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PARANTHELION, par-an-th[=e]'li-on, _n._ a diffuse whitish image of the sun, having the same altitude, at an angular distance of about 120--due to reflection from atmospheric ice-prisms. [Gr. _para_, beside, _anti_, against, _h[=e]lios_, the sun.]

PARANUCLEUS, par-a-n[=u]'kl[=e]-us, _n._ (_biol._) an accessory nucleus in some protozoans.--_adjs._ PARAN[=U]'CLEAR, PARAN[=U]'CLEATE.--_n._ PARAN[=U]CL[=E]'OLUS, a mass of substance extruded from the nucleus, in pollen and spore mother-cells before division.

PARANYMPH, par'a-nimf, _n._ a friend of the bridegroom who escorted the bride on the way to her marriage: a bride's-man: one who countenances and supports another. [Gr. _para_, beside, _nymph[=e]_, a bride.]

PARAPEPTONE, par-a-pep't[=o]n, _n._ a proteid compound formed in gastric digestion, acid albumen.

PARAPET, par'a-pet, _n._ a rampart breast-high, to protect soldiers on a wall from the fire of an enemy: a breast-high wall on a bridge, house-roof, a platform, &c., to prevent persons from falling over.--_adj._ PAR'APETED, having a parapet. [Fr.,--It. _parapetto_--It. _parare_, to adorn--L.

_par[=a]re_, to prepare, It. _petto_--L. _pectus_, the breast.]

PARAPH, par'af, _n._ a mark or flourish under one's signature.--_v.t._ to append a paraph to, to sign with initials. [_Paragraph._]

PARAPHASIA, par-a-f[=a]'zi-a, _n._ a form of aphasia in which one word is substituted for another.

PARAPHERNALIA, par-a-f[.e]r-n[=a]l'i-a, ornaments of dress of any kind: trappings: that which a bride brings over and above her dowry: the clothes, jewels, &c. which a wife possesses beyond her dowry in her own right. [Late L. _parapherna_--Gr., from _para_, beyond, _phern[=e]_, a dowry--_pherein_, to bring.]

PARAPHIMOSIS, par-a-f[=i]-m[=o]'sis, _n._ strangulation of the glans penis by constriction of the prepuce.

PARAPHONIA, par-a-f[=o]'ni-a, _n._ in Byzantine music, a melodic progression by consonances (fourths and fifths): an abnormal condition of the voice: an alteration of the voice, as at puberty. [Gr. _para_, beside, _ph[=o]n[=e]_, the voice.]

PARAPHRAGM, par'a-fram, _n._ a kind of lateral diaphragm in Crustacea.--_adj._ PARAPHRAG'MAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _phrassein_, to fence.]

PARAPHRASE, par'a-fr[=a]z, _n._ a saying of the same thing in other words, often more fully and more clearly: an explanation of a passage: a loose or free translation: (_Scot._) one of a certain number of Scripture passages turned into verse for use in the service of praise.--_v.t._ to say the same thing in other words: to render more fully: to interpret or translate freely.--_v.i._ to make a paraphrase.--_n._ PAR'APHRAST, one who paraphrases.--_adjs._ PARAPHRAST'IC, -AL, of the nature of a paraphrase: more clear and ample than the original passage: free, loose, diffuse.--_adv._ PARAPHRAST'ICALLY.--PARAPHRASTIC CONJUGATION, one composed of the verb _sum_ (am) with participial forms of the verbs conjugated (_amaturus sum_, &c.). [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _paraphrasis_--_para_, beside, _phrasis_, a speaking--_phrazein_, to speak.]

PARAPHYLLUM, par-a-fil'um, _n._ (_bot._) a small foliaceous organ between the leaves of some mosses. [Gr. _para_, beside, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

PARAPHYSIS, pa-raf'i-sis, _n._ an erect sterile filament accompanying the sexual organs of some cryptogamous plants:--_pl._ PARAPH'YS[=E]S.

PARAPLEGIA, par-a-pl[=e]'ji-a, _n._ a form of spinal paralysis in which voluntary motion and sensation are interrupted below the level of the affected part of the spinal cord, while reflex movements may be preserved and certain forms even increased.--_adjs._ PARAPLEC'TIC, PARAPL[=E]'GIC.

