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BEDWARF, be-dwawrf', _v.t._ to make dwarfish.

BEDYE, be-d[=i]', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to dye or stain.

BEE, b[=e], _n._ a four-winged insect that makes honey: (_U.S._) a gathering of persons to unite their labour for the benefit of one individual or family, or for some joint amusement or exercise, as 'a quilting bee,' 'a husking bee,' 'a spelling bee' (from the bee's habit of combined labour).--Compound words are BEE'-FLOW'ER, BEE'-GAR'DEN, BEE'-HOUSE, BEE'-MAS'TER.--_ns._ BEE'-BREAD, the pollen of flowers collected by bees as food for their young; BEE'-EAT'ER, a brightly-plumaged family of birds nearly allied to the kingfisher, which feeds on bees; BEE'-GLUE, the soft glutinous matter by which bees fix their combs to the hive; BEE'HIVE, a case or box in which bees are kept, of straw-work, wood, &c.--Scotch _Bee-skep_.--_adj._ shaped like a beehive, dome-shaped.--_ns._ BEE'-LINE, the most direct road from one point to another, like the honey-laden bee's way home to the hive; BEE'-MOTH, a species of moth whose larvae are very destructive to young bees; BEES'WAX, the wax secreted by bees, and used by them in constructing their cells.--_v.t._ to polish with beeswax.--_n._ BEES'WING, a filmy crust of tartar formed in port and some other wines after long keeping.--_adj._ BEES'WINGED, so old as to show beeswing.--A BEE IN ONE'S BONNET, a whimsical or crazy fancy on some point.

[A. S. _beo_; Ger. _biene_.]

BEECH, b[=e]ch, _n._ a common forest tree with smooth silvery-looking bark and small edible nuts.--_adj._ BEECH'EN.--_ns._ BEECH'-MAST, the mast or nuts of the beech-tree, which yield a valuable oil; BEECH'-OIL, oil expressed from the nuts of the beech-tree. [A.S. _boece_, _bece_; Ger.

_buche_, L. _fagus_, Gr. _ph[=e]gos_--from root of _phag-ein_, to eat.]

BEEF, b[=e]f, _n._ the flesh of an ox or cow:--_pl._ BEEVES, used in original sense, oxen.--_adj._ consisting of beef.--_ns._ BEEF'-EAT'ER (b[=e]f'-[=e]t'[.e]r), a popular name for a yeoman of the sovereign's guard, also of the warders of the Tower of London [the obvious ety. is the right one, there being no such form as _buffetier_, connected with _buffet_, a sideboard, as often stated]; BEEF'INESS; BEEF'STEAK, a thick slice of beef for broiling or frying; BEEF'TEA, a stimulating rather than nutritious food for invalids, being the juice of beef strained off, after simmering chopped beef in water.--_adjs._ BEEF'-WIT'TED, BEEF'-BRAINED, dull or heavy in wits: stupid.--_n._ BEEF'-WOOD, an Australian wood, of reddish colour, used in cabinetwork.--_adj._ BEEF'Y, like beef, fleshy, stolid. [O. Fr. _boef_ (Fr. _boeuf_)--L. _bos_, _bovis_; cf. Gr. _bous_, Gael. _b_, Sans. _go_, A.S. _cu_.]

BEELZEBUB, b[=e]-el'ze-bub, _n._ the name under which the Philistines at Ekron worshipped their god _Baal_ or _Bel_: (_New Test._) the prince of the evil spirits. [Heb. _ba'al z'b[=u]b_, fly-lord.]

BEEN, b[=e]n, _pa.p._ of BE.

BEENAH, b[=e]'na, _n._ a primitive form of marriage (the name taken from Ceylon) in which the man goes to live with his wife's family--he is an unimportant person in the family, and the children are not counted his, but belong to the family and kindred of the wife.

BEER, b[=e]r, _n._ an alcoholic beverage made by fermentation from malted barley flavoured with hops. It was anciently distinguished from ale by being hopped; now _beer_ is the generic name of malt liquor, including ale and porter.--_ns._ BEER'-EN'GINE, BEER'-PUMP, a machine for drawing beer up from the casks to the bar; BEER'-HOUSE, a house where beer or malt liquors are sold; BEER'INESS; BEER'-MON'EY, money given to soldiers in the British army, in lieu of beer and spirits.--_adj._ BEER'Y, of or affected by beer.--BEER AND SKITTLES, a phrase used vaguely for Bohemian pleasures, from a simple form supposed to be a rustic ideal.--BITTER BEER = pale ale, a highly hopped beer made from the very finest selected malt and hops; MILD or SWEET ale being of greater gravity or strength, and comparatively lightly hopped; BLACK BEER, a kind of beer made at Danzig, black and syrupy; SMALL BEER, weak beer, hence trifling things, as in the familiar phrase, 'to think no small beer of one's self.' [A.S. _beor_; Ger. and Dut.

