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_asperitat-em_, _asper_, rough.]

ASPERMOUS, a-sp[.e]r'mus, ASPERMATOUS, a-sp[.e]r'ma-tus, _adj._ without seeds. [Gr. _a_, neg., _sperma_, seed.]

ASPERSE, as-p[.e]rs', _v.t._ to slander or calumniate: to bespatter (_with_).--_n._ ASPER'SION, calumny: slander: (_Shak._) a shower or spray.--_adjs._ ASPERS'IVE, ASPERS'ORY, tending to asperse: defamatory.

ASPERSORIUM, as-per-s[=o]r'i-um, _n._ a vessel used in R.C. churches for holding holy water.

ASPHALT, as-falt', or as'falt, ASPHALTUM, as-falt'um, _n._ a black or dark-brown, hard, bituminous substance, anciently used as a cement, and now for paving, cisterns, water-pipes, &c.--_v.t._ ASPHALT', to lay or cover with asphalt.--_adj._ ASPHALT'IC. [Gr. _asphaltos_, from an Eastern word.]

ASPHETERISM, as-fet'er-izm, _n._ (_Southey_) denial of the right of private property.--_v.i._ ASPHET'ERISE. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _spheteros_, one's own.]

ASPHODEL, as'fo-del, _n._ a kind of lily--in Greek mythology, the peculiar plant of the dead. In Greece they cover the bleakest hillsides with enduring blossom.--_adj._ Elysian. [Gr. _asphodelos_, a plant of the lily kind; cf. Homer's _asphodelos leim[=o]n_, the meadow of the dead. See DAFFODIL.]

ASPHYXIA, as-fik'si-a, _n._ (_lit._) suspended animation, suffocation, when the blood is in such a state as to render impossible a sufficiently free exchange of carbonic acid for oxygen--also ASPHYX'Y.--_n._ ASPHYX'IANT, a chemical substance which produces asphyxia.--_adj._ ASPHYX'I[=A]TED.--_ns._ ASPHYXI[=A]'TION; ASPHYX'I[=A]TOR. [Gr., a stopping of the pulse--_a_, neg., _sphyxis_, the pulse.]

ASPIC, ASPICK, as'pik, _n._ (_poet._) a venomous serpent. [See ASP.]

ASPIC, as'pik, _n._ a savoury meat-jelly containing fish, game, hard-boiled eggs, &c. [Littre suggests its derivation from _aspic_, asp, because it is 'cold as an aspic,' a French proverb.]

ASPIRANT, as-p[=i]r'ant, or as'pir-ant, _n._ one who aspires (with _after_, _for_): a candidate.--_adj._ ambitious: mounting up (_rare_ in both senses). [See ASPIRE.]

ASPIRATE, as'pir-[=a]t, _v.t._ to pronounce with a full breathing, as the letter _h_ in _house_.--_n._ a mark of aspiration, the rough breathing in Greek ('): an aspirated letter.--_p.adj._ AS'PERATED, made harsh.--_ns._ ASPIR[=A]'TION, pronunciation of a letter with a full breathing: an aspirated sound (like Gr. _ch_, _th_, &c.): drawing air in; ASPIR[=A]'TOR, an apparatus for drawing air or other gases through bottles or other vessels: (_med._) an instrument for removing fluids from the cavities of the body.--_adj._ ASP[=I]R'ATORY, relating to breathing.--TO DROP ONE'S ASPIRATES, not to pronounce _h_, a mark of imperfect education or humble social standing. [See ASPIRE.]

ASPIRE, as-p[=i]r' (followed by _to_ or _after_ with the object, or by an infinitive), _v.i._ to desire eagerly: to aim at high things: to tower up.--_n._ ASPIR[=A]'TION, eager desire.--_adj._ ASP[=I]R'ING.--_adv._ ASP[=I]R'INGLY.--_n._ ASP[=I]R'INGNESS. [Fr.--L. _aspir[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

ASPLENIUM, as-pl[=e]'ni-um, _n._ spleenwort, a genus of ferns, mostly tropical, with long or linear _sori_, with _indusium_ arising laterally from above a vein--including the lady-fern, black maiden-hair, &c. [Gr.


