_floi_, a marsh--_floa_, to flood.]
FLOWER, flow'[.e]r, _n._ a growth comprising the reproductive organs of plants: the blossom of a plant: the best of anything: the prime of life: the person or thing most distinguished: a figure of speech: ornament of style: (_pl._) menstrual discharge (_B._).--_v.t._ to adorn with figures of flowers.--_v.i._ to blossom: to flourish.--_ns._ FLOW'ERAGE, a gathering of flowers; FLOW'ER-BELL, a blossom shaped like a bell; FLOW'ER-BUD, a bud with the unopened flower; FLOW'ER-CLOCK, a collection of flowers so arranged that the time of day is indicated by their times of opening and closing; FLOW'ER-DE-LUCE, the old name for the common species of iris (q.v.), or for the heraldic emblem conventionalised therefrom (see FLEUR-DE-LIS); FLOW'ERET, a little flower: a floret; FLOW'ER-HEAD, a compound flower in which all the florets are sessile on the receptacle; FLOW'ERINESS; FLOW'ERING-RUSH, a monocotyledonous plant usually reckoned under the order _Alismaceae_, with large linear three-edged leaves and an umbel of rose-coloured flowers.--_adjs._ FLOW'ER-KIR'TLED, FLOW'ERY-KIR'TLED (_Milt._), dressed in robes or garlands of flowers; FLOW'ERLESS (_bot._) having no flowers.--_ns._ FLOW'ER-POT, a utensil in culture whereby plants are rendered portable;, FLOW'ER-SERV'ICE, a church service where offerings of flowers are made, to be afterwards sent to hospitals; FLOW'ER-SHOW, an exhibition of flowers; FLOW'ER-STALK, the stem that supports the flower.--_adj._ FLOW'ERY, full of, or adorned with, flowers: highly embellished, florid.--FLOWER OF JOVE, a caryophyllaceous plant, with heads of purple or scarlet flowers, and leaves silky-white with hairs. [O. Fr. _flour_ (Fr. _fleur_)--L. _flos_, _floris_, a flower.]
FLOWN, fl[=o]n, _pa.p._ of _fly_.
FLOWN, fl[=o]n, _adj._ inflated, flushed: (_Milt._) overflown.
FLUATE, fl[=oo]'[=a]t, _n._ Same as FLUORIDE.
FLUCTUATE, fluk't[=u]-[=a]t, _v.i._ to float backward and forward: to roll hither and thither: to be irresolute.--_v.t._ to cause to move hither and thither.--_adjs._ FLUC'TUANT; FLUC'TU[=A]TING.--_ns._ FLUCTU[=A]'TION, a rising and falling like a wave: motion hither and thither: agitation: unsteadiness; FLUCTUOS'ITY.--_adj._ FLUC'TUOUS. [L. _fluctu[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_fluctus_, a wave--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLUE, fl[=oo], _n._ a smoke-pipe or small chimney. [Prob. related to _flue_, to expand, splay out.]
FLUE, fl[=oo], _n._ light down: soft down or fur.--_adj._ FLU'EY. [Ety.
unknown; conn. with _fluff_.]
FLUE, fl[=oo], _adj._ (_prov._) shallow, flat.--Also FLEW.
FLUENT, fl[=oo]'ent, _adj._ ready in the use of words: voluble: marked by copiousness.--_n._ the variable quantity in fluxions.--_ns._ FLU'ENCE (_Milt._), FLU'ENCY, FLU'ENTNESS, readiness or rapidity of utterance: volubility.--_adv._ FLU'ENTLY. [L. _fluens_, _fluentis_, pr.p. of _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLUFF, fluf, _n._ a soft down from cotton, &c.: anything downy.--_n._ FLUFF'INESS.--_adj._ FLUFF'Y. [Perh. conn. with _flue_, light down.]
FLUGELMAN, fl[=oo]'gl-man', _n._ Same as FUGLEMAN.--_n._ FLu'GEL-HORN, a hunting-horn, a kind of keyed bugle.
FLUID, fl[=oo]'id, _adj._ that flows, as water: liquid or gaseous.--_n._ a substance in which the particles can move about with greater or less freedom from one part of the body to another.--_adjs._ FLU'IDAL; FLUID'IC; FLUID'IFORM.--_vs.t._ FLUID'IFY, FLU'IDISE, to make fluid.--_ns._ FLU'IDISM; FLUID'ITY, FLU'IDNESS, a liquid or gaseous state.--_adv._ FLU'IDLY. [Fr.,--L. _fluidus_, fluid--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ a flounder: a parasitic trematoid worm which causes the liver-rot in sheep, so called because like a miniature flounder: a variety of kidney potato. [A.S. _floc_, a plaice; cf. Ice. _floke_.]
FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ the part of an anchor which fastens in the ground.--_adj._ FLUK'Y. [Prob. a transferred use of the foregoing.]
FLUKE, fl[=oo]k, _n._ a successful shot made by chance, as at billiards: any unexpected advantage.
FLUME, fl[=oo]m, _n._ an artificial channel for water to be applied to some industrial purpose: (_U.S._) a narrow defile with upright walls, the bottom occupied by a torrent.--BE, or GO, UP THE FLUME, to come to grief, to be done for. [O. Fr. _flum_--L. _flumen_, a river--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLUMMERY, flum'[.e]r-i, _n._ an acid jelly made from the husks of oats: the Scotch sowens: anything insipid: empty compliment. [W. _llymru_--_llymrig_, harsh, raw--_llym_, sharp, severe.]
FLUMMOX, flum'oks, _v.t._ (_slang_) to perplex: defeat.
FLUMP, flump, _v.t._ (_coll._) to throw down violently.--_v.i._ to throw one's self down heavily.--_n._ the dull sound so produced. [Imit.]
FLUNG, flung, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _fling_.
FLUNKEY, flung'ki, _n._ a livery servant: a footman: a mean, cringing fellow.--_n._ FLUN'KEYDOM.--_adj._ FLUN'KEYISH.--_n._ FLUN'KEYISM. [Perh.
orig. _flanker_, one who runs along by the side of.]
FLUOR, fl[=oo]'or, _n._ a mineral often described as chemically fluate of lime, but really calcium fluoride, found abundantly in Derbyshire--also FLU'OR-SPAR, FLU'ORITE.--_ns._ FLUORES'CEIN, a coal-tar product, little used in dyeing, the colour not being fast; FLUORES'CENCE, a peculiar blue appearance exhibited by certain substances exposed to sunlight, and especially observable in a dilute solution of sulphate of quinine.--_adjs._ FLUORES'CENT, having the property of fluorescence; FLUOR'IC.--_ns._ FLU'ORIDE, a binary compound of fluorine with another element; FLU'ORINE, an elementary substance allied to chlorine, obtained chiefly from fluor; FLU'OROTYPE, a photographic process in which salts of fluoric acid were employed for the purpose of producing images in the camera; FLUOSIL'ICATE, a compound of fluosilicic acid with some base.--_adj._ FLUOSILIC'IC, composed of silicon and fluorine. [A name given by the alchemists to all mineral acids because of their _fluidity_, from L. _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLURRY, flur'i, _n._ a sudden blast or gust: agitation: bustle: the death-agony of the whale: a fluttering assemblage of things, as snowflakes.--_v.t._ to agitate, to confuse:--_pr.p._ flurr'ying; _pa.p._ flurr'ied.--_v.t._ FLURR, to scatter.--_v.i._ to fly up. [Prob.
onomatopoeic, suggested by _flaw_, _hurry_, &c.]
FLUSH, flush, _n._ a flow of blood to the face causing redness: sudden impulse: bloom, freshness, vigour: abundance.--_v.i._ to become red in the face: to flow swiftly.--_v.t._ to make red in the face: to cleanse by a copious flow of water: to elate, excite the spirits of: mostly in the _pa.p._ flushed (with victory).--_adj._ (of weather) hot and heavy: abounding: well supplied, as with money: (_Shak._) in full bloom.--_n._ FLUSH'-BOX, a rectangular tank supplied with water for flushing the bowls of water-closets.--_adj._ FLUSHED, suffused with ruddy colour: excited.--_ns._ FLUSH'ER, one who flushes sewers; FLUSH'ING, action of the verb _flush_: sudden reddening; FLUSH'NESS, quality of being flush.--_adj._ FLUSH'Y, reddish. [Prob. orig. identical with succeeding word, but meaning influenced by phonetic association with _flash_, the senses relating to colour by _blush_.]
FLUSH, flush, _v.i._ to start up like an alarmed bird.--_v.t._ to rouse and cause to start off.--_n._ the act of starting: (_Spens._) a bird, or a flock of birds so started. [Prob. onomatopoeic; suggested by _fly_, _flutter_, and _rush_.]
FLUSH, flush, _v.t._ to make even: to fill up to the level of a surface (often with _up_).--_adj._ having the surface level with the adjacent surface. [Prob. related to _flush_ above.]
FLUSH, flush, _n._ in card-playing, a hand in which all the cards or a specified number are of the same suit.--_adj._ in poker, consisting of cards all of the same suit.--STRAIGHT, or ROYAL, FLUSH, in poker, a sequence of five cards of the same suit. [Prob. Fr. _flux_--L. _fluxus_, flow.]
FLUSTER, flus't[.e]r, _n._ hurrying: confusion: heat.--_v.t._ to make hot and confused: to fuddle.--_v.i._ to bustle: to be agitated or fuddled.--_v.t._ FLUS'TER[=A]TE, to fluster.--_n._ FLUSTER[=A]'TION.--_adj._ FLUS'TERED, fuddled: flurried.--_n._ FLUS'TERMENT.--_adj._ FLUS'TERY, confused. [Ice. _flaustr_, hurry.]
FLUSTRA, flus'tra, _n._ one of the commonest genera of marine Polyzoa.
FLUTE, fl[=oo]t, _n._ a musical pipe with finger-holes and keys sounded by blowing: in organ-building, a stop with stopped wooden pipes, having a flute-like tone: one of a series of curved furrows, as on a pillar, called also _Fluting_: a tall and narrow wine-glass: a shuttle in tapestry-weaving, &c.--_v.i._ to play the flute.--_v.t._ to play or sing in soft flute-like tones: to form flutes or grooves in.--_adj._ FLUT'ED, ornamented with flutes, channels, or grooves.--_ns._ FLUT'ER; FLUTI'NA (t[=e]'-), a kind of accordion; FLUT'ING-MACHINE', a machine for corrugating sheet-metal, also a wood-turning machine for forming twisted, spiral, and fluted balusters; FLUT'IST.--_adj._ FLUT'Y, in tone like a flute. [O. Fr. _fleute_; ety. dub.]
FLUTTER, flut'[.e]r, _v.i._ to move about with bustle: to vibrate: to be in agitation or in uncertainty: (_obs._) to be frivolous.--_v.t._ to throw into disorder: to move in quick motions.--_n._ quick, irregular motion: agitation: confusion: a hasty game at cards, &c. [A.S. _flotorian_, to float about, from _flot_, the sea, stem of _fleotan_, to float.]
FLUVIAL, fl[=oo]'vi-al, _adj._ of or belonging to rivers.--_n._ FLU'VIALIST.--_adjs._ FLUVIAT'IC, FLU'VIATILE, belonging to or formed by rivers. [L. _fluvialis_--_fluvius_, a river, _flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLUX, fluks, _n._ act of flowing: a flow of matter: quick succession: a discharge generally from a mucous membrane: matter discharged: excrement: the term given to the substances employed in the arts to assist the reduction of a metallic ore and the fusion of a metal.--_v.t._ to melt.--_v.i._ to flow.--_ns._ FLUX'[=A]TION, the act of flowing or passing away; FLUXIBIL'ITY, FLUX'IBLENESS.--_adjs._ FLUX'IBLE, FLUX'IDE, that may be melted.--_ns._ FLUXIL'ITY; FLUX'ION, a flowing or discharge: a difference or variation: (_math._) the rate of change of a continuously varying quantity: (_pl._) the name given after Newton to that branch of mathematics which with a different notation is known after Leibnitz as the differential and integral calculus.--_adjs._ FLUX'IONAL, FLUX'IONARY, variable: inconstant.--_n._ FLUX'IONIST, one skilled in fluxions.--_adj._ FLUX'IVE (_Shak._), flowing with tears. [O. Fr.,--L. _fluxus_--_flu[)e]re_, to flow.]