_bier_, Ice. _bjorr_.]

BEESTINGS, b[=e]st'ingz, _n._ the first milk drawn from a cow after calving. [A.S. _bsting_, _beost_; Ger. and Dut. _biest_.]

BEET, b[=e]t, _n._ a plant with a carrot-shaped succulent root, eaten as food, from which sugar is extracted.--_ns._ BEET'-FLY, a two-winged insect, which deposits its eggs on beet or mangel-wurzel, and whose larvae are injurious to the plant; BEET'ROOT, the root of the beet plant. [A.S. _bete_ (Fr. _bette_)--L. _b[=e]ta_.]

BEET, BETE, b[=e]t, _v.t._ (_obs._ except _dial._) to improve, mend, to kindle a fire, to rouse. [A.S. _boetan_, _betan_; cf. _bot_, BOOT.]

BEETLE, b[=e]'tl, _n._ an order of insects technically known as Coleoptera, usually with four wings, the front pair forming hard and horny covers for those behind, which alone are used in flight.--The BLACK BEETLE or cockroach is not a true beetle. [M.E. _bityl_--A.S. _bitula_, _bitela_, _bitan_, to bite.]

BEETLE, b[=e]'tl, _n._ a heavy wooden mallet used for driving wedges, crushing or beating down paving-stones, or the like: a wooden pestle-shaped utensil for mashing potatoes, beating linen, &c.--_n._ BEE'TLE-HEAD, a heavy, stupid fellow.--_adj._ BEE'TLE-HEAD'ED. [A.S. _bietel_; cog. with _beatan_, to beat.]

BEETLE-BROWED, b[=e]'tl-browd, _adj._ with overhanging or prominent brow: scowling.--_v.i._ BEE'TLE, to jut, to hang over--first used by Shakespeare.--_n._ BEET'LING.--_p.adj._ jutting out: prominent: overhanging. [Dr Murray notes that the word is first found in the compound _bitel_-browed, in the 14th century, and favours the explanation, 'with eyebrows like a beetle's'--i.e. projecting eyebrows. See BEETLE (1).]

BEEVES, b[=e]vz, cattle, oxen. [See BEEF.]

BEFALL, be-fawl', _v.t._ to fall or happen to: to occur to.--_v.i._ to happen or come to pass: (_Spens._) to fall in one's way:--_pr.p._ befall'ing; _pa.t._ befell'; _pa.p._ befall'en. [A.S. _befeallan_. See FALL.]

BEFANA, BEFFANA, be-fa'na, _n._ an Epiphany present or gift--a corruption of _Epiphania_, which name in Italy has become personified for children as a toy-bringing witch or fairy called _La Befana_.

BEFIT, be-fit', _v.t._ to fit, or be suitable to: to be proper to, or right for:--_pr.p._ befit'ting; _pa.p._ befit'ted.--_adj._ BEFIT'TING.--_adv._ BEFIT'TINGLY. [Pfx. _be-_, and FIT.]

BEFLOWER, be-flow'[.e]r, _v.t._ to cover or besprinkle with flowers.

BEFOAM, be-f[=o]m', _v.t._ to bespatter or cover with foam.

BEFOGGED, be-fogd', _adj._ enveloped in fog: confused.

BEFOOL, be-f[=oo]l', _v.t._ to make a fool of, or deceive: to treat as a fool.

BEFORE, be-f[=o]r', _prep._ in front of (_time_ or _place_): in presence or sight of (_Before_ God): under the cognisance of, as in before the court, the magistrate, or the house: previous to: in preference to: superior to.--_adv._ in front: sooner than hitherto.--_conj._ previous to the time when (often with _that_).--_advs._ BEFORE'HAND, before the time: by way of preparation; BEFORE'TIME, in former time.--TO BE BEFOREHAND WITH, to forestall in any action. [A.S. _beforan_. See FORE.]

BEFORTUNE, be-for't[=u]n, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to happen to, to befall.

BEFOUL, be-fowl', _v.t._ to make foul: to soil.

BEFRIEND, be-frend', _v.t._ to act as a friend to: to favour.

BEFRINGE, be-frinj', _v.t._ to adorn with fringes.