ASPORT, as-p[=o]rt', _v.t._ (_rare_) to carry away, esp. in a bad sense.--_n._ ASPORT[=A]'TION, feloniously carrying away. [L.

_asport[=a]re_--_abs_, away, and _port[=a]re_, to carry.]

ASPOUT, a-spowt', _adv. phrase_, spouting.

ASPRAWL, a-sprawl', _adv. phrase_, sprawling.

ASPREAD, a-spred', _adv. phrase_, spread out.

ASPROUT, a-sprowt', _adv. phrase_, sprouting.

ASQUAT, a-skwat', _adv. phrase_, squatting.

ASQUINT, a-skwint', _adv._ and _adj._ towards the corner of the eye: obliquely.

ASS, as, _n._ a well-known quadruped of the horse family: (_fig._) a dull, stupid fellow.--ASSES' BRIDGE, or PONS ASINORUM, a humorous name for the fifth proposition of the first book of Euclid. [A.S. _assa_, the earlier Teutonic form being _esol_, _esil_ (Goth. _asilus_)--L. _asinus_; Gr.

_onos_, ass. Perh. ult. of Semitic origin, as in Heb. _[=a]th[=o]n_, a she-ass.]



ASSAGAI, ASSEGAI, as'sa-g[=i], _n._ a slender spear of hard wood, tipped with iron, some for hurling, some for thrusting with--used by the South African tribes, notably the war-like Zulus.--_v.t._ to kill or slay with an assagai. [Through Fr. or Port. from Ar. _azzagh[=a]yah_, _az_ = _al_, the _zagh[=a]yah_, a Berber word.]

ASSAIL, as-s[=a]l', _v.t._ to assault: to attack.--_adj._ ASSAIL'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSAIL'ANT, one who assails or attacks; ASSAIL'MENT.

[O. Fr. _asaillir_--L. _assil[=i]re_--_ad_, upon, and _sal[=i]re_, to leap.]

ASSASSIN, as-as'in, _n._ one who, usually for a reward, kills by surprise or secretly.--_v.t._ ASSAS'SINATE, to murder by surprise or secret assault: (_Milton_) to maltreat: also figuratively, to destroy by treacherous means, as a reputation.--_n._ (_obs._) one who assassinates.--_ns._ ASSASSIN[=A]'TION, secret murder; ASSAS'SINATOR. [Through Fr. or It. from Ar. _hashsh[=a]sh[=i]n_, 'hashish-eaters,' a military and religious order in Syria, of the 11th century, who became notorious for their secret murders in obedience to the will of their chief, and fortified themselves for their adventures by _hashish_, an intoxicating drug or drink made from hemp.]

ASSAULT, as-sawlt', _n._ a sudden attack: a storming, as of a town: (_Eng.

law_) unlawful attempt to apply force to the person of another--when force is actually applied, the act amounts to _battery_: an attack of any sort by arguments, appeals, &c.--_v.t._ to make an assault or attack upon: (_law_) to make an assault.--_n._ ASSAULT'ER.--ASSAULT AT ARMS, a display of attack and defence in fencing. [O. Fr. _asaut_--L. _ad_, upon, _saltus_, a leap, _sal[=i]re_, to leap. See ASSAIL.]