FLY, fl[=i], _v.i._ to move through the air on wings: to move swiftly: to pass away: to flee: to burst quickly or suddenly: to flutter.--_v.t._ to avoid, flee from: to cause to fly, as a kite:--_pr.p._ fly'ing; _pa.t._ flew (fl[=oo]); _pa.p._ flown (fl[=o]n).--_n._ a popular name best restricted in its simplicity to the insects forming the order _Diptera_, but often so widely used with a prefix--e.g. _butterfly_, _dragon-fly_, _May-fly_--as to be virtually equivalent to insect: a fish-hook dressed with silk, &c., in imitation of a fly: a light double-seated carriage, a hackney-coach: (_mech._) a flywheel: (_pl._) the large space above the proscenium in a theatre, from which the scenes, &c., are controlled.--_adj._ wide-awake: (_slang_) knowing.--_adjs._ FLY'AWAY, flighty; FLY'-BIT'TEN, marked by the bite of flies.--_n._ FLY'BLOW, the egg of a fly.--_adj._ FLY'BLOWN, tainted with the eggs which produce maggots.--_ns._ FLY'BOAT, a long, narrow, swift boat used on canals; FLY'BOOK, a case like a book for holding fishing-flies; FLY'-CATCH'ER, a small bird, so called from its catching flies while on the wing; FLY'-FISH'ER, one who fishes with artificial flies as bait; FLY'-FISH'ING, the art of so fishing; FLY'-FLAP'PER, one who drives away flies with a fly-flap; FLY'ING-BRIDGE, a kind of ferry-boat which is moved across a river by the action of the combined forces of the stream and the resistance of a long rope or chain made fast to a fixed buoy in the middle of the river; FLY'ING-BUTT'RESS, an arch-formed prop which connects the walls of the upper and central portions of an aisled structure with the vertical buttresses of the outer walls; FLY'ING-CAMP, a body of troops for rapid motion from one place to another; FLY'ING-DUTCH'MAN, a Dutch black spectral ship, whose captain is condemned for his impieties to sweep the seas around the Cape of Storms unceasingly, without ever being able to reach a haven; FLY'ING-FISH, a fish which can leap from the water and sustain itself in the air for a short time, by its long pectoral fins, as if flying; FLY'ING-FOX, a large frugivorous bat; FLY'ING-L[=E]'MUR, a galeopithecoid insectivore whose fore and hind limbs are connected by a fold of skin, enabling it to make flying leaps from tree to tree; FLY'ING-PAR'TY, a small body of soldiers, equipped for rapid movements, used to harass an enemy; FLY'ING-PHALAN'GER, a general popular name for the petaurists; FLY'ING-SHOT, a shot fired at something in motion; FLY'ING-SQUID, a squid having broad lateral fins by means of which it can spring high out of the water; FLY'ING-SQUIRR'EL, a name given to two genera of squirrels, which have a fold of skin between the fore and hind legs, by means of which they can take great leaps in the air; FLY'LEAF, a blank leaf at the beginning and end of a book; FLY'-LINE, a line for angling with an artificial fly; FLY'-MAK'ER, one who ties artificial flies for angling; FLY'MAN, one who works the ropes in the flies of a theatre; FLY'P[=A]PER, a porous paper impregnated with poison for destroying flies; FLY'-POW'DER, a poisonous powder used for killing flies; FLY'-RAIL, that part of a table which turns out to support the leaf.--_adj._ (_Shak._) moving slow as a fly on its feet.--_ns._ FLY'-ROD, a light flexible rod used in fly-fishing, usually in three pieces--butt, second-joint, and tip; FLY'-TRAP, a trap to catch flies: (_bot._) the spreading dog-bane, also the Venus's fly-trap; FLY'WHEEL, a large wheel with a heavy rim applied to machinery to equalise the effect of the driving effort.--FLY AT, to attack suddenly; FLY IN THE FACE OF, to insult: to oppose; FLY OPEN, to open suddenly or violently; FLY OUT, to break out in a rage; FLY THE KITE, to obtain money as by accommodation bills, the endorser himself having no money; FLY UPON, to seize: to attack.--A FLY IN THE OINTMENT, some slight flaw which corrupts a thing of value (Eccles. x. i.); BREAK A FLY ON THE WHEEL, to subject to a punishment out of all proportion to the gravity of the offence; LET FLY, to attack: to throw or send off; MAKE THE FEATHERS FLY (see FEATHERS). [A.S.
_fleogan_, pa.t. _fleah_; Ger. _fliegen_.]
FLYTE, FLITE, fl[=i]t, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to scold, to brawl.--_n._ FLYTE, FLYT'ING, a scolding, or heated dispute. [A.S. _flitan_, to strive; Ger.
FOAL, f[=o]l, _n._ the young of a mare or of a she-ass.--_v.i._ and _v.t._ to bring forth a foal.--_ns._ FOAL'FOOT, colts-foot; FOAL'ING, bringing forth of a foal or young. [A.S. _fola_; Ger. _fohlen_, Gr. _p[=o]los_; L.
