9:6. Not as though the word of God hath miscarried. For all are not Israelites that are of Israel.
All are not Israelites, etc... Not all, who are the carnal seed of Israel, are true Israelites in God's account: who, as by his free grace, he heretofore preferred Isaac before Ismael, and Jacob before Esau, so he could, and did by the like free grace, election and mercy, raise up spiritual children by faith to Abraham and Israel, from among the Gentiles, and prefer them before the carnal Jews.
9:7. Neither are all they that are the seed of Abraham, children: but in Isaac shall thy seed be called.
9:8. That is to say, not they that are the children of the flesh are the children of God: but they that are the children of the promise are accounted for the seed.
9:9. For this is the word of promise: According to this time will I come. And Sara shall have a son.
9:10. And not only she. But when Rebecca also had conceived at once of Isaac our father.
9:11. For when the children were not yet born, nor had done any good or evil (that the purpose of God according to election might stand):
Not yet born, etc... By this example of these twins, and the preference of the younger to the elder, the drift of the apostle is, to shew that God, in his election, mercy and grace, is not tied to any particular nation, as the Jews imagined; nor to any prerogative of birth, or any forgoing merits. For as, antecedently to his grace, he sees no merits in any, but finds all involved in sin, in the common mass of condemnation; and all children of wrath: there is no one whom he might not justly leave in that mass; so that whomsoever he delivers from it, he delivers in his mercy: and whomsoever he leaves in it, he leaves in his justice.
As when, of two equally criminal, the king is pleased out of pure mercy to pardon one, whilst he suffers justice to take place in the execution of the other.
9:12. Not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said to her: The elder shall serve the younger.
9:13. As it is written: Jacob I have loved: but Esau I have hated.
9:14. What shall we say then? Is there injustice with God? God forbid!
9:15. For he saith to Moses: I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy. And I will shew mercy to whom I will shew mercy.
9:16. So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
Not of him that willeth, etc... That is, by any power or strength of his own, abstracting from the grace of God.
9:17. For the scripture saith to Pharao: To this purpose have I raised thee, that I may shew my power in thee and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
To this purpose, etc... Not that God made him on purpose that he should sin, and so be damned; but foreseeing his obstinacy in sin, and the abuse of his own free will, he raised him up to be a mighty king, to make a more remarkable example of him: and that his power might be better known, and his justice in punishing him, published throughout the earth.
9:18. Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will. And whom he will, he hardeneth.
He hardeneth... Not by being the cause or author of his sin, but by withholding his grace, and so leaving him in his sin, in punishment of his past demerits.
9:19. Thou wilt say therefore to me: Why doth he then find fault? For who resisteth his will?
9:20. O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it: Why hast thou made me thus?
9:21. Or hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump, to make one vessel unto honour and another unto dishonour?
The potter... This similitude is used only to shew that we are not to dispute with our Maker, nor to reason with him why he does not give as uch grace to one as to another; for since the whole lump of our clay is vitiated by sin, it is owing to his goodness and mercy, that he makes out of it so many vessels of honor; and it is no more than just, that others, in punishment of their unrepented sins, should be given up to be vessels of dishonor.
9:22. What if God, willing to shew his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath, fitted for destruction,
9:23. That he might shew the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy which he hath prepared unto glory?
9:24. Even us, whom also he hath called, not only of the Jews but also of the Gentiles.
9:25. As in Osee he saith: I will call that which was not my people, my people; and her that was not beloved, beloved; and her that had not obtained mercy; one that hath obtained mercy.
9:26. And it shalt be in the place where it was said unto them: you are not my people; there they shall be called the sons of the living God.
9:27. And Isaias cried out concerning Israel: If the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved.
A remnant... That is, a small number only of the children of Israel shall be converted and saved. How perversely is this text quoted for the salvation of men of all religions, when it speaks only of the converts of the children of Israel!
9:28. For he shall finish his word and cut it short in justice: because a short word shall the Lord make upon the earth.
9:29. And Isaias foretold: Unless the Lord of Sabbath had left us a seed, we had been made as Sodom and we had been like unto Gomorrha.
9:30. What then shall we say? That the Gentiles who followed not after justice have attained to justice, even the justice that is of faith.
9:31. But Israel, by following after the law of justice, is not come unto the law of justice.
9:32. Why so? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were of works. For they stumbled at the stumblingstone.
9:33. As it is written: Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone and a rock of scandal. And whosoever believeth in him shall not be confounded.
Romans Chapter 10
The end of the law is faith in Christ. which the Jews refusing to submit to, cannot be justified.
10:1. Brethren, the will of my heart, indeed and my prayer to God is for them unto salvation.
10:2. For I bear them witness that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
10:3. For they, not knowing the justice of God and seeking to establish their own, have not submitted themselves to the justice of God.
The justice of God... That is, the justice which God giveth us through Christ; as on the other hand, the Jews' own justice is, that which they pretended to by their own strength, or by the observance of the law, without faith in Christ.
10:4. For the end of the law is Christ: unto justice to everyone that believeth.
10:5. For Moses wrote that the justice which is of the law: The man that shall do it shall live by it.
10:6. But the justice which is of faith, speaketh thus: Say not in thy heart: Who shall ascend into heaven? That is to bring Christ down;
10:7. Or who shall descend into the deep? That is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.
10:8. But what saith the scripture? The word is nigh thee; even in thy mouth and in thy heart. This is the word of faith, which we preach.
10:9. For if thou confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in thy heart that God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be saved.
Thou shalt be saved... To confess the Lord Jesus, and to call upon the name of the Lord (ver. 13) is not barely the professing a belief in the person of Christ; but moreover, implies a belief of his whole doctrine, and an obedience to his law; without which, the calling him Lord will save no man. St. Matt. 7.21.
10:10. For, with the heart, we believe unto justice: but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation.