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55 By a triple treachery: 1. Because of his admiration of Strength he had become a follower of Morgoth and fell with him down into the depths of evil, becoming his chief agent in Middle Earth. 2. when Morgoth was defeated by the Valar finally he forsook his allegiance; but out of fear only; he did not present himself to the Valar or sue for pardon, and remained in Middle Earth. 3. When he found how greatly his knowledge was admired by all other rational creatures and how easy it was to influence them, his pride became boundless. By the end of the Second Age he assumed the position of Morgoth's representative. By the end of the Third Age (though actually much weaker than before) he claimed to be Morgoth returned.

56My Sam Gamgee is Samwise not Sam(p)son or Samuel.

57Having geological interests, and a very little knowledge, I have not wholly neglected this aspect, but its indication is rather more difficult and perilous!

58By 'assistance' I do not, of course, mean interference, though the opportunity to consider specimens would be desirable. My linguistic knowledge seldom extends, beyond the detection of obvious errors and liberties, to the criticism of the niceties that would be required. But there are many special difficulties in this text. To mention one: there are a number of words not to be found in the dictionaries, or which require a knowledge of older English. On points such as these, and others that would inevitably arise, the author would be the most satisfactory, and the quickest, source of information.

59Anyway Canetang=Puddleduck2 is several classes above this performer!

60Actually referred to as 'the One' in App. A III p. 317 1. 20. The Nmenreans (and Elves) were absolute monotheists.

61For example: Ford of Bruinen = Bjrnavad! Archet = Gamleby (a mere guess, I suppose, from 'archaic'?) Mountains of Lune (Ered Luin) = Mnbergen; Gladden Fields (in spite of descr. in I. 62) = Ljusa slttema, & so on.4 62Or (I surmise) the nomenclature of later volumes.

63Soon after AD 1400.

64But even so we do not know the original meaning of tooth. Did it mean 'spike, sharp point' or was it (as some guess) really the participial agent to ED 'eat', sc. a functional and non-pictorial name?

65Because a single word in human language (unlike Entish!) is a short-hand sign, & conventional. The fact that it is derived from a single facet, even if proved, does not prove that other facets were not equally present to the mind of the users of this conventional sign. The is ultimately independent of the verbum.

66But we do not know how Tw (=dvus) became a 'name' equated in the interpretatio romana with Mars. Perhaps another substitution of a general term (divinity) for a 'true name'. The plural tvar in O. Norse verse still means 'gods'.

67That is: they refer to undisturbed norms of habitual change (like simple statements of the action of frost), but the norms may be interfered with the patterns on a given window are practically unpredictable, though one believes that if one knew all the circumstances, it would not be so.

68By which he means that they are not connected by lost semantic change; but how can he be sure of that?

69(See the lament of Galadriel I 394) oiolosso = from Mt. Uilos.

70In High-elven. There was also a more or less synonymous stem gal (corresponding to gil which only applied to white or silver light). This variation g/k is not to be confused with the grammatical change or k, c > g in Grey-elven, seen in the initials of words in composition or after closely connected particles (like the article). So Gil-galad 'star-light'. Cf. palan-driel compared with a tro niu.

71Note the expression III p. 364 [2nd edition p. 365] 'taken as prisoner'.

72Sc. belong to our 'mythological' Middle-Ages which blends unhistorically styles and details ranging over 500 years, and most of which did not of course exist in the Dark Ages of c. 500 A.D.

73Almost the only vestige of 'religion' is seen on II pp. 284-5 in the 'Grace before Meat'. This is indeed mainly as it were a commemoration of the Departed, and theology is reduced to 'that which is beyond Elvenhome and ever will be', sc. is beyond the mortal lands, beyond the memory of unfallen Bliss, beyond the physical world.

74I imagine the gap to be about 6000 years : that is we are now at the end of the Fifth Age, if the Ages were of about the same length as S.A. and T.A. But they have, I think, quickened; and I imagine we are actually at the end of the Sixth Age, or in the Seventh.

75Hence the Elves called the World, the Universe, E It Is.

