by rewriting (in a different order) the letters of another word or sentence: as, 'live' = 'evil,' 'Quid est veritas? = 'Est vir qui adest,' and 'Florence Nightingale' = 'Flit on, cheering angel.'--Many pseudonyms are merely anagrams, as 'Voltaire' = 'Arouet l. i.'--that is, 'Arouet le jeune (the younger).'--_adjs._ ANAGRAMMAT'IC, ANAGRAMMAT'ICAL.--_adv._ ANAGRAMMAT'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANAGRAM'MAT[=I]SE, to transpose, so as to form an anagram.--_ns._ ANAGRAM'MATISM, the practice of making anagrams; ANAGRAM'MATIST, a maker of anagrams. [Gr. _ana_, again, _graph-ein_, to write.]

ANAGRAPH, an'a-graf, _n._ a catalogue or inventory: a description. [Gr.

_anagraph[=e]_--_ana_, up, out, _graph-ein_, to write.]

ANAL, [=a]n'al, _adj._ pertaining to or near the anus.

ANALECTS, an'a-lekts, collections of literary fragments--also ANALEC'TA.--_adj._ ANALEC'TIC. [Gr. _analektos_--_analegein_, to collect--_ana_, up, _legein_, to gather.]

ANALEPTIC, an-a-lep'tik, _adj._ restorative: comforting. [Gr.

_anal[=e]ptikos_, restorative--_anal[=e]psis_, recovery--_ana_, up, and _lamban[=o]_, _l[=e]psomai_, to take.]

ANALGESIA, an-al-j[=e]'zi-a, _n._ painlessness, insensibility to pain. [Gr.

_an-_, priv., and _algein_, to feel pain.]

ANALOGY, an-al'o-ji, _n._ an agreement or correspondence in certain respects between things otherwise different--a resemblance of relations, as in the phrase, 'Knowledge is to the mind what light is to the eye:'

relation in general: likeness: (_geom._) proportion or the equality of ratios: (_gram._) the correspondence of a word or phrase with the genius of a language, as learned from the manner in which its words and phrases are ordinarily formed: similarity of derivative or inflectional processes.--_adjs._ ANALOG'ICAL, ANAL'OGIC.--_adv._ ANALOG'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANAL'OGISE, to explain or consider by analogy:--_pr.p._ anal'og[=i]sing; _pa.p._ anal'og[=i]sed.--_ns._ ANAL'OGISM (_obs._), investigation by analogy: argument from cause to effect; ANAL'OGIST, one who adheres to analogy; ANAL'OGON = analogue.--_adj._ ANAL'OGOUS, having analogy: bearing some correspondence with or resemblance to: similar in certain circumstances or relations (with _to_).--_adv._ ANAL'OGOUSLY.--_ns._ ANAL'OGOUSNESS; AN'ALOGUE, a word or body bearing analogy to, or resembling, another: (_biol._) a term used to denote physiological, independent of morphological resemblance.--Organs are _analogous_ to one another, or are _analogues_, when they perform the same function, though they may be altogether different in structure; as the wings of a bird and the wings of an insect. Again, organs are _homologous_, or _homologues_, when they are constructed on the same plan, undergo a similar development, and bear the same relative position, and this independent of either form or function. Thus the arms of a man and the wings of a bird are homologues of one another, while the wing of a bird and the wing of a bat are both analogous and homologous. [Gr. _ana_, according to, and _logos_, ratio.]

ANALPHABETE, an-al'fa-b[=e]t, _n._ and _adj._ one who does not know his alphabet, an illiterate.--_adj._ ANALPHABET'IC. [Gr. _an_, neg., and ALPHABET.]