FOAM, f[=o]m, _n._ froth: the bubbles which rise on the surface of liquors: fury.--_v.i._ to gather foam: to be in a rage.--_v.t._ (_B._) to throw out with rage or violence (with _out_).--_adv._ FOAM'INGLY.--_adjs._ FOAM'LESS, without foam; FOAM'Y, frothy. [A.S. _fam_; Ger. _feim_, prob. akin to L.
FOB, fob, _n._ a trick.--_v.t._ to cheat. [Prob. a corr. of O. Fr. _forbe_, a rogue; or Ger. _foppen_, to jeer.]
FOB, fob, _n._ a small pocket in the waistband of trousers for a watch: a chain with seals, &c., hanging from the fob. [If orig. a secret pocket, perh. connected with the above.]
FOCUS, f[=o]'kus, _n._ (_opt._) a point in which several rays meet and are collected after being reflected or refracted, while a _virtual_ focus is a point from which rays tend after reflection or refraction--the _principal_ focus is the focus of parallel rays after reflection or refraction: any central point:--_pl._ F[=O]'CUSES, FOCI (f[=o]'s[=i]).--_v.t._ to bring to a focus: to concentrate:--_pa.p._ f[=o]'cussed.--_adj._ F[=O]'CAL, of or belonging to a focus.--_v.t._ F[=O]'CALISE, to bring to a focus: to concentrate.--_n._ FOCIMETER (f[=o]-sim'e-t[.e]r), an instrument for assisting in focussing an object in or before a photographic camera--usually a lens of small magnifying power.--FOCUSSING CLOTH, a cloth thrown over a photographic camera and the operator's head and shoulders to exclude all light save that coming through the lens.--CONJUGATE FOCI, two points so situated that if a light be placed at one, its rays will be reflected to the other; IN FOCUS, placed or adjusted so as to secure distinct vision, or a sharp, definite image. [L. _focus_, a hearth.]
FODDER, fod'[.e]r, _n._ food for cattle, as hay and straw.--_v.t._ to supply with fodder.--_ns._ FODD'ERER; FODD'ERING. [A.S. _fodor_; Ger.
FODIENT, f[=o]'di-ent, _adj._ and _n._ digging.
FOE, f[=o], _n._ an enemy: one who, or that which, injures or hinders anything: an ill-wisher.--_ns._ FOE'MAN, an enemy in war:--_pl._ FOE'MEN; F[=O]'EN (_Spens._), pl. of foe. [M. E. _foo_--A.S. _fah_, _fa_ (adj.), allied to the compound n. _gefa_; cf. _feogan_, to hate.]
FOETUS, FETUS, f[=e]'tus, _n._ the young of animals in the egg or in the womb, after its parts are distinctly formed, until its birth.--_adjs._ FOE'TAL, F[=E]'TAL, pertaining to a foetus; FOE'TICIDAL.--_ns._ FOE'TICIDE, F[=E]'TICIDE, destruction of the foetus. [L., from obs. _feu[=e]re_, to bring forth, whence _femina_, _fecundus_, &c.]
FOG, fog, _n._ a thick mist: watery vapour rising from either land or water.--_v.t._ to shroud in fog.--_v.i._ to become coated with a uniform coating.--_ns._ FOG'-BANK, a dense mass of fog sometimes seen at sea appearing like a bank of land; FOG'-BELL, a bell rung by the motion of the waves or wind to warn sailors from rocks, shoals, &c. in foggy weather.--_adj._ FOG'-BOUND, impeded by fog.--_ns._ FOG'-BOW, a whitish arch like a rainbow, seen in fogs.--_adv._ FOG'GILY.--_n._ FOG'GINESS.--_adj._ FOG'GY, misty: damp: clouded in mind: stupid.--_n._ FOG'-HORN, a horn used as a warning signal by ships in foggy weather: a sounding instrument for warning ships off the shore during a fog: a siren.--_adj._ FOG'LESS, without fog, clear.--_ns._ FOG'-RING, a bank of fog in the form of a ring; FOG'-SIG'NAL, an audible signal used on board ship, &c., during a fog, when visible signals cease to be of use; FOG'-SMOKE, fog. [The origin of the word is hopelessly misty; Mr Bradley connects with succeeding word; Prof. Skeat connects with Dan. _fog_, as in _snee-fog_, thick falling snow; cf. Ice. _fok_, a snowdrift.]