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SUFFRAGO, suf-fr[=a]'g[=o], _n._ the joint between the tibia and tarsus, as the hock of a horse's hind-leg, the heel of a bird.--_adj._ SUFFRAG'INOUS.

[L. _suffrago_, the hock--_sub_, under, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

SUFFRUTESCENT, suf-r[=oo]-tes'ent, _adj._ somewhat woody at the base.--_n._ SUFF'RUTEX, an under-shrub, a herb with permanent woody base.--_adj._ SUFFRU'TIC[=O]SE, shrubby at base, small with woody stem--also SUFFRU'TICOUS.--_adj._ SUFFRUTIC'[=U]LOSE, somewhat fruticulose. [L. _sub_, under, _frutex_, a shrub.]

SUFFULTED, su-ful'ted, _adj._ gradually blending into another colour. [L.

_suffulc[=i]re_, _suffultum_, to support.]

SUFFUMIGATE, suf-f[=u]'mi-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to apply fumes to.--_n._ SUFFUMIG[=A]'TION, the act of fumigating or burning perfumes.

SUFFUSE, suf-f[=u]z', _v.t._ to pour underneath: to overspread or cover, as with a fluid.--_n._ SUFF[=U]'SION, act or operation of suffusing: state of being suffused: that which is suffused. [L. _sub_, underneath, _fund[)e]re_, _fusum_, to pour.]

SUFISM, s[=u]'fizm, _n._ a form of pantheistic mysticism within Islam.--_ns._ S[=U]'FI, S[=O]'FI, one of such mystics.--_adjs._ S[=U]'FIC, SUFIS'TIC. [Ar. _s[=u]fi_--Gr. _sophos_, wise.]

SUGAR, shoog'ar, _n._ a sweet substance obtained chiefly from a kind of cane: anything sugary, honeyed words, flattery.--_v.t._ to sprinkle or mix with sugar: to compliment.--_ns._ SUG'AR-BAK'ER, a sugar-refiner; SUG'AR-BEET, any one of several varieties of the common garden beet, grown for sugar; SUG'AR-CAN'DY, sugar candied or in large crystals; SUG'AR-CANE, the saccharine grass (_Saccharum officinarum_) from which sugar is chiefly obtained.--_adj._ SUG'AR-COAT'ED, coated with sugar.--_p.adj._ SUG'ARED, sweetened with sugar.--_ns._ SUG'AR-GUM, a large Australian eucalyptus yielding good timber, with sweetish foliage; SUG'AR-HOUSE, a factory where sugar is made; SUG'ARINESS, state or quality of being sugary or sweet; SUG'AR-LOAF, a loaf or mass of sugar, usually in the form of a truncated cone; SUG'AR-M[=A]'PLE, the hard maple; SUG'AR-MILL, a machine for pressing out the juice of the sugar-cane; SUG'AR-MITE, a mite infesting unrefined sugar; SUG'AR-PLUM, a species of sweetmeat made up in small ornamental balls or lumps like a plum: any very pleasing piece of flattery; SUG'AR-REF[=I]'NER, one who refines raw sugar; SUG'AR-REF[=I]' SUG'AR-TONGS, an implement for lifting pieces of sugar at table.--_adj._ SUG'ARY, sweetened with, tasting of, or like sugar: fond of sweets.--SUGAR OF LEAD, acetate of lead. [Fr. _sucre_--Sp.

_azucar_--Ar. _assokhar_--Pers. _shakar_--Sans. _carkar[=a]_, sugar, orig.

grains of sand, applied to sugar because occurring in grains.]

SUGGEST, suj-jest', _v.t._ to introduce indirectly to the thoughts: to hint.--_v.i._ to make suggestions.--_ns._ SUGGES'TER; SUGGESTIBIL'ITY, capability of being suggested.--_adj._ SUGGES'TIBLE.--_n._ SUGGES'TION, act of suggesting: hint: proposal: incitement, temptation: (_law_) information without oath, not being pleadable: the act of exercising control over a hypnotised subject by communicating some belief or impulse by means of words or gestures, also the idea so suggested; SUGGES'TIONISM, the theory that hypnotic effects are entirely due to the action of suggestion upon weak persons; SUGGES'TIONIST, one who holds this view.--_adj._ SUGGES'TIVE, containing a hint: fitted to suggest: pertaining to hypnotic suggestion.--_adv._ SUGGES'TIVELY.--_ns._ SUGGES'TIVENESS, state of being suggestive; SUGGES'TOR; SUGGES'TRESS; SUGGES'TUM, a raised platform. [L.

