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CILICE, sil'is, _n._ hair-cloth: a penitential garment made of hair-cloth.--_adj._ CILIC'IOUS. [L.,--Gr. _kilikion_, a cloth made of Cilician goat's hair.]


CIMBRIC, sim'brik, _adj._ pertaining to the ancient _Cimbri_, a people from central and northern Europe, crushed by Marius, 101 B.C.--Also CIM'BRIAN.

[Sometimes made Celtic by a desperate analogy with the name _Cymry_.]

CIMEX, si-meks', _n._ a bug.--_adjs._ CIMIC'IC, CIMIC'IOUS.--_n._ CIMICIF'UGA, the genus of bugworts or bugbanes, natural order _Ranunculaceae_. [L. _cimex_.]

CIMIER, s[=e]-my[=a]', _n._ the crest of a helmet. [Fr.]

CIMMERIAN, sim-[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ relating to the _Cimmerii_, a tribe fabled to have lived in perpetual darkness: extremely dark.

CIMOLITE, sim'[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ a species of clay, or hydrous silicate of aluminium, used as fuller's earth. [Gr. _kim[=o]lia_, prob. from _Kim[=o]los_, an island of the Cyclades.]

CINCH, sinch, _n._ a saddle-girth.--_v.i._ to tighten the cinch. [Sp.

_cincha_--L. _cingula_.]

CINCHONA, sin-k[=o]'na, _n._ a genus of trees, yielding the bark so much valued in medicine, from which the most important alkaloids, quinine and its congeners, are obtained--also called _Peruvian bark_.--_adjs._ CINCHON[=A]'CEOUS, CINCHON'IC.--_n._ CIN'CHONINE, an alkaloid obtained from the bark of several species of cinchona.--_adj._ CINCHONIN'IC.--_n._ CINCHONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ CIN'CHONISE, to bring under the influence of cinchona or quinine.--_n._ CIN'CHONISM, a morbid state due to overdoses of cinchona or quinine. [Said to be so named from the Countess of _Chinchon_, who was cured of a fever by it in 1638.]

CINCTURE, singk't[=u]r, _n._ a girdle or belt: a moulding round a column.--_v.t._ to gird, encompass.--_adjs._ CINCT, surrounded; CINC'TURED, having a cincture. [L. _cinctura_--_cing[)e]re_, _cinctum_, to gird.]

CINDER, sin'd[.e]r, _n._ the refuse of burned coals: anything charred by fire: (_slang_) some strong stimulant put in tea, soda-water, &c.--_ns._ CINDEREL'LA, a scullery-maid; CINDEREL'LA-DANCE, an early dancing-party ending at midnight--from the nursery tale.--_adj._ CIN'DERY. [A.S.

_sinder_, scoriae, slag.]


CINENCHYMA, si-neng'ki-ma, _n._ laticiferous tissue, consisting of irregularly branching and anastomosing vessels.--_adj._ CINENCHYM'ATOUS.

[Gr. _kinein_, to move, _engchyma_, infusion.]

CINERARIA, sin-e-r[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of plants, with flowers of various colours, chiefly belonging to South Africa, but also grown in greenhouses in Britain and elsewhere. [L. _cinerarius_--_cinis_, _cineris_, ashes.]

CINERARY, sin'e-ra-ri, _adj._ pertaining to ashes.--_ns._ CINER[=A]'TION; CINER[=A]T'OR; CIN[=E]'REA, gray or cellular, as distinguished from white or fibrous, nerve tissue.--_adjs._ CIN[=E]'REAL; CIN[=E]'REOUS, ashy-gray; CINERES'CENT, becoming ashy-gray; CINERI'TIOUS, ashy-gray: pertaining to gray nerve tissue. [L. _cinereus_, ashy--_cinis_, _cineris_, ashes.]

CINGALESE, sing'ga-l[=e]z, _n._ a native of Ceylon.--_adj._ belonging to Ceylon.

CINGULUM, sing'g[=u]-lum, _n._ the girdle of an alb. [L.--_cing[)e]re_, to gird.]

CINNABAR, sin'a-bar, _n._ sulphuret of mercury, called vermilion when used as a pigment.--_adj._ vermilion-coloured.--_adjs._ CINNABAR'IC, CINN'ABARINE. [L.,--Gr. _kinnabari_, a dye, from Persian.]

CINNAMON, sin'a-mon, _n._ the spicy bark of a laurel in Ceylon: the tree.--_adj._ cinnamon-coloured.--_adjs._ CINNAM'IC, CINNAMON'IC, obtained from, or consisting of, cinnamon.--_n._ CINN'AMON-STONE, a kind of stone found in Ceylon, of a cinnamon or reddish-brown colour, sometimes cut for jewellery. [L. _cinnamomum_--Heb. _kinnamon_.]


