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CIRCUMMURE, s[.e]r-kum-m[=u]r', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to wall round. [L.

_murus_, a wall.]

CIRCUMNAVIGATE, s[.e]r-kum-nav'i-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to sail round.--_adj._ CIRCUMNAV'IGABLE, capable of being circumnavigated.--_ns._ CIRCUMNAVIG[=A]'TION; CIRCUMNAV'IGATOR, one who sails round. [See NAVIGATE.]

CIRCUMNUTATION, s[.e]r-kum-n[=u]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a nodding or turning successively towards all points of the compass, as in the tendrils of plants.--_v.i._ CIRCUMN[=U]'TATE.--_adj._ CIRCUMN[=U]'TATORY. [L. _circum_, about, _nut[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to nod.]

CIRCUMPOLAR, s[.e]r-kum-p[=o]'lar, _adj._ situated round the pole. [See POLAR.]

CIRCUMPOSE, s[.e]r'kum-p[=o]z, _v.t._ to place round.--_n._ CIRCUMPOSI'TION, the act of placing round. [See POSITION.]

CIRCUMSCRIBE, s[.e]r-kum-skr[=i]b', _v.t._ to draw a line round: to enclose within certain limits, to curtail, abridge.--_adj._ CIRCUMSCRIB'ABLE, able to be circumscribed.--_ns._ CIRCUMSCRIB'ER, one who circumscribes; CIRCUMSCRIP'TION, limitation: the line that limits: a circumscribed place.--_adj._ CIRCUMSCRIP'TIVE, marking the external form or outline. [L.

_scrib[)e]re_, to write.]

CIRCUMSPECT, s[.e]r'kum-spekt, _adj._ looking round on all sides watchfully: cautious: prudent.--_n._ CIRCUMSPEC'TION, watchfulness: caution: examining.--_adj._ CIRCUMSPEC'TIVE, looking around: wary.--_adv._ CIR'CUMSPECTLY.--_n._ CIR'CUMSPECTNESS. [L. _spec[)e]re_, _spectum_, to look.]

CIRCUMSTANCE, s[.e]r'kum-stans, _n._ the logical surroundings of an action: an accident or event: ceremony: detail: (_pl._) the state of one's affairs.--_v.t._ to place in particular circumstances:--_pa.p._ CIR'CUMSTANCED.--_adj._ CIRCUMSTAN'TIAL, consisting of details: minute.--_n._ CIRCUMSTANTIAL'ITY, the quality of being circumstantial: minuteness in details: a detail.--_adv._ CIRCUMSTAN' CIRCUMSTAN'TIALS, incidentals: details.--_v.t._ CIRCUMSTAN'TIATE, to prove by circumstances: to describe exactly.--CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE, evidence which is not positive nor direct, but which is gathered inferentially from the circumstances in the case.--IN GOOD or BAD CIRCUMSTANCES, prosperous or unprosperous; IN, UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES, owing to certain conditions. [L.

_stans_, _stantis_, standing--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

CIRCUMVALLATE, s[.e]r-kum'val-[=a]t, _v.t._ to surround with a rampart.--_n._ CIRCUMVALL[=A]'TION, a surrounding with a wall: a wall or fortification surrounding a town or fort. [L. _vallum_, rampart.]

CIRCUMVENT, s[.e]r-kum-vent', _v.t._ to come round or outwit a person: to deceive or cheat.--_n._ CIRCUMVEN'TION.--_adj._ CIRCUMVENT'IVE, deceiving by artifices. [L. _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

CIRCUMVOLVE, s[.e]r-kum-volv', _v.t._ to roll round.--_v.i._ to revolve:--_pr.p._ circumvolv'ing; _pa.p._ circumvolved'.--_n._ CIRCUMVOL[=U]'TION, a turning or rolling round: anything winding or sinuous. [L. _volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

CIRCUS, s[.e]r'kus, _n._ a circular building for the exhibition of games: a place for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship: a group of houses arranged in the form of a circle: applied to nature, as, e.g., high hills surrounding a plain.--_n._ CIRQUE (s[.e]rk), a circus: a ring of some sort.

[L. _circus_; cog. with Gr. _kirkos_.]


CIRRIPEDA, sir-rip'e-da, CIRRIPEDIA, sir-rip-[=e]'di-a, _n._ a degenerate sub-class of Crustacea, including the numerous forms of _Barnacles_ and _Acorn-shells_.--_n._ CIR'RIPED, one of the Cirripeda. [L. _cirrus_, a tuft of hair, and _pes_, a foot.]