BEG. Same as BEY.

BEG, beg, _v.i._ to ask alms or charity, esp. habitually (with _of_, _from_; _for_, of the thing asked).--_v.t._ to ask earnestly: to beseech: to pray: to take for granted what ought to have been proved, esp. in the phrase in logic, 'to beg the question'--the fallacy of the _Petitio Principii_:--_pr.p._ beg'ging; _pa.p._ begged.--_n._ BEG'GAR, one who begs: one who lives by begging: a mean fellow, a poor fellow--often used with a playful and even affectionate sense.--_v.t._ to reduce to beggary: to exhaust or impoverish: (_fig._) to go beyond the resources of, as of description.--_ns._ BEG'GARDOM, the fraternity of beggars; BEG'GARLINESS.--_adj._ BEGGARLY, poor: mean: worthless.--_adv._ meanly.--_ns._ BEG'GAR-MY-NEIGH'BOUR, a game at cards which goes on till one of the players has gained all the other's cards; BEG'GARY, extreme poverty.--_adv._ BEG'GINGLY.--TO BEG OFF, to obtain another's release through entreaty, to seek that one's self may be relieved of some penalty or liability.--TO GO A-BEGGING, to be in want of a purchaser, or of a person to fill it (of a situation, &c.). [The ety. is very obscure; the words _beg_ and _beggar_ first appear in the 13th century, and Dr Murray thinks the most likely derivation is from the O. Fr. _begart_, _begard_, and _begar_ (L. _beghardus_ = _beghard_), or its synonym _beguine_ and derivative verb _beguigner_, _beguiner_, to act the beguin. The _Beghards_ or _Beguines_ were a lay mendicant order, and in the 13th century mendicants calling themselves by these names swarmed over Western Europe.]

BEGAD, be-gad', _interj._ a minced oath, softened from 'By God.'

BEGAN, b[=e]-gan', _pa.t._ of BEGIN.

BEGEM, be-jem', _v.t._ to adorn, as with gems.

BEGET, be-get', _v.t._ to produce or cause: to generate: to produce as an effect, to cause:--_pr.p._ beget'ting; _pa.t._ begat', begot'; _pa.p._ begot', begot'ten.--_n._ BEGET'TER, one who begets: a father: the agent that occasions or originates anything. [A.S. _begitan_, to acquire. See GET.]


BEGIFT, be-gift', _v.t._ to present with gifts.

BEGILD, be-gild', _v.t._ to gild: to cover or overlay with gold-leaf.

BEGIN, be-gin', _v.i._ to take rise: to enter on something new: to commence.--_v.t._ to enter on: to commence (with _at_, _with_, _upon_):--_pr.p._ begin'ning; _pa.t._ began'; _pa.p._ begun'.--_ns._ BEGIN'NER, one who begins: one who is beginning to learn or practise anything; BEGIN'NING, origin or commencement: rudiments--(_Spens._) BEGINNE'.--_adj._ BEGIN'NINGLESS. [A.S. _beginnan_ (more usually _onginnan_), from _be_, and _ginnan_, to begin.]

BEGIRD, be-gird', _v.t._ to gird or bind with a girdle; to surround or encompass (_with_):--_pa.t._ begirt', begird'ed; _pa.p._ begirt'. [A.S.

_begyrdan_. See GIRD.]

BEGLERBEG, b[.e]g'l[.e]r-b[.e]g, _n._ the governor of a Turkish province, in rank next to the grand vizier. [Turk., lit. 'bey of beys.']

BEGLOOM, be-gl[=oo]m', _v.t._ to render gloomy.

BEGNAW, be-naw', _v.t._ to gnaw or bite, to eat away.

BEGONE, be-gon', _interj._ lit. be gone! be off! get away! In WOE'-BEGONE', beset with woe, we have the _pa.p._ of A.S. _began_, to go round, to beset.

BEGONIA, be-g[=o]n'ya, _n._ a genus of plants cultivated in our greenhouses for their pink flowers and their remarkable unequal-sided and often coloured leaves--'Elephant's Ears,' 'Angel's Wings.' [Named from the botanist Michel _Begon_, 1638-1710.]

BEGORED, be-g[=o]rd', _adj._ (_Spens._) besmeared with gore.

BEGOT, be-got', BEGOTTEN, be-got'n, _pa.p._ of BEGET.

BEGRIME, be-gr[=i]m', _v.t._ to grime or soil deeply.

BEGRUDGE, be-gruj', _v.t._ to grudge: to envy any one the possession of.

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