ASSAY, as-s[=a]', _v.t._ to determine the proportions of a metal in an ore or alloy: endeavour (more usually _Essay_): (_Spens._) to affect or move: (_Shak._) to put one to the proof, as to accost with a particular purpose, to measure swords with another, &c.: (_poet._) put to proof, examine by trial.--_v.i._ to attempt.--_n._ the determination of the quantity of metal in an ore or alloy: the trial of anything, as in the ancient custom of tasting the drink before handing it to a king or noble: an attempt or endeavour: probation or trial: (_Spens._) ascertained purity.--_ns._ ASSAY'ER, one who assays, esp. metals; ASSAY'ING, the process of assaying or determining the proportion of pure metal in an ore or alloy; ASSAY'-MAS'TER, the officer who determines the amount of gold or silver in coin or bullion. [O. Fr. _assayer_, n. _assai_. See ESSAY.]


ASSEMBLE, as-sem'bl, _v.t._ to call or bring together: to collect.--_v.i._ to meet together.--_ns._ ASSEM'BLAGE, a collection of persons or things; ASSEM'BLANCE (_Spens._), an assembling: (_Shak._) semblance: representation; ASSEM'BLY, the act of assembling: the company so assembled: a gathering of persons for any purpose, as for religious worship or social entertainment: specially applied to the lower house of the legislature in some of the United States and British colonies: (_mil._) a drum-beat, esp.

that before a march, upon which the soldiers strike their tents; ASSEM'BLY-ROOM, a room in which persons assemble, especially for dancing.--GENERAL ASSEMBLY, in Scotland, Ireland, and the United States, the highest court of the Presbyterian Church; LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, in many of the British colonies, the title of the lower house of the legislature; NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, the first of the revolutionary assemblies in France, which sat 1789-91--also called the _Constituent Assembly_, superseded in 1791 by the Legislative Assembly. [Fr. _assembler_--Late L.

_assimul[=a]re_, to bring together, _ad_, to, _similis_, like. See ASSIMILATE.]

ASSENT, as-sent', _v.i._ to think or concur with, to admit as true (with _to_).--_n._ an agreeing or acquiescence: compliance.--_adj._ ASSENT[=A]'NEOUS, ready to agree.--_ns._ ASSENT'ER, ASSENT'OR, one of the eight voters who indorse the proposer and seconder's nomination of a candidate for election to the parliament of the United Kingdom.--_adjs._ ASSEN'TIENT, ASSENT'IVE.--_adv._ ASSENT'INGLY.--_n._ ASSENT'IVENESS.--ROYAL ASSENT, in England, the sovereign's formal acquiescence in a measure which has passed the two Houses of Parliament. [O. Fr. _asenter_, assent--L.

_assent[=a]re_, _assent[=i]re_, L. _ad_, to, _sent[=i]re_, to think.]

ASSENTATION, as-sen-t[=a]'shun, _n._ obsequious assent, adulation.--_n._ AS'SENTATOR (_obs._).--_adv._ ASSENT'ATORILY (_obs._). [L. _assent[=a]ri_, to flatter, freq. of _assent[=i]ri_, assent, agree.]

ASSERT, as-s[.e]rt', _v.t._ to vindicate or defend by arguments or measures (now used only of the cause as object or reflexive): to declare strongly: to lay claim to or insist upon anything: to affirm: (_rare_) to bear evidence of.--_adj._ ASSERT'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSERT'ER, ASSERT'OR, a champion, one who makes a positive statement; ASSER'TION, affirmation: the act of claiming one's rights: averment.--_adj._ ASSERT'IVE, asserting or confirming confidently: positive: dogmatic.--_adv._ ASSERT'IVELY.--_n._ ASSERT'IVENESS.--_adj._ ASSERT'ORY, affirmative.--TO ASSERT ONE'S SELF, to defend one's rights or opinions, sometimes with unnecessary zeal, to thrust one's self forward. [L. _asser[)e]re_ (superl. _assertum_), _aliquem manu in libertatem_, to lay hands on a slave in token of manumission, hence to protect, affirm, declare--_ad_, to, and _ser[)e]re_, to join. Cf. SERIES.]

