Castre, 3 May.
[This letter, being dated at Caister in the month of May, cannot be earlier than 1455, and the references to the matter of the ward and the suit against Sir Thomas Howes seem to fix it to that year.]
[Footnote 22.1: [From MS. Phillipps, 9735, No. 244.]]
[Footnote 22.2: Thomas Fastolf. --_See_ vol. ii. p. 323, Note 1.]
RICHARD CALLE TO JOHN PASTON.
[Sidenote: 1455(?) / MAY 8]
Thorne did not come to him, nor could he learn anything about him from Sir Thomas Howes, except that Howes had informed him of what Paston commanded Calle to tell his wife. Will not distrain till he hear from Paston. Howys trusts to make sufficient reckoning of all things touching Fastolf, so that neither he nor Paston be hurt. He will do nothing in future without Paston's advice. Desires him to remember John Elger, Bocking, and others 'for the rescues which was made for Jankyn Porter.'
Remember James Gresham to withdraw the suit for W. Magges. No News.
[The allusion to John or Jankyn Porter in this letter makes it probable that it was written in the year 1455. --_See_ No. 278.]
[Footnote 22.3: [From Paston MSS., B.M.]]
[[--_See_ No. 278.]
_closing bracket missing_]]
'THOMAS CANON, THE HELDER, OF MEKYLL PAGRAVE,' TO JOHN PASTON.
[Sidenote: 1455 / MAY 16]
Desires to hear of his 'durat prosperite and welfare.' Hopes he will protect him as he has done, if any man will put him to any wrong. Has land in Lytyl Pagrave and in Lytyldonham, called Strangys, which he wishes to sell to Paston before any other, on condition that he will 'keep it counsel' from John Pagrave till he and the writer have accorded.
At Sporle, Friday, after Ascension Day, 33 Hen. VI.
[Footnote 23.1: [From MS. Phillipps, 9735, No. 252.]]
MEMORIAL TO HENRY VI[23.2]
_Tradatur J. P._
[Sidenote: 1455 / MAY 21]
Moste Cristen Kyng, ryght hygh and myghty Prince, and our mooste redoubted souverayn Lorde, we recomaunde ws as humblye as we suffice unto your hygh excellence, where unto please it to wete that for so moche as we hyre and understand to our grettyst sorowe erthlye that our ennemyes of approuved experience, such as abyde and kepe theym sylf under the whyng of your Magestee Royall, have throwen unto the same ryght stedyousely and ryght fraudulentlye manye ambyguytees and doubtes of the fayth, lygeaunce, and dewtee that, God knowyth, we beere unto your Hyghnesse, and have put theym yn as grete devoyr as they coude to enstraunge ws from your mooste noble presonce and from the favour of your goode grace; whych goode grace to ws ys and owe to be our singuler and mooste desyred yoie and consolacion: We at thys tyme be comyng wyth grace as your true and humble liege men, toward your seyd Hygh Excellence to declare and shew therto at large owr sayd fayth and ligeaunce, entendyng wyth the mercye of Jesu yn the seyd comyng, to put ws yn as diligent and hertye devoyr and dewtee as onye your lyege men on lyve to that at may avaunce or preferre the honnour and wellfare off the sayd Mageste Royalle and the seurte of the sayd most notable person; the whych [we] beseche our blessed Creature to prosper [in] as grete honnor, yoie, and felicitie as ever had onye prince erthlye, and to your sayd Hyghnesse so to take, accept, and repute ws, and not to plese to geve trust or confidence unto the sinistrez, maliciouse, and fraudulent laboures and rapportes of our sayd ennemyes unto our comyng to your sayd moste noble presence; where unto we beseche humblye that we may be admitted as your liege men, to th'entent to show ws the same; wheroff yerstenday we wrote our lettres of our entent to the ryght reverent fadre yn God, the Archebysshop of Caunterburye,[24.1] your Chauncellr of England, to be shewed to your sayd Hyghnesse, whereoff, forsomoch as we be not acerteyned whethyr our sayd entent be by hys fadrehode shewed unto your seyd goode grace or not, we sende thereoff unto thys closed a copy of our said lettres of our disposicion toward your sayd Hygh Excellence and the honnour and weele of the land, whereynne we wolle persevere wyth the grace of our Lorde.
[Footnote 23.2: [From Fenn, iii. 178.] This is a copy of the memorial drawn up by the Duke of York and the Earls of Warwick and Salisbury just before the first battle of St. Albans, which the Duke of Somerset and his friends would not allow to be presented to the King. Although this copy is without date, the original was dated at Ware, the 21st May.--See _Rolls of Parl._ v. 281, where the whole document is cited.]
[Footnote 24.1: Fenn states that on the margin of the MS., in a hand nearly coeval with the letter itself, is written, 'Memorandum quod dict' literae (?) Dominorum direct'
Archiepiscopo Cant. est apud ... . .' What followed is lost, the paper being torn. The letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, however, will be found quoted at full length in the _Rolls of Parliament_, v. 280-1.]