76It is the view of the Myth that in (say) Elves and Men 'sex' is only an expression in physical or biological terms of a difference of nature in the 'spirit', not the ultimate cause of the difference between femininity and masculinity.

77In narrative, as soon as the matter becomes 'storial' and not mythical, being in fact human literature, the centre of interest must shift to Men (and their relations with Elves or other creatures), we cannot write stories about Elves, whom we do not know inwardly; and if we try we simply turn Elves into men.

78[A note apparently added later:] It was also the Elvish (and uncorrupted Nmenrean) view that a 'good' Man would or should die voluntarily by surrender with trust before being compelled (as did Aragorn). This may have been the nature of unfallen Man ; though compulsion would not threaten him: he would desire and ask to be allowed to 'go on' to a higher state. The Assumption of Mary, the only unfallen person, may be regarded as in some ways a simple regaining of unfallen grace and liberty: she asked to be received, and was, having no further function on Earth. Though, of course, even if unfallen she was not 'pre-Fall'. Her destiny (in which she had cooperated) was far higher than that of any 'Man' would have been, had the Fall not occurred. It was also unthinkable that her body, the immediate source of Our Lord's (without other physical intermediary) should have been disintegrated, or 'corrupted', nor could it surely be long separated from Him after the Ascension. There is of course no suggestion that Mary did not 'age' at the normal rate of her race; but certainly this process cannot have proceeded or been allowed to proceed to decrepitude or loss of vitality and comeliness. The Assumption was in any case as distinct from the Ascension as the raising of Lazarus from the (self) Resurrection.

79One, the eldest, alone, and six more with six mates.1 80Between 2463 and the beginning of Gandalf's special enquiries concerning the Ring (nearly 500 years later) they appear indeed to have died out altogether (except, of course, for Smeagol); or to have fled from the shadow of Dol Guldur.

81Anciently this apparently took place, shortly after birth, by the announcement of the name of the child to the family assembled, or in larger more elaborate communities to the titular 'head' of the clan or family. See note at end.

82Hence the Hobbit expression 'a twelve-mile cousin' for a person who stickled for the law, and recognized no obligations beyond its precise interpretation: one who would give you no present if the distance from his doorstep to yours was not under 12 miles (according to his own measurement).

83No presents were given at or during the celebration of Hobbit weddings, except flowers (weddings were mostly in Spring or early Summer). Assistance in furnishing a home (if the couple were to have a separate one, or private apartments in a Smial) was given long before by the parents on either side.

84In more primitive communities, as those still living in clan-smials, the byrding also made a gift to the 'head of the family'. There is no mention of Smeagol's presents. I imagine that he was an orphan; and do not suppose that he gave any present on his birthday, save (grudgingly) the tribute to his 'grandmother'. Fish probably. One of the reasons, maybe, for the expedition. It would have been just like Smeagol to give fish, actually caught by Deagol!

85We are here dealing only with titular 'headship' not with ownership of property, and its management. These were distinct matters; though in the case of the surviving 'great households', such as Great Smials or Brandy Hall, they might overlap. In other cases, headship, being a mere title, and a matter of courtesy, was naturally seldom relinquished by the living.

86This title and office descended immediately, and was not held by a widow. But Ferumbras, though he became Thain Ferumbras III in 1380, still occupied no more than a small bachelor-son's apartment in the Great Smials, until 1402.

87descendants of a common great-grandfather of the same name.

88In the original poem he was said to wear a peacock's feather, which (I think you will agree) was entirely unsuitable to his situation in the L.R. In it his feather is merely reported as 'blue'. Its origin is now revealed.

89Only in this respect hatred of trees. She was a great and gallant lady.

90See III p. 245.1 91Actually, since the events at the Cracks of Doom would obviously be vital to the Tale, I made several sketches or trial versions at various stages in the narrative - but none of them were used, and none of them much resembled what is actually reported in the finished story.

92We frequently see this double scale used by the saints in their judgements upon themselves when suffering great hardships or temptations, and upon others in like trials.