ASSESS, as-ses', _v.t._ to fix the amount of, as a tax (with _upon_): to tax or fine: to fix the value or profits of, for taxation (with _at_): to estimate.--_adj._ ASSESS'ABLE.--_ns._ ASSESS'MENT, act of assessing: a valuation for the purpose of taxation: a tax; ASSESS'OR, a legal adviser who sits beside a magistrate: one who assesses taxes: one who shares another's dignity.--_adj._ ASSESS[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ ASSESS'ORSHIP. [Fr.--L.

_assess[=a]re_, freq. of _assid[=e]re_, _assessum_, to sit by, esp. of judges in a court, from _ad_, to, at, _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

ASSETS, as'sets, the property of a deceased or insolvent person, considered as chargeable for all debts, &c.: the entire property of all sorts belonging to a merchant or to a trading association. [From the Anglo-Fr. law phrase _aver assetz_, to have sufficient, O. Fr. _asez_, enough--L. _ad_, to, _satis_, enough.]

ASSEVERATE, as-sev'[.e]r-[=a]t, _v.t._ to declare solemnly--an earlier form is ASSEV'ER.--_adv._ ASSEVERAT'INGLY.--_n._ ASSEVER[=A]'TION, any solemn affirmation or confirmation. [L. _assever[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _severus_, serious. See SEVERE.]

ASSIDUITY, as-sid-[=u]'i-ti, _n._ constant application or diligence: (_pl._) constant attentions, as to a lady.--_adj._ ASSID'UOUS, constant or unwearied in application: diligent.--_adv._ ASSID'UOUSLY.--_n._ ASSID'UOUSNESS. [L. _assiduitas_--_assiduus_, sitting close at--_ad_, to, at, _sed[=e]re_, to sit.]

ASSIEGE, as-s[=e]j', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to besiege. [See SIEGE.]

ASSIENTO, as-[=e]-en'to, _n._ a word especially applied to an exclusive contract between Spain and some foreign nation for the supply of African slaves for its American possessions. [Sp., a seat, a seat in a court, a treaty.]

ASSIGN, as-s[=i]n', _v.t._ to sign or mark out to one: to allot: to appoint: to allege: to transfer: to ascribe or refer to: to suggest: to fix, as a time: to point out exactly.--_n._ one to whom any property or right is made over: (_pl._) appendages (_Shak._).--_adj._ ASSIGN'ABLE, that may be assigned.--_ns._ ASSIGN[=A]'TION, an appointment to meet, used chiefly of love-trysts, and mostly in a bad sense: (_Scots law_) the making over of any right to another, equivalent to ASSIGNMENT; ASSIGNEE (as-sin-[=e]'), one to whom any right or property is assigned: (_pl._) the trustees of a sequestrated estate; ASSIGN'MENT, act of assigning: anything assigned: the writing by which a transfer is made: (_Spens._) design.

[Fr.--L. _assign[=a]re_, to mark out--_ad_, to, _signum_, a mark or sign.]

ASSIGNAT, as-sin-ya', _n._ one of the notes (chiefly for 100 francs = 4 each) in the paper currency first issued in 1790 by the French revolutionary government as bonds on the security of the appropriated church lands.

ASSIMILATE, as-sim'il-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make similar or like to: to convert into a like substance, as food in our bodies (with _to_, _with_).--_v.i._ to become like, or to be incorporated in.--_n._ ASSIM'ILABILITY (_Coleridge_).--_adj._ ASSIM'ILABLE.--_n._ ASSIMIL[=A]'TION.--_adj._ ASSIM'IL[=A]TIVE, having the power or tendency to assimilate. [L.

_assimil[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _similis_, like.]

ASSIST, as-sist', _v.t._ to help.--_v.i._ to be present at a ceremony: (_Shak._) to accompany.--_n._ ASSIST'ANCE, help: relief.--_adj._ ASSIST'ANT, helping or lending aid.--_n._ one who assists: a helper. [L.

_assist[)e]re_, to stand by--_ad_, to, _sist[)e]re_.]

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