CIRRUS, sir'us, _n._ the highest form of clouds consisting of curling fibres: (_bot._) a tendril: (_zool._) any curled filament:--_pl._ CIRRI (sir'[=i]).--_adjs._ CIRR'ATE, CIRR'IFORM, like a cirrus; CIRR'IGRADE, moving by cirri.--_n._ CIRR'O-C[=U]'MULUS, a fleecy cloud intermediate between the cirrus and cumulus.--_adj._ CIRR'OSE, with tendrils.--_n._ CIRR'O-STR[=A]'TUS, a mottled-looking cloud intermediate between the cirrus and stratus.--_adj._ CIRR'OUS, having a cirrus. [L.]

CISALPINE, sis-alp'in, _adj._ on this side--i.e. on the Roman side--of the Alps.--So CISATLAN'TIC; CISLEITH'AN, on this side the Leitha, which separates the archduchy of Austria and Hungary; CISMON'TANE, on this side the mountains--opp. to _Ultramontane_; CIS'PADANE, on this side the Po; CISPON'TINE, on this side of the bridges, viz. in London, north of the Thames. [L. _cis_, on this side.]

CISELURE, s[=e]z'l[=u]r, _n._ the art or operation of chasing, the chasing upon a piece of metal-work.--_n._ CIS'ELEUR, a chaser. [Fr.]

CISSOID, sis'soid, _n._ a plane curve consisting of two infinite branches symmetrically placed with reference to the diameter of a circle, so that at one of its extremities they form a Cusp (q.v.), while the tangent to the circle at the other extremity is their common asymptote. [Gr.


CIST, sist, _n._ a tomb consisting of a stone chest covered with stone slabs.--_adjs._ CIST'ED, containing cists; CIST'IC, like a cist. [See CHEST.]

CISTELLA, sis-tel'a, _n._ the capsular shield of some lichens. [L., dim. of _cista_, a box.]

CISTERCIAN, sis-ter'shan, _n._ one of the order of monks established in 1098 in the forest of Citeaux (_Cistercium_), in France--an offshoot of the Benedictines.

CISTERN, sis't[.e]rn, _n._ any receptacle for holding water or other liquid: a reservoir: in a steam-engine, the vessel surrounding the condenser. [L. _cisterna_, from _cista_, a chest.]

CISTUS, sis'tus, _n._ Rock-rose, a genus of exogenous shrubby plants, cultivated for the beauty of their flowers:--_pl._ CIS'TUSES (-[=e]z) and CIS'TI ('t[=i]). [Low L., from Gr. _kistos_, the rock-rose.]


CIT, sit, _n._ shortened from citizen, and used as a term of contempt:--_fem._ CIT'ESS (_Dryden_). [See CITIZEN.]

CITADEL, sit'a-del, _n._ a fortress in or near a city: the place where the guns are kept in an ironclad man-of-war. [It. _cittadella_, dim. of _citta_, a city. See CITY.]

CITE, s[=i]t, _v.t._ to call or summon: to summon to answer in court: to quote: to name: to adduce as proof.--_adj._ CIT'ABLE, that can be cited.--_ns._ CIT'AL, summons to appear: (_Shak._) accusation, reproof; CIT[=A]'TION, an official summons to appear: the document containing the summons: the act of quoting: the passage or name quoted; CIT[=A]'TOR, one who cites.--_adj._ CIT'[=A]TORY, having to do with citation, addicted to citation. [L. _cit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to call, inten. of _ci[=e]re_, _c[=i]re_, to make to go.]

CITHARA, sith'a-ra, _n._ an ancient musical instrument closely resembling the guitar.--_n._ CITH'ARIST, a player on it.--_adj._ CITHARIST'IC.--_ns._ CITH'ER, CITH'ERN, CIT'TERN, a metal-stringed musical instrument, played with a plectrum. [L.,--Gr. _kithara_. A doublet of GUITAR.]

CITIGRADE, sit'i-gr[=a]d, _adj._ moving quickly: applied to a tribe of spiders of remarkably quick motions. [L. _citus_, quick, _gradus_, a step.]

CITIZEN, sit'i-zen, _n._ an inhabitant of a city: a member of a state: a townsman: a freeman:--_fem._ CIT'IZENESS.--_adj._ (_Shak._) like a citizen.--_v.t._ CIT'IZENISE, to make a citizen of.--_ns._ CIT'IZENRY, the general body of citizens; CIT'IZENSHIP, the rights of a citizen. [M. E.

_citesein_--O. Fr. _citeain_. See CITY.]