THE BATTLE OF ST. ALBANS[25.1]
_Bellum apud Seynt Albons._
[Sidenote: 1455 / MAY 21-22]
Be yt knowen and hadde in mynde that the xxj. day of May the xxxiij.
zere of the regne of Kyng Herry the Sext, our sovereigne Lord Kyng toke his jurnay from Westmynster toward Seynt Albones, and rested at Watford all nyght; and on the morwe be tymes he cam to Seynt Albones, and wyth him on his partye assembled under his baner the Duyke of Bockingham, the Duke of Somersete, the Erle of Penbrok, the Erle of Northumburlond, the Erle of Devynsshire, the Erle of Stafford, the Erle of Dorsete, the Erle of Wyltsshire, the Lorde Clyfford, the Lord Dudley, the Lord Burneys, the Lord Rose, wyth other dyversse knyghtes, squyeres, and other gentilmen and yemen to the nounbre of ij^ml  and moo. And upon the xxij. day of the seyde moneth above rehersed assembled the Duyk of Yorke, and wyth hym come yn companye the Erle of Salesbury, the Erle of Warrewyke with diverse knyghtes and squyers unto ther partye into the felde, called the Key Feld, besyde Seynt Albones. Fyrthermore, oure seyd sovereyne Lord the Kyng, heryng and knowyng of the seyde Dukes comyng with other Lordes afore seyde, pygth his baner at the place called Boslawe in Seynt Petrus Strete, whych place was called afore tyme past Sandeforde, and commaundeth the warde and barrers to be kepte in stronge wyse; the for seyde Duyk of York abydyng in the feld aforeseyde frome vij. of the clokke in the morn tyl yt was al most x. without ony stroke smeton on eyther partye. The seyde Duke sende to the Kyng our sovereyne Lord, be the avyse of his councell, prayng and be sekyng hym to take him as his true man and humble suget; and to consider and to tender at the reverence of Almyghty God, and in way of charite the true entent of his comyng--to be good and gracyous sovereyne Lorde to his legemen, whech with al ther power and mygth wille be redy at alle tymes to leve and dye with hym in his rigth. And to what thyng yt shoulde lyke his Mageste Ryall to commaunde hem, yf yt be his worsship, kepyng right of the Croune and welffare of the londe; 'More over, gracyous Lord, plese yt zour Majeste Ryall of zour grete goodnesse and ryghtwesnesse to enclyne zour wille to here and fele the ryghtwyse partye of us zoure sugettes and legemen; fyrst, prayng and besechyng to oure Lord Jesus of his hye and myghty power to geve un to zou vertu and prudence, and that thorugh the medyacyon of the glorious martyr Seynt Albon to geve zou very knowleche to knowe the entent of oure assembleng at this tyme; for God that is [in] Heven knoweth than our entent is rightful and true. And there fore we pray unto Al myghty Lord Jesus these wordes--_Domine sis clipeus defensionis nostrae_. Wherefore, gracyus Lord, plese it your hyghe Majeste to delyvere such as we wole accuse, and they to have lyke, as they have deserved and done, and ze to be honorabled and worsshepyt as most ryghtffull Kyng and oure governour. For and we shall now at this tyme be promysed, as afore this tyme ys not unknowen, of promes broken whech ful fayth fully hath ben promysed, and there upon grete othes made, we wyll not now cesse for noon such promysse, surete, ne other, tyl we have hem whych hav deserved deth, or elles we to dye there fore.'
And to that answered the Kyng our sovereyne Lord, and seyde: 'I, Kyng Herry, charge and comaund that no maner persone, of what degre, or state, or condicyon that evere he be, abyde not, but voyde the felde, and not be so hardy to make ony resystens ageyne me in myn owne realme; for I shall knowe what traytor dar be so bold to reyse apepull in myn owne lond, where thorugh I am in grete desese and hevynesse. And by the feyth that I owe to Seynt Edward and to the Corone of Inglond, I shal destrye them every moder sone, and they be hanged, and drawen, and quartered, that may be taken afterward, of them to have ensample to alle such traytours to be war to make ony such rysyng of peple withinne my lond, and so traytorly to abyde her Kyng and governour. And, for a conclusyon, rather then they shall have ony Lorde here with me at this tyme, I shall this day, for her sake, and in this quarrell my sylff lyve or dye.'