CINQUE, singk, _n._ the number five as on dice.--_ns._ CINQUE'-CEN'TO (It., 'five hundred'), a phrase sometimes applied, in treating of architecture and art, to the Renaissance period, which began about 1500; CINQUE'-FOIL (_her._), a common bearing representing a flower with five petals borne full-faced and without a stalk: (_bot._) species of plants of the genus _Potentilla_: the five-bladed clover; CINQUE'-PACE (_Shak._), a kind of dance, the pace or movement of which is characterised by five CINQUE'-PORTS, the five ancient ports on the south of England lying opposite to France--Sandwich, Dover, Hythe, Romney, and Hastings.--_adj._ CINQUE'-SPOT'TED (_Shak._), having five spots. [Fr.]

CIPHER, s[=i]'f[.e]r, _n._ (_arith._) the character 0: any of the nine figures: anything of little value, whether persons or things: a nonentity: an interweaving of the initials of a name: a secret kind of writing.--_v.i._ to work at arithmetic: to write in cipher: of an organ-pipe, to sound independent of the organ: (_Shak._) to decipher.--_ns._ C[=I]'PHERING; C[=I]'PHER-KEY, a key to a cipher or piece of secret writing. [O. Fr. _cifre_, Fr. _chiffre_--Ar. _sifr_, empty.]

CIPOLIN, sip'[=o]-lin, _n._ a granular limestone containing mica.--Also CIPOLLINO (ch[=e]-pol-l[=e]'n[=o]). [It.,--_cipolla_, an onion.]

CIPPUS, sip'us, _n._ the stocks: a monumental pillar. [L. _cippus_, a post.]

CIRCA, sir'ka, _prep._ and _adv._ about, around. [L.]

CIRCASSIAN, s[.e]r-kash'yan, _adj._ belonging to _Circassia_, a district of Russia, on the north of Mount Caucasus: a kind of light cashmere of silk and mohair--generally CIRCASSIENNE' (Fr. _fem._).

CIRCEAN, s[.e]r-s[=e]'an, _adj._ relating to the beautiful sorceress _Circe_, who transformed the companions of Ulysses into swine by a magic beverage: infatuating and degrading.--Also CIRCae'AN.

CIRCENSIAN, sir-sen'shi-an, _adj._ relating to the CIRCUS Maximus in Rome, where the games and contests were held.--Also CIRCEN'SIAL (_obs._). [L.


CIRCLE, s[.e]r'kl, _n._ a plane figure bounded by one line every point of which is equally distant from a certain point called the centre: the line which bounds the figure: a ring: a planet's orbit: a series ending where it began: a figure in magic; a company surrounding the principal person: those of a certain class or society.--_v.t._ to move round: to encompass.--_v.i._ to move in a circle: to stand in a circle.--_adjs._ CIR'CINATE; CIR'CLED, circular: encircled.--_ns._ CIR'CLER; CIR'CLET; CIR'CLING, motion in a circle: a revolution.--DRESS' CIR'CLE (see DRESS); FAIR'Y-CIR'CLE, -RING (see FAIRY).--REASONING IN A CIRCLE, assuming what is to be proved as the basis of the argument. [A.S. _circul_--L. _circulus_, dim. of _circus_; allied to A.S. _hring_, a ring.]

CIRCUIT, s[.e]r'kit, _n._ the act of moving round: area, extent: a round made in the exercise of a calling, esp. the round made by the judges for holding the courts of law: the judges making the round: (_Shak._) diadem.--_v.t._ to go round.--_n._ CIRCUITEER', a judge: one who goes on a circuit.--_adj._ CIRC[=U]'ITOUS, round about.--_adv._ CIRC[=U]'ITOUSLY.--_n._ CIRC[=U]'ITY, motion in a circle: an indirect course.--MAKE A CIRCUIT, to go round. [Fr.,--L. _circuitus_--_circu[=i]re_, _circum_, round, _[=i]re_, to go.]

CIRCULAR, s[.e]r'k[=u]-lar, _adj._ round: ending in itself: addressed to a circle of persons.--_n._ a note sent round to a circle or number of persons.--_n._ CIRCULAR'ITY.--_adv._ CIR'CULARLY.--CIRCULAR NOTES, bank-notes issued for the convenience of travellers, being a kind of bill personal to the bearer, who is given also a corresponding 'letter of indication' addressed to foreign bankers.