93No account is here taken of 'grace' or the enhancement of our powers as instruments of Providence. Frodo was given 'grace': first to answer the call (at the end of the Council) after long resisting a complete surrender; and later in his resistance to the temptation of the Ring (at times when to claim and so reveal it would have been fatal), and in his endurance of fear and suffering. But grace is not infinite, and for the most pan seems in the Divine economy limited to what is sufficient for the accomplishment of the task appointed to one instrument in a pattern of circumstances and other instruments.

94It is not made explicit how she could arrange this. She could not of course just transfer her ticket on the boat like that! For any except those of Elvish race 'sailing West' was not permitted, and any exception required 'authority', and she was not in direct communication with the Valar, especially not since her choice to become 'mortal'. What is meant is that it was Arwen who first thought of sending Frodo into the West, and put in a plea for him to Gandalf (direct or through Galadriel, or both), and she used her own renunciation of the right to go West as an argument. Her renunciation and suffering were related to and enmeshed with Frodo's : both were parts of a plan for the regeneration of the state of Men. Her prayer might therefore be specially effective, and her plan have a certain equity of exchange. No doubt it was Gandalf who was the authority that accepted her plea. The Appendices show clearly that he was an emissary of the Valar, and virtually their plenipotentiary in accomplishing the plan against Sauron. He was also in special accord with Cirdan the Ship-master, who had surrendered to him his ring and so placed himself under Gandalf's command. Since Gandalf himself went on the Ship there would be so to speak no trouble either at embarking or at the landing.

95In the sense that 'pity' to be a true virtue must be directed to the good of its object. It is empty if it is exercised only to keep oneself 'clean', free from hate or the actual doing of injustice, though this is also a good motive.

96The Witch-king had been reduced to impotence.

97 Tasarinan, Ossiriand, Neldoreth, Dorthonion were all regions of Beleriand, famous in tales of the War.

98 Or even the legitimate need of money.

99 At least they were certainly once necessary. And if we are pained or at times scandalized by those we see close to, I think we should remember the enormous debt we owe to the Benedictines, and also remember that (like the Church) they have always been in a state of succumbing to mammon and the world, and never finally overwhelmed. The inner fire has never been extinguished.

100 The unseemly cobwebs & dust, and the stained label, are not always signs of impaired contents, for those who can draw old corks.

101Not that one should forget the wise words of Charles Williams, that it is our duty to tend the accredited and established altar, though the Holy Spirit may send the fire down somewhere else. God cannot be limited (even by his own Foundations) of which St Paul is the first & prime example and may use any channel for His grace. Even to love Our Lord, and certainly to call him Lord, and God, is a grace, and may bring more grace. Nonetheless, speaking institutionally and not of individual souls the channel must eventually run back into the ordained course, or run into the sands and perish. Besides the Sun there may be moonlight (even bright enough to read by); but if the Sun were removed there would be no Moon to see. What would Christianity now be if the Roman Church has in fact been destroyed?

102It is a curious chance that the stem talat used in Q[uenya] for 'slipping, sliding, falling down', of which atalantie is a normal (in Q) noun-formation, should so much resemble Atlantis.

103In Time and Tide of this July 15, in a symposium of publishers telling readers what to take on holiday, he only mentioned The Lord of the Rings from all his list, and foretold a long life for it.

104an error probably for izs bks, 'of this book', sg.

105an error probably for bka meina, 'my book', sg.

106Yes, even up to 15,000! Or more!

107That is, one in which inventing a language for pleasure was the main motive. I am not concerned with slangs, cants, thieves' argot, Notwelsch, and things of that sort.

108My hobbit is a case. Showing how peculiar to an individual this attribution may be (often obscure to the perpetrator of the 'noise' and not discoverable by others). If I attributed meaning to boo-hoo I should not in this case be influenced by the words containing b in many other European languages, but by a story by Lord Dunsany (read many years ago) about two idols enshrined in the same temple: Chu-Bu and Sheemish. If I used boo-hoo at all it would be as the name of some ridiculous, fat, self-important character, mythological or human.