[Gr. _para_, beside, _pl[=e]ssein_, to strike.]

PARAPLEURUM, par-a-pl[=oo]'rum, _n._ one of the pleura or sternal side-pieces in a beetle, &c.--Also PARAPLEU'RON. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pleuron_, side.]

PARAPODIUM, par-a-p[=o]'di-um, _n._ one of the jointless lateral appendages of an annelid:--_pl._ PARAP[=O]'DIA. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

PARAPOPHYSIS, par-a-pof'i-sis, _n._ the inferior or anterior process on the side of a vertebra--the superior or posterior one being a _diapophysis_.--_adj._ PARAPOPHYS'IAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _apophysis_, an offshoot.]

PARAPSIS, pa-rap'sis, _n._ (_entom._) one of the two lateral parts of the mesoscutum of the thorax.--_adj._ PARAP'SIDAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _hapsis_, a loop.]

PARAPSIS, pa-rap'sis, _n._ a disordered sense of touch.--Also PAR[=A]'PHIA.

[Gr. _para_, beside, _hapsis_, a touching.]

PARAPTERUM, pa-rap'te-rum, _n._ (_entom._) the third sclerite of each pleuron, or lateral segment of each thoracic somite--the first and second, the _episternum_, and the _epimeron_: in birds, the scapular and adjoining feathers of the wing.--_adj._ PARAP'TERAL. [Gr. _para_, beside, _pteron_, a wing.]

PARAQUITO, par-a-k[=e]'to, _n._ Same as PAROQUET, PARRAKEET.

PARARCTALIA, par-ark-t[=a]'li-a, _n._ the northern temperate realm of the waters of the globe.--_adj._ PARARCT[=A]'LIAN.

PARARTHRIA, pa-rar'thri-a, _n._ disordered articulation of speech. [Gr.

_para_, beside, _arthron_, a joint.]

PARASANG, par'a-sang, _n._ a Persian measure of length, containing 30 stadia, equal to about 3 miles. [Gr. _parasang[=e]s_--Pers. _farsang_.]

PARASCENIUM, par-a-s[=e]'ni-um, _n._ in the Greek theatre, one of the wings on either side of the proscenium:--_pl._ PARASC[=E]'NIA. [Gr.]

PARASCEVE, par'a-s[=e]v, _n._ the eve before the Jewish Sabbath when the preparations are made: sometimes applied to Good-Friday: (_obs._) preparation.--_adj._ PARASCENAS'TIC. [Gr. _paraskeu[=e]_, preparation--_para_, beside, _skeu[=e]_, equipment.]

PARASCHEMATIC, par-a-sk[=e]-mat'ik, _adj._ imitative. [Gr. _para_, beside, _sch[=e]ma_, a scheme.]

PARASELENE, par-a-se-l[=e]'n[=e], _n._ a mock moon, seen in connection with a lunar rainbow (cf. _Parahelion_):--_pl._ PARASEL[=E]'Nae.--_adj._ PARASELEN'IC. [Gr. _para_, beside, _sel[=e]n[=e]_, the moon.]

PARASITE, par'a-s[=i]t, _n._ one who frequents another's table: a hanger-on: a sycophant: (_bot._) a plant growing upon and nourished by the juices of another: (_zool._) an animal which lives on another--its host.--_adjs._ PARASIT'IC, -AL, like a parasite: fawning: acting as a sycophant: living on other plants or animals.--_adv._ PARASIT'ICALLY.--_ns._ PARASIT'ICALNESS; PARASIT'ICIDE, that which destroys parasites; PAR'ASITISM; PARASITOL'OGIST; PARASITOL'OGY. [Fr.,--L.

_paras[=i]tus_--Gr. _parasitos_--_para_, beside, _sitos_, corn.]

PARASOL, par'a-sol, _n._ a small umbrella used by women as a shade from the sun.--_v.t._ to shelter from the sun. [Fr.,--It. _parasole_--_parare_, to keep off--L. _par[=a]re_, to prepare, _sol_, _solis_, the sun.]

