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SUBSTRATUM, sub-str[=a]'tum, _n._ an under stratum or layer, a fundamental element: the substance in which qualities exist.

SUBSTRUCTURE, sub'struk-t[=u]r, _n._ an under structure or building: foundation.--_v.t._ SUBSTRUCT', to build beneath.--_n._ SUBSTRUC'TION.--_adj._ SUBSTRUC'TURAL.

SUBSTYLE, sub'st[=i]l, _n._ the right line on which the style or gnomon of a dial is erected.--_adj._ SUB'STYLAR.

SUBSULPHATE, sub-sul'f[=a]t, _n._ a basic sulphide.

SUBSULTIVE, sub-sul'tiv, _adj._ bounding, moving by sudden leaps or starts, or by twitches.--_adv._ SUBSUL'TORILY.--_n._ SUBSUL'TUS, a convulsive movement.

SUBSUME, sub-s[=u]m', _v.t._ to place any one cognition under another as belonging to it, as 'All horses are animals'--the minor premise is a SUBSUMP'TION under the major.--_adj._ SUBSUMP'TIVE.

SUBSURFACE, sub'sur-f[=a]s, _adj._ below the surface.

SUBTACK, sub'tak, _n._ an under-lease in Scotland.

SUBTANGENT, sub'tan-jent, _n._ (_geom._) the part of the axis of a curve contained between the tangent and the ordinate.

SUBTEMPERATE, sub-tem'p[.e]r-[=a]t, _adj._ pertaining to the colder parts of the temperate zone.

SUBTENANT, sub-ten'ant, _n._ a tenant who hires or leases from one who is also a tenant.--_n._ SUBTEN'ANCY.

SUBTEND, sub-tend', _v.t._ to extend under or be opposite to.--_n._ SUBTENSE' (_geom._), a line subtending or stretching across.

SUBTEPID, sub-tep'id, _adj._ slightly tepid.

SUBTERFUGE, sub't[.e]r-f[=u]j, _n._ that to which one resorts for escape or concealment: an artifice to escape censure or the force of an argument: evasion. [Fr.,--L. _subterfug[)e]re_--_subter_, under, _fug[)e]re_, to flee.]

SUBTERNATURAL, sub-t[.e]r-nat'[=u]-ral, _adj._ less than, or below, the natural.

SUBTERPOSITION, sub-t[.e]r-p[=o]-zish'un, _n._ the state of lying under something else.

SUBTERRANEAN, sub-te-r[=a]'n[=e]-an, _adj._ under the earth or ground--also SUBTERR[=A]'NEOUS, SUBTERR[=E]NE', SUBTERRES'TRIAL.--_adv._ SUBTERR[=A]'NEOUSLY. [L. _sub_, under, _terra_, the earth.]

SUBTHORACIC, sub-th[=o]-ras'ik, _adj._ situated below the thorax: nearly thoracic in position.


SUBTILE, sub'til, _adj._ delicately constructed: fine: thin or rare: piercing: shrewd.--_adv._ SUB'TILELY.--_ns._ SUB'TILENESS; SUBTILIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SUB'TILISE, to make subtile, thin, or rare: to spin into niceties.--_v.i._ to make nice distinctions: to refine in argument.--_ns._ SUB'TILISM, the quality of being subtile; SUB'TILTY, state or quality of being subtile: fineness: extreme acuteness: cunning. [L.

_subtilis_--_sub_, under, _tela_, a web.]

SUBTITLE, sub't[=i]-tl, _n._ an additional or second title to a book, a half-title.

SUBTLE, sut'l (_B._ SUB'TIL), _adj._ subtile in a figurative sense: acute, quick to discern or discriminate: insinuating, sly, artful: cunningly devised, ingenious.--_ns._ SUBT'LENESS, SUBT'LETY, quality of being subtle: artfulness: shrewdness: extreme acuteness.--_adj._ SUBT'LE-WIT'TED, sharp-witted.--_adv._ SUBT'LY (_B._ SUB'TILLY), ingeniously, cleverly: artfully, deceitfully. [Contr. of _subtile_.]

SUBTONIC, sub'ton-ik, _n._ (_mus._) the seventh of the scale.

SUBTORRID, sub-tor'id, _adj._ approximately torrid.