Wych ansuere come to the Duke of Yorke, the wheche Duke, by the avyce of the Lordes of hys Counceill, seyde unto hem thise wordes: 'The Kyng our sovereyne Lord will not be reformed at our besechyng ne prayer, ne wylle not understonde the entent that we be comen heder and assembled fore and gadered at this tyme; but only ys full purpose, and there noon other wey but that he wole with all his power pursue us, and yf ben taken, to geve us a shameful deth, losyng our lyvelode and goodes, and our heyres shamed for evere. And ther fore, sythe yt wole be noon othere wyse but that we shall ootterly dye, better yt ys for us to dye in the feld than cowardly to be put to a grete rebuke and asshamefful deth; more over, consederyng yn what peryle Inglonde stondes inne at thys owre, therefore every man help to help power for the ryght there offe, to redresse the myscheff that now regneth, and to quyte us lyke men in this querell; preyng to that Lord that ys Kyng of Glorye, that regneth in the kyngdom celestyall, to kepe us and save us this day in our right, and thorugh the helpe of His holy grace we may be made strong to with stonde the grete abomynable and cruell malyse of them that purpose fully to destrye us with shameful deth. We ther fore, Lord, prey to The to be oure confort and Defender, seyng the word afore seyde, _Domine sis clipeus defensionis nostrae_.'
And whanne this was seyde, the seyde Duke of Yorke, and the seyd Erle of Salesbury, and the Erle of Warrewyk, betwene xj. and xij. of the clocke at noon, the broke into the toun in thre diverse places and severelle places of the fore seyd strete. The Kyng beyng then in the place of Edmond Westby, hunderdere of the seyd toun of Seynt Albones, comaundeth to sle alle maner men of lordes, knygthtes, and squyeres, and zemen that myght be taken of the for seyde Dukes of York. Thys don, the fore seyde Lord Clyfford kept strongly the barrers that the seyde Duke of York myght not in ony wise, with all the power that he hadde, entre ne breke into the toun. The Erle of Warrewyk, knowyng ther offe, toke and gadered his men to gedere and ferosly brake in by the gardeyne sydes betuene the signe of the Keye and the sygne of the Chekkere in Holwell strete; and anoon as they wer wyth inne the toon, sodeynly the blew up trumpettes, and sette a cry with asshout and a grete voyce, 'A Warrewe! A Warrewyk!
A Warrewyk!' and into that tyme the Duke of York mygth nevere have entre into the toun; and they with strong hond kept yt, and myghttyly faught to gedere, and anoon, forth with after the brekyng in, they sette on them manfully. And as of Lordes of name were slayn the Lord Clyfford, the Duke of Somersete, the Erle of Northumberlond, Sir Bartram Entuwysselle, Knynght; and of men of courte, Wyllyam Zouch, John Batryaux, Raaff of Bapthorp and hys sone, Wyllyam Corbyn, squyers; William Cotton, receyver of the Ducherye of Lancastre; Gylbert Starbrok, squyer; Malmer Pagentoun, William Botelore, yomen; Rogere Mercroft, the Kynges messanger; Halyn, the Kynges porter; Raufe Wyllerby; and xxv. mo, whych her names be not zet knowen. And of hem that ben slayn ben beryed in Sent Albonos xlviij. And at this same tyme were hurt Lordes of name--the Kyng, our sovereyne Lord, in the neck with an arrowe; the Duke of Bukingham, with an arrowe in the vysage; the Lord of Stafford in the hond, with an arowe; the Lord of Dorsette, sore hurt that he myght not go, but he was caryede hom in a cart; and Wenlok, Knyght, in lyke wyse in a carte sore hurt; and other diverse knyghtes and squyers sore hurt.
The Erle of Wyldsshyre, Thorpe, and many other flede, and left her harneys behynde hem cowardly, and the substaunce of the Kynges partye were dyspoyled of hors and harneys. This done, the seyde Lordes, that ys to wote, the Duke of Yorke, the Erle of Salesbury, the Erle of Warrewyke, come to the Kyng, our sovereyne Lord, and on here knees be soughte hym of grace and foryevenesse of that they hadde doon yn his presence, and be sought hym of his Heynesse to take hem as hys true legemen, seyng that they never attendyde [_intended_] hurt to his owne persone, and ther fore [the] Kyng oure sovereyn Lord toke hem to grace, and so desyred hem to cesse there peple, and that there shulde no more harme be doon; and they obeyde hys commaundement, and lote make a cry on the Kynges name that al maner of pepull shulde cesse and not so hardy to stryke ony stoke more after the proclamacyon of the crye; and so cessed the seyde batayle, _Deo gratias_.
And on the morwe the Kyng and the seyde Duke, with other certeyn Lordes, come in to the Bysshops of London, and there kept resydens with joye and solempnyte, concludyng to holde the parlement at London, the ix. day of July next comyng.
[Footnote 25.1: This paper is reprinted from the _Archaeologia_, vol. xx. p. 519, to which it was communicated by Mr. Bayley, keeper of the records in the Tower, in 1822.]
[[Boslawe in Seynt Petrus Strete _text unchanged; correct name is "Goslawe"_]]
[[lordes, knygthtes, and squyeres _text has "end"_]]
[[the Duke of Bukingham, with an arrowe in the vysage; _Gairdner, following Bayley, omits the following line "the lord of Dudle, with an arowe in the vysage;"_]]
THE BATTLE OF ST. ALBANS[29.1]
[Sidenote: 1455 / [MAY 22]]
The solecytouriz and causerys of the feld takyng at Seynt Albonys, ther namys shewyn her aftyr:--