109except in geometry which I was taught by her sister. That was the aunt whose last years I cheered and amused by composing and selecting The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, and consulting her about the book, which she had asked for. She died in her 92nd year soon after it was published.4 110There are exceptions. I have read all that E. R. Eddison wrote, in spite of his peculiarly bad nomenclature and personal philosophy. I was greatly taken by the book that was (I believe) the runner-up when The L. R. was given the Fantasy Award:5Death of Grass.6I enjoy the S.F. of Isaac Azimov. Above these, I was recently deeply engaged in the books of Mary Renault; especially the two about Theseus, The King Must Die, and The Bull from the Sea. A few days ago I actually received a card of appreciation from her; perhaps the piece of 'Fan-mail' that gives me most pleasure.

111E.g. in a nonsensical article by J. S. Ryan.

112With the possible exception of the name (of a king) Gram. This is, of course, a genuine A-S word, but not in recorded A-S used (as it is in Old Norse) as a noun = "warrior or king'. But some influence of the Northern language upon that of the Eorlingas after their removal northward is not unlikely. It is in fact paralleled by clear traces of the influence upon one another of the (poetic) language of Old Norse and A-S.

113The only (but a major) exception is Erendil. See below.

114The word Warg used in The Hobbit and the L.R. for an evil breed of (demonic) wolves is not supposed to be A-S specifically, and is given prim. Germanic form as representing the noun common to the Northmen of these creatures. It seems to have 'caught on' it appears in Orbit 2 p. 119, not as a word in [a] strange country, but in an official communication from Earth to a space-explorer. The story is by a reader of the L.R.

115Already well advanced 20 years before The Hobbit was written. The legends of the past before the time of The Hobbit and The L.R. were also largely composed before 1935.

116Its earliest recorded A-S form is earendil (oer-), later earendel, eorendel. Mostly in glosses on jubar=leoma; also on aurora. But also in Blick[ling] Hom[ilies] 163, se nwa eorendel appl. to St John the Baptist; and most notably Crist 104, eala! earendel engla beorhtast ofer middangeard monnum sended. Often supposed to refer to Christ (or Mary), but comparison with Bl. Homs, suggests that it refers to the Baptist. The lines refer to a herald, and divine messenger, clearly not the sofsta sunnan leoma=Christ.

117Q. ar S. aear (see I 250).

118This provides the key to a large number of other Elvish Q. names, such as Elendil 'Elf-friend' (eled+ndil), Valandil, Mardil the Good Steward (devoted to the House, sc. of the Kings) Meneldil 'astronomer' etc. Of similar significance in names is -(n)dur, though properly this means 'to serve', as one serves a legitimate master: cf. Q. arandil king's friend, royalist, beside arandur 'king's servant, minister'. But these often coincide: e.g. Sam's relation to Frodo can be viewed either as in status -ndur, in spirit -ndil. Compare among the variant names: Erendur '(professional) mariner'.

119At the time of her lament in Lrien she believed this to be perennial, as long as Earth endured. Hence she concludes her lament with a wish or prayer that Frodo may as a special grace be granted a purgatorial (but not penal) sojourn in Eressea, the Solitary Isle in sight of Aman, though for her the way is closed. (The Land of Aman after the downfall of Nmenor, was no longer in physical existence 'within the circles of the world'.) Her prayer was granted but also her personal ban was lifted, in reward for her services against Sauron, and above all for her rejection of the temptation to take the Ring when offered to her. So at the end we see her taking ship.

120Though the episode of the 'wargs' (I believe) is in part derived from a scene in S. R. Crockett's The Black Douglas, probably his best romance and anyway one that deeply impressed me in school-days, though I have never looked at it again. It includes Gil de Rez as a Satanist.

121Which I remember, since (omen again) the OTCs2 of that day were specially privileged and I was one of 12 sent down from K[ing] E[dward's] S[chool] to help 'line the route'. We were camped for a wettish night in Lambeth Palace and marched to our stations early on a dull morning that soon cleared up. I was actually standing outside Buck. Palace great gates to the right, facing the palace. We had a good view of the cavalcades, and I have always remembered one little scene (unnoticed by my companions): as the coach containing the royal children swept in on return the P[rince] of W[ales] (a pretty boy) poked his head out and knocked his coronet askew. He was jerked back and smartly rebuked by his sister.