_sub_, under, _ger[)e]re_, _gestum_, to carry.]

SUGGIL, suj'il, _v.t._ (_obs._) to beat black and blue--also SUGG'IL[=A]TE.--_n._ SUGGIL[=A]'TION, a livid mark, a blow. [L.


SUICIDE, s[=u]'i-s[=i]d, _n._ one who dies by his own hand: self-murder.--_adj._ S[=U]IC[=I]'DAL, pertaining to, or partaking of, the crime of suicide.--_adv._ S[=U]IC[=I]'DALLY.--_n._ SU'ICIDISM, a tendency towards suicide. [Coined from L. _sui_, of himself, _caed[)e]re_, to kill.]

SUIDae, s[=u]'i-d[=e], a family of even-toed, non-ruminant Ungulates, including pigs, hogs, or boars, the Babiroussa, and the wart-hogs (_Phacochoerus_).--_adjs._ S[=U]'IFORM, like the _Suidae_; S[=U]'ILLINE, swinish.

SUINT, swint, _n._ the natural grease of wool. [Fr.]

SUIST, s[=u]'ist, _n._ a self-seeker.--_n._ S[=U]'ICISM, selfishness.

SUIT, s[=u]t, _n._ act of suing: an action at law: a petition: a series: a set: a number of things of the same kind or made to be used together, as clothes or armour: courtship.--_v.t._ to fit: to become: to please.--_v.i._ to agree: to correspond.--_p.adj._ SUIT'ED (_Shak._), dressed, clothed.--_ns._ SUIT'ING, cloth suitable for making suits of clothes, usually in _pl._; SUIT'OR, one who sues in love or law: a petitioner: a wooer:--_fem._ SUIT'RESS.--_v.i._ to play the suitor.--_adj._ SUIT'ORCIDE, suitor-killing. [Fr.,--Low L. _secta_, a suit--L. _sequi_, to follow.]

SUITABLE, s[=u]t'a-bl, _adj._ that suits: fitting: agreeable to: adequate.--_ns._ SUITABIL'ITY, SUIT'ABLENESS.--_adv._ SUIT'ABLY.

SUITE, sw[=e]t, _n._ a train of followers or attendants: a regular set, particularly of rooms: a series of dances arranged for instruments in the same or relative keys, and usually preceded by a prelude: a sequel. [Fr.

Cf. _Suit_.]

SUIVEZ, sw[=e]-v[=a]', _n._ (_mus._) a direction to the accompanist to adapt his time and style to the soloist. [Fr., 'follow.']

SUJEE, s[=oo]'j[=e], _n._ fine flour made from the heart of the wheat, for English tables in India--Also SOO'JEE, SOU'JEE. [Hind. _s[=u]j[=i]_.]

SULCATE, -D, sul'k[=a]t, -ed, adj, furrowed, grooved.--_n._ SULC[=A]'TION.--_adj._ SUL'CIFORM.--_n._ SUL'CUS:--_pl._ SUL'CI. [L.

_sulcus_, a furrow.]

SULK, sulk, _v.i._ to be sullen.--_adv._ SULK'ILY, in a sulky, sullen, or morose manner.--_n._ SULK' SULKS, a fit of sullenness.--_adj._ SULK'Y, silently sullen.--_n._ a light two-wheeled vehicle for one person, sometimes having no body. [A.S. _solcen_, slow--_seolcan_, to be slow.]

SULLAGE, sul'[=a]j, _n._ the floating scum on molten metal: silt: anything which sullies.

SULLEN, sul'en, _adj._ gloomily angry and silent: malignant, baleful: dark: dull.--_adv._ SULL'ENLY.--_n._ SULL' SULL'ENS, sullen fits.

[O. Fr. _solain_--L. _solus_, alone.]