ANALYSIS, an-al'is-is, _n._ a resolving or separating a thing into its elements or component parts--the tracing of things to their source, and so discovering the general principles underlying individual phenomena. Its converse is _synthesis_, the explanation of certain phenomena by means of principles which are for this purpose assumed as established. Analysis as the resolution of our experience into its original elements, is an artificial separation; while synthesis is an artificial reconstruction: (_gram._) the arrangement into its logical and grammatical elements of a sentence or part of a sentence:--_pl._ ANAL'YSES.--_adj._ ANALYS'ABLE.--_n._ ANALYS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AN'ALYSE, to resolve a whole into its elements: to separate into component parts.--_n._ AN'ALYST, one skilled in analysis, esp. chemical analysis.--_adjs._ ANALYT'IC, -AL, pertaining to analysis: resolving into first principles.--_adv._ ANALYT' ANALYT'ICS, the name given by Aristotle to his treatises on logic.--ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, geometry treated by means of ordinary algebra, with a reference, direct or indirect, to a system of co-ordinates; ANALYTIC METHOD (_logic_) proceeds regressively or inductively to the recognition of general principles, as opposed to the _Synthetic_ method, which advances from principles to particulars. [Gr.

_analysis_, _analy-ein_, to unloose, _ana_, up, _ly-ein_, to loose.]

ANAMNESIS, an-am-n[=e]s'is, _n._ the recalling of things past to memory: the recollection of the Platonic pre-existence: the history of his illness given by the patient to his physician. [Gr.]

ANAMORPHOSIS, an-a-mor'fo-sis, _n._ a figure, appearing from one view-point irregular or deformed, but from another regular and in proportion: (_bot._) a gradual transformation, or an abnormal development of any part.--_adj._ ANAMOR'PHOUS. [Gr.; _ana_, back, _morph[=o]sis_, a shaping--_morph[=e]_, shape.]

ANANAS, an-an'as, _n._ the pine-apple: the West Indian penguin.--Also ANAN'A. [Peruvian.]

ANANDROUS, an-an'drus, _adj._ without stamens, or male organs, applied to female flowers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

ANANTHEROUS, an-an'th[.e]r-us, _adj._ without anthers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and ANTHER.]

ANANTHOUS, an-an'thus, _adj._ without flowers. [Gr. _an_, neg., and _anthos_, a flower.]

ANAPaeST, ANAPEST, an'a-pest, _n._ (in verse) a foot consisting of three syllables, two short and the third long, or (in Eng.) two unaccented and the third accented, as _colonnade_--a familiar example of a poem in this metre is Byron's _Destruction of Sennacherib_.--_adjs._ ANAPaeS'TIC, -AL.

[Gr. _anapaistos_, reversed, because it is the dactyl reversed.]

ANAPHORA, an'af-or-a, _n._ (_rhet._) the repetition of the same word or phrase in several successive clauses, as in 1 Cor. i. 20. [Gr.; _ana_, back, _pher-ein_, to bear.]

ANAPHRODISIAC, an-af-r[=o]-diz'i-ak, _adj._ and _n._ tending to diminish sexual desire, or a drug supposed to have that effect. [Fr. _an_, neg., and adj. from APHRODITE.]

ANAPLASTY, an'a-plas-ti, _n._ the reparation of superficial lesions by the use of adjacent healthy tissue, as by transplanting a portion of skin.--_adj._ AN'APLASTIC. [Gr.; that may be formed anew, _ana_, again, _plass-ein_, to form.]

ANAPLEROSIS, an'a-pl[=e]-r[=o]'sis, _n._ the filling up of a deficiency, esp. in medicine: the filling up of parts that have been destroyed, as in wounds, cicatrices, &c.--_adj._ ANAPLEROT'IC. [Gr.; from _ana_, up, and _pl[=e]ro-ein_, to fill up.]

ANAPTOTIC, an-ap-tot'ik, _adj._ (_philol._) again uninflected--a term sometimes applied to languages which have lost most of their inflections through phonetic decay. [Gr. _ana_, again, _apt[=o]tos_, without case, indeclinable, _apt[=o]s_, _-[=o]tos_, not falling, _pipt-ein_, to fall.]

ANARCHY, an'ark-i, _n._ the want of government in a state: political confusion: conflict of opinion.--_adjs._ ANARCH'AL (_rare_); ANARCH'IC, ANARCH'ICAL.--_v.t._ ANARCH'ISE.--_ns._ AN'ARCHISM, anarchy: the negation of government--the name adopted by a phase of revolutionary socialism associated with the names of Proudhon and Bakunin. Their ideal of society was of one without government of any kind, when every man should be a law unto himself; AN'ARCHIST, AN'ARCH, one who promotes anarchy. [Gr. _a_, _an_, neg., _arch[=e]_, government.]

