4:17. In this is the charity of God perfected with us, that we may have confidence in the day of judgment: because as he is, we also are in this world.
4:18. Fear is not in charity: but perfect charity casteth out fear, because fear hath sin. And he that feareth is not perfected in charity.
Fear is not in charity, etc... Perfect charity, or love, banisheth human fear, that is, the fear of men; as also all perplexing fear, which makes men mistrust or despair of God's mercy; and that kind of servile fear, which makes them fear the punishment of sin more than the offence offered to God. But it no way excludes the wholesome fear of God's judgments, so often recomended in holy writ; nor that fear and trembling, with which we are told to work out our salvation. Phil. 2.12.
4:19. Let us therefore love God: because God first hath loved us.
4:20. If any man say: I love God, and hateth his brother; he is a liar.
For he that loveth not his brother whom he seeth, how can he love God whom he seeth not?
4:21. And this commandment we have from God, that he who loveth God love also his brother.
1 John Chapter 5
Of them that are born of God, and of true charity. Faith overcomes the world. Three that bear witness to Christ. Of faith in his name and of sin that is and is not to death.
5:1. Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God. And every one that loveth him who begot, loveth him also who is born of him.
Is born of God... That is, is justified, and become a child of God by baptism: which is also to be understood; provided the belief of this fundamental article of the Christian faith be accompanied with all the other conditions, which, by the word of God, and his appointment, are also required to justification; such as a general belief of all that God has revealed and promised: hope, love, repentance, and a sincere disposition to keep God's holy law and commandments.
5:2. In this we know that we love the children of God: when we love God and keep his commandments.
5:3. For this is the charity of God: That we keep his commandments. And his commandments are not heavy.
5:4. For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world. And this is the victory which overcameth the world: Our faith.
Our faith... Not a bare, speculative, or dead faith; but a faith that worketh by charity. Gal. 5.6
5:5. Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?
5:6. This is he that came by water and blood, Jesus Christ: not by water only but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit which testifieth that Christ is the truth.
Came by water and blood... Not only to wash away our sins by the water of baptism, but by his own blood.
5:7. And there are Three who give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost. And these three are one.
5:8. And there are three that give testimony on earth: the spirit and the water and the blood. And these three are one.
The spirit, and the water, and the blood... As the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, all bear witness to Christ's divinity; so the spirit, which he yielded up, crying out with a loud voice upon the cross; and the water and blood that issued from his side, bear witness to his humanity, and are one; that is, all agree in one testimony.
5:9. If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater. For this is the testimony of God, which is greater, because he hath testified of his Son.
5:10. He that believeth in the Son of God hath the testimony of God in himself. He that believeth not the Son maketh him a liar: because he believeth not in the testimony which God hath testified of his Son.
He that believeth not the Son, etc... By refusing to believe the testimonies given by the three divine persons, that Jesus was the Messias, and the true Son of God, by whom eternal life is obtained and promised to all that comply with his doctrine. In him we have also this lively confidence, that we shall obtain whatever we ask, according to his will, when we ask what is for our good, with perseverance, and in the manner we ought. And this we know, and have experience of, by having obtained the petitions that we have made.
5:11. And this is the testimony that God hath given to us eternal life.
And this life is in his Son.
5:12. He that hath the Son hath life. He that hath not the Son hath not life.
5:13. These things I write to you that you may know that you have eternal life: you who believe in the name of the Son of God.
5:14. And this is the confidence which we have towards him: That, whatsoever we shall ask according to his will, he heareth us.
5:15. And we know that he heareth us whatsoever we ask: we know that we have the petitions which we request of him.
5:16. He that knoweth his brother to sin a sin which is not to death, let him ask: and life shall be given to him who sinneth not to death.
There is a sin unto death. For that I say not that any man ask.
A sin which is not to death, etc... It is hard to determine what St.
John here calls a sin which is not to death, and a sin which is unto death. The difference can not be the same as betwixt sins that are called venial and mortal: for he says, that if a man pray for his brother, who commits a sin that is not to death, life shall be given him: therefore such a one had before lost the life of grace, and been guilty of what is commonly called a mortal sin. And when he speaks of a sin that is unto death, and adds these words, for that I say not that any man ask, it cannot be supposed that St. John would say this of every mortal sin, but only of some heinous sins, which are very seldom remitted, because such sinners very seldom repent. By a sin therefore which is unto death, interpreters commonly understand a wilfull apostasy from the faith, and from the known truth, when a sinner, hardened by his own ingratitude, becomes deaf to all admonitions, will do nothing for himself, but runs on to a final impenitence. Nor yet does St. John say, that such a sin is never remitted, or cannnot be remitted, but only has these words, for that I say not that any man ask the remission: that is, though we must pray for all sinners whatsoever, yet men can not pray for such sinners with such a confidence of obtaining always their petitions, as St. John said before, ver. 14. Whatever exposition we follow on this verse, our faith teacheth us from the holy scriptures, that God desires not the death of any sinner, but that he be converted and live, Ezech. 33.11. Though men's sins be as red as scarlet, they shall become as white as snow, Isa. 3.18. It is the will of God that every one come to the knowledge of the truth, and be saved. There is no sin so great but which God is willing to forgive, and has left a power in his church to remit the most enormous sins: so that no sinner need despair of pardon, nor will any sinner perist, but by his own fault. A sin unto death... Some understand this of final impenitence, or of dying in mortal sin; which is the only sin that never can be remitted. But, it is probable, he may also comprise under this name, the sin of apostasy from the faith, and some other such heinous sins as are seldom and hardly remitted: and therefore he gives little encouragement, to such as pray for these sinners, to expect what they ask.
5:17. All iniquity is sin. And there is a sin unto death.
5:18. We know that whosoever is born of God sinneth not: but the generation of God preserveth him and the wicked one toucheth him not.
5:19. We know that we are of God and the whole world is seated in wickedness.
And the whole world is seated in wickedness... That is, a great part of the world. It may also signify, is under the wicked one, meaning the devil, who is elsewhere called the prince of this world, that is, of all the wicked. John 12.31.
5:20. And we know that the Son of God is come. And he hath given us understanding that we may know the true God and may be in his true Son.
This is the true God and life eternal.
And may be in his true Son. He is, or this is the true God, and life eternal... Which words are a clear proof of Christ's divinity, and as such made use of by the ancient fathers.
5:21. Little children, keep yourselves from idols. Amen.
Keep yourselves from idols... An admonition to the newly converted Christians, lest conversing with heathens and idolaters, they might fall back into the sin of idolatry, which may be the sin unto death here mentioned by St. John.
THE SECOND EPISTLE OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE
The Apostle commends Electa and her family for their steadfastness in the true faith and exhorts them to persevere, lest they lose the reward of their labours. He exhorts them to love one another. But with heretics to have no society, even not to salute them. Although this Epistle is written to a particular person, yet its instructions may serve as a lesson to others, especially to those who, from their connections, situation, or condition in life, are in danger of perversion.
2 John Chapter 1
He recommends walking in truth, loving one another and to beware of false teachers.
1:1. The Ancient to the lady Elect and her children, whom I love in the truth: and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth,
The ancient... That is, the ancient bishop St. John, being the only one of the twelve apostles then living. To the lady Elect... Some conjecture that Electa might be the name of a family, or of a particular church; but the general opinion is, that it is the proper name of a lady, so eminent for her piety and great charity, as to merit this Epistle from St. John.
1:2. For the sake of the truth which dwelleth in us and shall be with us for ever.