SULLY, sul'i, _v.t._ to soil: to spot: to tarnish.--_v.i._ to be soiled:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sull'ied.--_n._ spot: tarnish. [A.S. _sylian_, to defile--_sol_, mud.]

SULPHUR, sul'fur, _n._ a yellow mineral substance, very brittle, fusible, and inflammable: brimstone.--_n._ SUL'PHATE, a salt formed by sulphuric acid with a base.--_v.t._ to form a deposit of lead sulphate on.--_adj._ SULPHAT'IC.--_ns._ SUL'PHATILE, native sulphuric acid; SUL'PHIDE, a combination of sulphur with a metal; SUL'PHITE, a salt formed by sulphurous acid.--_v.t._ SUL'PH[=U]R[=A]TE, to combine with, or subject to, the action of sulphur.--_ns._ SULPH[=U]R[=A]'TION, the act or operation of subjecting to the action of sulphur or sulphurous acid; SULPHUR[=A]'TOR, an apparatus for sulphurating.--_adj._ SULPH[=U]'R[=E]OUS, consisting of, containing, or having the qualities of sulphur.--_adv._ SULPH[=U]'REOUSLY.--_ns._ SULPH[=U]'REOUSNESS; SUL'PH[=U]RET, a combination of sulphur with an alkali, earth, or metal.--_adjs._ SUL'PH[=U]RETTED, having sulphur in combination; SULPH[=U]'RIC, pertaining to, or obtained from, sulphur: denoting a certain well-known strong acid, formerly called oil of vitriol; SUL'PH[=U]ROUS, pertaining to, resembling, or containing sulphur: denoting the pungent acid given out when sulphur is burned in air; SUL'PHURY, partaking of the qualities of sulphur.--SULPHURETTED HYDROGEN, a compound of sulphur and hydrogen, stinking and noxious; SULPHUROUS ACID, an acid formed by one equivalent of sulphur combined with two of oxygen. [L.

_sulphur_; said to be conn. with Sans. _culv[=a]ri_.]

SULTAN, sul'tan, _n._ a Mohammedan sovereign, esp. the supreme head of the Ottoman empire: a purple or hyacinthine gallinule, or porphyrio: a small white variety of the domestic hen:--_fem._ SULTANA (sul-ta'na), the mother, a wife, or a daughter of a sultan--also SUL'TANESS.--_ns._ SULTANA (sul-ta'na), a king's mistress: a kind of viol: an old form of necklace: a small kind of raisin; SUL'TANATE, the authority or jurisdiction of a sultan.--adj: SULTAN'IC.--_n._ SUL'TANSHIP. [Ar. _sult[=a]n_, victorious, a ruler.]

SULTRY: sul'tri, _adj._ sweltering: very hot and oppressive: close.--_adv._ SUL'TRILY.--_n._ SUL'TRINESS. [Another form is _sweltry_, from root of _swelter_.]

SUM, sum, _n._ the amount of two or more things taken together: the whole of anything: a quantity of money: a problem in arithmetic: chief points: substance or result of reasoning: summary: height: completion.--_v.t._ to collect into one amount or whole: to count: to bring into a few words:--_pr.p._ sum'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ summed.--_adj._ SUM'LESS, not to be summed or counted: incalculable.--_ns._ SUM'MER, one who sums; SUM'MING, the act of one who sums, arithmetic; SUM'MING-UP, a recapitulation or review of the leading points, a judge's summary survey of the evidence given to a jury before it withdraws to consider its verdict; SUM'MIST, one who makes a summary, esp. a theological compendium. [Fr.,--L.

_summa_--_summus_, _supremus_, highest, superl. of _superus_, on high--_super_, above.]

SUMAC, SUMACH, s[=u]'mak, _n._ a genus of small trees and shrubs of the natural order _Anacardiaceae_--the leaves of some species used in dyeing.

[Fr. _sumac_--Sp. _zumaque_--Ar. _summ[=a]q_.]

SUMERIAN, s[=u]-m[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Sumir_, one of the two divisions of ancient Babylonia.