ANARTHROUS, an-ar'thrus, _adj._ without the article, of Greek nouns: (_entom._) having neither wings nor legs.--_adv._ ANAR'THROUSLY. [Gr. _an_, neg., _arthron_, a joint, the article.]

ANASTATIC, an-a-stat'ik, _adj._ furnished with characters standing up, or raised in relief--esp. of the anastatic printing process, in which copies of drawings are printed from fac-similes produced in relief on zinc plates.

[Gr. _anastatikos_--_ana_, up, _statikos_, causing to stand--_hist[=e]mi_, to make to stand.]

ANASTOMOSIS, an-as-to-m[=o]'sis, _n._ the union or intercommunication of vessels with each other, as seen in the junction of the branches of the arteries.--_v.i._ ANAS'TOMOSE, to communicate in such a way.--_adj._ ANASTOMOT'IC.

ANASTROPHE, an-as'tro-fi, _n._ an inversion of the natural order of words, as 'Loud roared the thunder,' for 'The thunder roared,' &c. [Gr.; _ana_, back, and _streph-ein_, to turn.]

ANATHEMA, an-ath'em-a, _n._ a solemn ecclesiastical curse or denunciation involving excommunication: any person or thing anathematised: generally, any imprecation or expression of execration.--_n._ ANATHEMATIS[=A]'TION--_v.t._ ANATH'EMATISE, to pronounce accursed.--ANATHEMA MARAN[=A]THA, as in 1 Cor. xvi. 22; _maranatha_ (Syr.

_m[=a]ran eth[=a]_, 'our Lord hath come') is properly a mere solemn formula of confirmation, like _Amen_, having no other connection with the antecedent _anathema_--it is so printed in the Revised Version.--It seems to have been used by the early Christians as a kind of watchword of mutual encouragement and hope. So the words in 1 Cor. xvi. 22 are nearly equivalent to the similar expressions in Phil. iv. 5; Rev. xxii. 20. [The classical Gr. _anath[=e]ma_ meant a votive offering set up in a temple, _ana_, up, _tithenai_, to place; the _anath[)e]ma_ of the Septuagint and New Testament meant something specially devoted to evil, as in Rom. ix. 3.]

ANATOMY, an-a'tom-i, _n._ the art of dissecting any organised body: science of the structure of the body learned by dissection: a skeleton, a shrivelled and shrunken body, a mummy: (_fig._) the lifeless form or shadow of anything: humorously for the body generally: the detailed analysis of anything, as in Burton's famous treatise, _The Anatomy of Melancholy_.--_adjs._ ANATOM'IC, -AL, relating to anatomy.--_adv._ ANATOM'ICALLY.--_v.t._ ANAT'OMISE, to dissect a body: (_fig._) to lay open minutely.--_n._ ANAT'OMIST, one skilled in anatomy. [Gr. _ana_, up, asunder, _temnein_, to cut.]

ANATOPISM, an-at'op-izm, _n._ (_rare_--_Coleridge_) a faulty arrangement.

[Gr. _ana_, up, _topos_, a place.]

ANATTA, an-at'ta, _n._ the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds of the _Bixa orellana_, a medium-sized tree growing in Guiana and elsewhere. It yields a dye which gives a bright orange tint to cloth, and is much used to add colour to butter and cheese.--Also ANAT'TO, ANNAT'TO, ARNOT'TO. [Supposed to be a native Amer. word.]

ANBURY, an'b[.e]r-i, _n._ a disease in turnips, produced by one of the slime-fungi, and usually the result of improper cultivation. It is often confounded with _Finger-and-toe_ (_dactylorhiza_), which is rather a degeneration of the plant than a disease, the bulb branching out into a number of taproots, while the skin remains unbroken. Anbury causes a scabbed and broken skin, and tubercular growths on the roots and at the base of the bulb. [Often explained as a disguised form of A.S. _ampre_, a crooked swelling vein; more probably, a variant of _anbury_ = _angberry_, A.S. _ang-_, pain, as in _ang-nail_.]

ANCESTOR, an'ses-tur, _n._ one from whom a person has descended: a forefather:--_fem._ AN'CESTRESS.--_adj._ ANCES'TRAL.--_ns._ AN'CESTOR-WOR'SHIP, the chief element in the religion of China and other countries--erroneously supposed by Herbert Spencer to be the foundation of all religion; AN'CESTRY, a line of ancestors: lineage. [O. Fr.