CITOLE, sit'[=o]l, _n._ a small dulcimer used in medieval times. [O.

Fr.,--L. _cithara_.]

CITRON, sit'run, _n._ the fruit of the citron-tree, resembling a lemon.--_n._ CIT'RATE, a salt of citric acid.--_adjs._ CIT'REOUS, citrine; CIT'RIC, derived from the citron; CIT'RINE, dark and greenish yellow, like a citron or lemon.--_n._ citrine colour: a rock crystal of this colour.--_ns._ CIT'RON-WOOD, CIT'RUS-WOOD, the most costly furniture-wood of the ancient Romans.--CITRIC ACID, the acid to which lemon and lime juice owe their sourness. [Fr.,--L. _citrus_--Gr. _kitron_, a citron.]

CITTERN. Same as CITHER (q.v. under CITHARA).

CITY, sit'i, _n._ a large town: a town with a CIT'Y-COMMIS'SIONERS, officials who attend to the drainage, &c.--_n._ CIT'Y-MIS'SION, a mission for evangelising the poor classes in the large cities.--_adj._ CIV'IC, pertaining to a city or citizen.--CITY OF GOD, HEAVENLY CITY, &c., the ideal of the Church of Christ in glory; CITY OF REFUGE, by the Jewish law a city where the perpetrator of an accidental murder might flee for refuge.--ETERNAL CITY, Rome; HOLY CITY, Jerusalem.--THE CITY, THE CITY OF LONDON, that part of London where business is principally carried on. [Fr. _cite_, a city--L. _civitas_, the state--_civis_, a citizen.]

CIVE, s[=i]v, _n._ See CHIVE.

CIVET, siv'et, _n._ a perfume obtained from the civet or CIV'ET-CAT, a small carnivorous animal of Africa, India, &c. [Fr. _civette_--Ar.



CIVIL, siv'il, _adj._ pertaining to the community: having the refinement of city-bred people: polite: commercial, not military: lay, secular, or temporal, not ecclesiastical: pertaining to the individual citizen: (_law_) relating to private relations amongst citizens, and such suits as arise out of these, as opposed to _criminal_: (_theol._) naturally good, as opposed to good through regeneration.--_ns._ CIVIL'IAN, a professor or student of civil law (not canon law): one engaged in civil as distinguished from military and other pursuits; CIV'ILIST, one versed in civil law; CIVIL'ITY, good-breeding: politeness.--_adv._ CIV'ILLY.--_adj._ CIV'IL-SUIT'ED (_Milton_), sombrely clad.--_n._ CIV'ISM, good citizenship, state of being well-affected to the government.--CIVIL DEATH, the loss of all civil and legal but not natural privileges, as by outlawry: CIVIL ENGINEER, one who plans rail-ways, docks, &c., as opposed to a military engineer, or to a mechanical engineer, who makes machines, &c.; CIVIL LAW, as opposed to criminal law: the law laid down by a state regarding the rights of the inhabitants; CIVIL LIST, now the expenses of the sovereign's household only; CIVIL LIST PENSIONS, those granted by royal favour; CIVIL SERVICE, the paid service of the state, in so far as it is not military or naval; CIVIL WAR, a war between citizens of the same state. [L.


CIVILISE, siv'il-[=i]z, _v.t._ to reclaim from barbarism: to instruct in arts and refinements.--_adj._ CIV'ILISABLE.--_n._ CIVILIS[=A]'TION, state of being civilised--_p.adj._ CIV'ILISED.--_n._ CIV'ILISER.

CLABBER, klab'[.e]r, _n._ (_Scot._). [Gael. _clabar_, mud.]

CLACHAN, kla'han, _n._ (_Scot._) a small village. [Gael.

_clachan_--_clach_, stone.]


CLACK, klak, _v.i._ to make a sudden sharp noise as by striking: to chatter: to cackle.--_n._ a sharp, sudden sound; sound of voices: an instrument making this kind of noise: (_coll._) the tongue.--_ns._ CLACK'-BOX, the box containing the clack-valve of an engine; CLACK'-DISH (_Shak._), a wooden dish carried by beggars, having a movable cover which they clacked to attract attention; CLACK'ER; CLACK'-VALVE, a valve used in pumps, having a flap or a hinge which lifts up to let the fluid pass, but prevents the fluid from returning by falling back over the aperture. [From the sound.]

CLAD, klad, _pa.t_. and _pa.p._ of CLOTHE.

CLAES, kl[=a]z, Scotch for CLOTHES.

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