122A nice singular which I feel hobbits must have used, with a distinctive pl[ural] 'youbodies'.

123This willingness usually connotes some degree of humility. In Yorkshire its first impulse was the desire to 'get on'. But that does not remain the sole objective. Cupboard-love is a frequent preliminary to actual love.

124Not to mention 'drugs'.

125Not 'vintage'. But I like port (v. much) as a mid-mom, drink: warming, digestible, and v. good for my throat, when taken (as I think it should be) by itself or with a dry biscuit, and NOT after a full meal, nor (above all) with desert!

126I have now! Probably more than most other folk; and find myself in a v. tangled wood the clue to which is, however, the belief in incubi and 'changelings'. Alas! one conclusion is that the statement that hobgoblins were 'a larger kind' is the reverse of the original truth. (The statement occurs in the preliminary note on Runes devised for the paperback edition, but now included by A & U in all edns.) 127This meaning was understood by other peoples ignorant of Sindarin: cf. Stoningland (1 vol. edn. 882), and in particular the conversation of Theoden and Ghn 864f. In fact it is probable within the historical fiction that the Nmenreans of the Southern kingdom adopted this name from the primitive inhabitants of Gondor and gave it a suitable version in Sindarin.

128The remark in the foreword to the 1 vol. paper-back p. 7 that the whole thing was 'primarily linguistic in inspiration' is strictly true.

129Possibly the reason why my surname is now usually misspelt TOLKEIN in spite of all my efforts to correct this even by my college-, bank-, and lawyer's clerks! My name is Tolkien, anglicized from To(l)kiehn = tollkhn, and came from Saxony in the 18th century. It is not Jewish in origin, though I should consider it an honour if it were.

130He was actually of almost exactly the same age as my real father would have been: both were born in 1857, Francis at the end of January, and my father in the middle of February.

131She knew the earliest form of the legend (written in hospital), and also the poem eventually printed as Aragorn's song in LR.

132Owing to Christopher - when I was looking in vain for somewhere to live he wrote 'off his own bat' to the Warden of Merton College and said that his father was wandering looking in vain for a home, & could the College help? So I was amazed to receive a letter from the Warden saying that he had called a special meeting of the Governing Body, and it had unanimously voted that I should be invited to be a residential Fellow!

133Sc. a closely formed body of enemy soldiers.

134The Silvan Elves of Thranduil's realm did not speak S. but a related language or dialect.

135The difference between this and S. Ithil is due to a change of (th) >s in Q. of the Exiles. But there was a stem SIL as in Silmarilli. Cf. also sla lmenna omentielvo.

136Note: 2 ancient words in Elvish for 'tree': (1) *galad Q. alda, S. galadh. (2) > Q. orne, S. orn.

(1) is not connected in origin with the name Galadriel, but it does [occur] in Calas Galadhon, Galadhrim. Before I discovered that many readers like you wd. be interested in language-details, I thought people would feel dh uncouth, and so wrote d (for & dh) in names. But galadhon, -dhrim is now in text.

137If indeed all were so; some may have been merely coinages in the general style; or alterations of old names arising domestically. As in our Robert > Robin, Dobbin, Hob, Bob etc.

138Your use of lenited indicates that you know these, so I need not say any more; except to observe that though of phonetic origin, they are used grammatically, and so may occur or be absent in cases where this is not phonetically justified by descent.

139e.g. Periannath the Hobbit-folk, as distinguished from periain hobbits, an indefinite number of 'halflings'.

140Original[ly] the Q. duals were (a) purely numerative (element ata) and pairs (element as seen in Aldya); but they were normally in later Q. only usual with reference to natural pairs, and the choice of t or u [was] decided by euphony (e.g. was preferred after d/t in stem.

141from arn(a)gon -ath.

142This we certainly never meant to be.


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