PARASPHENOID, par-a-sf[=e]'noid, _n._ a bone which in some Vertebrata underlies the base of the skull from the basi-occipital to the presphenoidal region.--_adj._ lying under or alongside the sphenoid.

PARASYNTHESIS, par-a-sin'the-sis, _n._ the principle of forming words by a combined process of derivation and composition with a particle.--_adj._ PARASYNTHET'IC.--_n._ PARASYN'THETON, a word so formed:--_pl._ PARASYN'THETA.

PARATAXIS, par-a-tak'sis, _n._ (_gram._) the arrangement of clauses or propositions without connectives. [Gr.]

PARATHESIS, pa-rath'e-sis, _n._ (_gram._) apposition: (_philol._) the setting side by side of things of equivalent grade in the monosyllabic or isolating languages: (_rhet._) a parenthetic notice of something to be afterwards explained: in the Eastern Church, a prayer of the bishop over converts or catechumens. [Gr.]

PARATONIC, par-a-ton'ik, _adj._ retarding a plant's growth. [Gr. _para_, beside, _teinein_, to stretch.]

PARAVAIL, par'a-v[=a]l, _adj._ inferior: lowest, said of a feudal tenant: of least account--opp. to _Paramount_. [O. Fr. _par aval_, below--L. _per_, through, _ad_, to, _vallem_, a valley.]

PARAVANT, PARAVAUNT, par'a-vant, _adv._ (_Spens._) in front, first, beforehand. [O. Fr. _paravant_--_par_, through, _avant_, before--L. _ab_, from, _ante_, before.]

PARBAKE, par'b[=a]k, _v.t._ to bake partially. [Formed on analogy of _parboil_.]

PARBOIL, par'boil, _v.t._ to boil slightly or in part--as if from _part_ and _boil_.

PARBREAK, par'br[=a]k, _v.t._ or _v.i._ (_Spens._) to throw out, to vomit.--_n._ (_Spens._) vomit. [Fr. _par_--L. _per_, through, and _break_.]


PARBUCKLE, par'buk'l, _n._ a purchase made by looping a rope in the middle to aid in rolling casks up or down an incline, or in furling a sail by rolling the yards: a sling made by passing both ends of a rope through its bight.--_v.t._ to hoist or lower by a parbuckle:--_pr.p._ par'buckling; _pa.p._ par'buckled. [Prob. L. _par_, equal, and _buckle_.]

PARCae, par's[=e], the Fates.

PARCEL, par'sel, _n._ a little part: a portion: a quantity, as of single articles: a number forming a group or a lot: a package.--_v.t._ to divide into portions:--_pr.p._ par'celling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ par'celled.--_n._ PAR'CEL-BAWD (_Shak._), one partly a bawd.--_adjs._ PAR'CEL-BEARD'ED (_Tenn._), partially bearded; PAR'CEL-GILT, partially gilded.--_n._ PAR'CEL-OFF'ICE, a place where parcels are received for despatch and delivery.--PARCELS POST, that department of the post-office which takes charge of the forwarding and delivery of small parcels. [Fr. _parcelle_ (It. _particella_)--L. _particula_, dim. of _pars_, _partis_, a part.]

PARCENARY, par'se-n[=a]-ri, _n._ co-heirship.--_n._ PAR'CENER, a co-heir.

PARCH, parch, _v.t._ to burn slightly: to scorch.--_v.i._ to be scorched: to become very dry.--_adj._ PARCHED, scorched.--_adv._ PARCH'EDLY.--_n._ PARCH'EDNESS. [M. E. _parchen_, either a variety of _per(s)chen_=_peris(c)hen_, to kill, or from _perchen_, to pierce.]

PARCHMENT, parch'ment, _n._ the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing on.--PARCHMENT PAPER, or VEGETABLE PARCHMENT (see PAPER).--VIRGIN PARCHMENT, a fine kind of parchment made from the skins of new-born lambs or kids. [Fr. _parchemin_--L. _pergamena_ (_charta_, paper)--from Gr.

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