SUBTRACT, sub-trakt', _v.t._ to take away a part from the rest: to take one number or quantity from another to find their difference.--_ns._ SUBTRAC'TER; SUBTRAC'TION, the act or operation of subtracting: the taking a less number or quantity from a greater.--_adj._ SUBTRACT'IVE, subtracting: tending to subtract or lessen.--_n._ SUB'TRAHEND, the sum or number to be subtracted from another. [L. _sub_, under, _trah[)e]re_, _tractum_, to draw away.]

SUBTRIANGULAR, sub-tr[=i]-ang'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ somewhat triangular.

SUBTRIBE, sub'tr[=i]b, _n._ a section or division of a tribe.--_adj._ SUB'TR[=I]BAL.

SUBTRIPLICATE, sub-trip'li-k[=a]t, _adj._ expressed by the cube root.

SUBTRIST, sub-trist', _adj._ somewhat sad.

SUBTROPICAL, sub-trop'i-kal, _adj._ approaching the tropical or torrid zone in temperature: bordering on tropical regions.--Also SUBTROP'IC.

SUBTYPE, sub't[=i]p, _n._ a type included in another and more general one.--_adj._ SUBTYP'ICAL.

SUBUCULA, s[=u]-buk'[=u]-la, _n._ a man's under-garment or shirt: in the early English church, a kind of cassock worn under the alb.

SUBULATE, s[=u]'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _adj._ awl-shaped.--Also S[=U]'B[=U]L[=A]TED, S[=U]'B[=U]LIFORM. [L. _subula_, an awl.]

SUBULICORN, s[=u]'b[=u]-li-korn, _adj._ with subulate S[=U]B[=U]LICOR'NIA, a division of neuroptera, including dragon-flies, May-flies, &c.

SUBUNGULATE, sub-ung'g[=u]-l[=a]t, _adj._ hoofed, but with several digits.--_n._ a member of the Subungulata, as the elephant or the SUBUNG[=U]L[=A]'TA, a division of hoofed mammals, esp.

those having the carpal bones primitive.

SUBURB, sub'urb, SUBURBS, sub'urbz, _n._ the district which is near but beyond the walls of a city: the confines, outskirts.--_adj._ SUBUR'BAN, situated or living in the suburbs.--_n._ one living in a suburb.--_n._ SUBUR'BANISM, the state of being suburban.--_adj._ SUBURBIC[=A]'RIAN, being near the city, esp. of the provinces of Italy forming the ancient diocese of Rome. [L. _suburbium_--_sub_, under, near, _urbs_, a city.]

SUBURSINE, sub-ur's[=i]n, _adj._ somewhat bear-like.

SUBVARIETY, sub-va-r[=i]'e-ti, _n._ a subordinate variety.

SUBVENE, sub-v[=e]n', _v.i._ to occur so as to effect a result.--_n._ SUBVEN'TION, act of coming to relief, support: a government aid or subsidy.

[L. _sub_, under, _ven[=i]re_, _ventum_, to come.]

SUBVERSE, sub-v[.e]rs', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to subvert.

SUBVERT, sub-v[.e]rt', _v.t._ to turn upside down: to overthrow from the foundation: to ruin utterly: to corrupt.--_n._ SUBVER'SION, act of subverting or overthrowing from the foundation: entire overthrow: ruin.--_adjs._ SUBVER'SIONARY, SUBVER'SIVE, tending to subvert, overthrow, or destroy.--_p.adj._ SUBVERST' (_Spens._), subverted, overturned.--_n._ SUBVERT'ER.--_adj._ SUBVERT'IBLE. [L. _sub_, under, _vert[)e]re_, versum, to turn.]

SUBVERTEBRAL, sub-v[.e]r't[=e]-bral, _adj._ placed under a vertebra.

SUBVERTICAL, sub-v[.e]r'ti-kal, _adj._ almost vertical.

SUBVIRATE, sub'vi-r[=a]t, _n._ one of stunted or imperfectly developed manhood.

SUBVITALISED, sub-v[=i]'tal-[=i]zd, _p.adj._ deficient in vitality.

SUBVITREOUS, sub-vit'r[=e]-us, _adj._ partly vitreous or imperfectly so.

SUBWAY, sub'w[=a], _n._ an underground way for traffic under railways, &c., or for water-pipes, gas-pipes, sewers, &c.

SUBZONAL, sub-z[=o]'nal, _adj._ somewhat zonal: lying below a zone or girdle.

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