SUMMARY, sum'a-ri, _adj._ summed up or condensed: short: brief: compendious: done by a short method.--_n._ an abstract, abridgment, or compendium.--_adv._ SUMM'ARILY.--_n._ SUMM'ARINESS.--_v.t._ SUMM'ARISE, to present in a summary or briefly.--_ns._ SUMM'ARIST; one who summarises; SUMM'[=U]LA, a brief educational text-book.--SUMMARY DILIGENCE (Scots law), the process by which execution may proceed without the need of further application to the court, in the case of bonds and other instruments registered for execution.

SUMMATION, sum-[=a]'shun, _n._ act of summing or forming a total amount: an aggregate.--_adjs._ SUMM[=A]'TIONAL, SUMM'ATIVE.

SUMMER, sum'[.e]r, _n._ the second and warmest season of the year--June, July, August.--_v.i._ to pass the summer.--_v.t._ to keep through the summer.--_adj._ SUMM'ER-DRIED, dried by the heat of summer.--_n._ SUMM'ER-DUCK, a beautiful North American duck.--_adj._ SUMM'ER-FALL'OW, lying fallow during the summer.--_ns._ SUMM'ER-HOUSE, a house in a garden used in summer: a summer residence; SUMM'ERING, a kind of early apple.--_adv._ SUMM'ER-LIKE.--_adj._ SUMM'ERLY, warm and bright like summer.--_ns._ SUMM'ER-SHINE, the summer colour of a bird, insect, &c.; SUMM'ER-TIDE, SUMM'ER-TIME, the summer season.--_adj._ SUMM'ERY, like summer.--INDIAN SUMMER (see INDIAN); ST LUKE'S, ST MARTIN'S, SUMMER (see SAINT). [A.S. _sumer_, _sumor_; Dut. _zomer_, Ger. _sommer_.]

SUMMER, sum'[.e]r, _n._ the first stone laid over columns or pilasters to form a cross vault: the central beam of a floor which receives the joists: any large piece of timber supported on two strong piers or posts, and serving as a lintel to a door, window, &c.; (_obs._) a pack-horse, a sumpter-horse. [_Sumpter_.]


SUMMIT, sum'it, _n._ the highest point or degree: the top.--_adj._ SUMM'ITLESS, having no summit or top.--_n._ SUMM'IT-LEV'EL, the highest level. [O. Fr. _som_, the top of a hill--L. _summum_, highest.]

SUMMON, sum'un, _v.t._ to call with authority: to command to appear, esp.

in court: to rouse to exertion.--_ns._ SUMM'ONER; SUMM'ONS, a summoning or an authoritative call: a call to appear, esp. in court: a call to surrender.--_v.t._ to serve with a summons. [O. Fr. _somoner_--L.

_summon[=e]re_--_sub_, secretly, _mon[=e]re_, to warn.]

SUMP, sump, _n._ a round pit of stone lined with clay, for receiving metal on its first fusion or reduction: the reservoir at the lowest point of a mine, from which the water is pumped: (_prov._) a bog, a puddle. [Dut.

_somp_; Ger. _sumpf_.]

SUMPH, sumf, _n._ (_prov._) a blockhead, a soft sheepish fellow.--_adj._ SUMPH'ISH.--_n._ SUMPH'ISHNESS.

SUMPIT, sum'pit, _n._ the poisoned arrow thrown from the SUM'PITAN, or Malay blow-gun.

SUMPSIMUS, sump'si-mus, _n._ a correct expression displacing an incorrect but common one (see MUMPSIMUS). [L., 1st pers. _pl._ perf. indic. of _sum[)e]re_, to take.]

SUMPTER, sump't[.e]r, _n._ a horse for carrying burdens. [With inserted _p_ from O. Fr. _somier_--Low L. _sagmarius_--Gr. _sagma_, a pack-saddle--Gr.

_sattein_, to pack.]

SUMPTUARY, sumpt'[=u]-ar-i, _adj._ pertaining to or regulating expense, as in SUMPTUARY LAWS, which sought to prevent extravagance in banquets, dress, &c. [L. _sumptuarius_--_sum[)e]re_, _sumptum_, to take, contr. of _sub_, up, _em[)e]re_, to buy.]

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