CIRCULATE, s[.e]r'k[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to make to go round as in a circle: to spread: to repeat (of decimals).--_v.i._ to move round: to be spread about.--_adj._ CIR'CULABLE, capable of being circulated.--_ns._ CIR'CULANT; CIRCUL[=A]'TION, the act of moving in a circle: the movement of the blood: the sale of a periodical: the publication of a report or of a book: the money in use at any time in a country.--_adjs._ CIR'CULATIVE, CIR'CULATORY, circulating.--_n._ CIR'CULATOR.--CIRCULATING LIBRARY, one where books are circulated among subscribers. [L. _circul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

CIRCUMAMBAGES, s[.e]r-kum-am'baj-ez, roundabout ways of speech.--_adj._ CIRCUMAMB[=A]'GIOUS, roundabout in speech.--_ns._ CIRCUMAM'BIENCE, CIRCUMAM'BIENCY.--_adj._ CIRCUMAM'BIENT, going round about.--_n._ CIRCUMBEN'DIBUS, a roundabout method or course: a circumlocution. [L. _circum_, about, _amb[=i]re_, to go round.]

CIRCUMAMBULATE, s[.e]r-kum-am'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.i._ to walk round about.--_n._ CIRCUMAMBUL[=A]'TION. [L. _ambul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to walk.]

CIRCUMCISE, s[.e]r'kum-s[=i]z, _v.t._ to cut off the foreskin according to the Jewish law: (_fig._) to purify.--_p.adj._ CIR'CUMCISED, that has undergone circumcision: purified, chastened.--_ns._ CIR'CUMCISER, one who circumcises; CIRCUMCI'SION, the act of circumcising. [L. _circumcid[)e]re_, _circumcisum_--_caed[)e]re_, to cut.]

CIRCUMDENUDATION, s[.e]r-kum-de-n[=u]d-[=a]'shun, _n._ (_geol._) denudation or erosion round an elevated tract left isolated.

CIRCUMDUCT, s[.e]r'kum-dukt, _v.t._ to lead around or about, to revolve round an imaginary axis so as to describe a cone: (_Scots law_) to close a case to further proof.--_n._ CIRCUMDUC'TION.--_adj._ CIRCUMDUCT'ORY. [L.

_circum_, about, _duc[)e]re_, _ductum_, to lead.]

CIRCUMFERENCE, s[.e]r-kum'f[.e]r-ens, _n._ the boundary-line of any round body, esp. of a circle: the line surrounding anything: area: compass: distance round.--_adj._ CIRCUMFEREN'TIAL--_n._ CIRCUMFERENT'OR, an instrument used by surveyors and miners for measuring horizontal angles, consisting of a graduated circle, an index, and a magnetic needle suspended over the centre of a circle--now superseded by the _Theodolite_. [L.

_circum_, about, _ferre_, to carry.]

CIRCUMFLECT, s[.e]r'kum-flekt, _v.t._ to mark with a circumflex.--_ns._ CIR'CUMFLEX, an accent (^) denoting a rising and falling of the voice on a vowel or syllable; CIRCUMFLEX'ION, a bending round. [L. _flect[)e]re_, _flexum_, to bend.]

CIRCUMFLUENCE, s[.e]r-kum'fl[=oo]-ens, _n._ a flowing round.--_adj._ CIRCUM'FLUENT, flowing round. [L. _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]

CIRCUMFORANEOUS, s[.e]r-kum-f[=o]-r[=a]'ne-us, _adj._ wandering about as from market to market, vagrant.--Also CIRCUMFORA'NEAN. [L., _circum_, about, _forum_, the forum, market-place.]

CIRCUMFUSE, s[.e]r-kum-f[=u]z', _v.t._ to pour around.--_p.adj._ CIRCUMFUSED'.--_adj._ CIRCUMFUS'ILE, molten.--_n._ CIRCUMF[=U]'SION. [L.

_fund[)e]re_, _fusum_, to pour.]

CIRCUMGYRATE, s[.e]r-kum-j[=i]'r[=a]t, _v.i._ to go round and round.--_n._ CIRCUMGYR[=A]'TION.--_adj._ CIRCUMGY'RATORY. [L. _gyr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to turn.]

CIRCUMJACENT, s[.e]r-kum-j[=a]'sent, _adj._ lying round: bordering on every side.--_n._ CIRCUMJA'CENCY. [L. _jacens_, lying--_jac[=e]re_, to lie.]

CIRCUMLITTORAL, s[.e]r-kum-lit'[=o]-ral, _adj._ adjacent to the shore-line.

[L. _circum_, about, _litus_, _litoris_, the shore.]

CIRCUMLOCUTION, s[.e]r-kum-l[=o]-k[=u]'shun, _n._ roundabout speaking: a manner of expression in which many unnecessary words are used.--_v.i._ CIR'CUMLOCUTE, to use circumlocution.--_n._ CIRCUMLOC[=U]'TIONIST, one who practises circumlocution.--_adj._ CIRCUMLOC'UTORY.--CIRCUMLOCUTION OFFICE, a name given by Dickens in _Little Dorrit_ to the government offices, owing to their dilatoriness in attending to business. [L. _loqui_, _locutus_, to speak.]

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