_ancestre_--L. _antecessor_--_ante_, before, _ced[)e]re_, _cessum_, to go.]


ANCHOR, ang'kor, _n._ an implement for retaining a ship in a particular spot by temporarily chaining it to the bed of a sea or river. The most common form has two flukes, one or other of which enters the ground, and so gives hold; but many modifications are used, some with movable arms, some self-canting.--Anchors are distinguished as the _starboard_ and _port bowers_, _sheet_, _spare_, _stream_, _kedge_, and _grapnel_, or _boat anchors_: (_fig._) anything that gives stability or security.--_v.t._ to fix by an anchor: to fasten.--_v.i._ to cast anchor: to stop, or rest on.--_ns._ ANCH'ORAGE, the act of anchoring: the place where a ship anchors or can anchor: (_Shak._) the anchor and all the necessary tackle for anchoring: a position affording support: (_fig._) anything that gives a resting-place or support to the mind: duty imposed on ships for anchoring; ANCH'OR-HOLD, the hold of an anchor upon the ground: (_fig._) security.--_adj._ ANCH'ORLESS, without such: unstable.--_n._ MUSHROOM-ANCHOR, an anchor with a saucer-shaped head on a central shank, used for mooring.--AT ANCHOR, anchored.--TO CAST ANCHOR, to let down the anchor, to take up a position; TO WEIGH ANCHOR, to take up the anchor so as to be able to sail away. [A.S. _ancor_--L. _ancora_--Gr. _angkyra_, _angkos_, a bend. Conn. with ANGLE.]

ANCHORET, ang'kor-et, ANCHORITE, ang'kor-[=i]t, _n._ one who has withdrawn from the world, especially for religious reasons: a hermit.--The form ANACH'ORET occurs in many books on church history for the recluses of the East in the early history of the church.--_ns._ ANCH'OR (_Shak._), an anchorite--earlier still also an anchoress, as in the book-title _Ancren Riwle_, the 'Rule of Nuns;' ANCH'ORAGE, the retreat of a hermit; ANCH'ORESS, a female anchorite: a nun--also ANC'RESS, ANK'RESS, ANCH'ORITESS.--_adjs._ ANCH'ORETIC, -AL. [Gr.

_anach[=o]r[=e]t[=e]s_--_ana_, apart, _ch[=o]rein_, to go.]

ANCHOVY, an-ch[=o]'vi, _n._ a small fish of the herring family, much fished in the Mediterranean for pickling, and for a sauce made from it, anchovy-paste, &c.--_n._ ANCH[=O]'VY-PEAR, the fruit of a myrtaceous Jamaica tree, pickled and eaten like the East Indian mango, which it much resembles in taste. [Sp. and Port. _anchova_; Fr. _anchois_. Of doubtful etymology. The Basque _anchoa_, _anchua_, has been connected with _antzua_, dry.]

ANCHYLOSIS, ANKYLOSIS, ang-k[=i]-l[=o]'sis, _n._ the coalescence of two bones, or the union of the different parts of a bone: stiffness in a joint through destruction of the articular cartilages, or a thickening and shortening of the natural fibrous tissues around the joint. [Gr.; _angkylos_, crooked.]

ANCIENT, [=a]n'shent, _adj._ old: belonging to former times, specifically, of times prior to the downfall of the western Roman empire (476 A.D.): of great age or duration: of past times in a general sense: venerable: antique, old-fashioned.--_n._ an aged man, a patriarch: a superior in age or dignity.--_adv._ AN'CIENTLY.--_ns._ AN'CIENTNESS; AN'CIENTRY, ancientness, seniority: ancestry: dignity of birth: (_Shak._) old AN'CIENTS, those who lived in remote times, esp. the Greeks and Romans of classical times: (_B._) elders.--THE ANCIENT OF DAYS, a title in the Holy Scriptures for the Almighty, applied by Byron to Athens. [Fr. _ancien_--Low L. _antianus_, old--L. _ante_, before. See ANTIQUE.]

ANCIENT, [=a]n'shent, _n._ (_obs._) a flag or its bearer: an ensign. [Corr.

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