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SANTONINE, son'to-nin, _n._ a colourless crystalline poisonous compound contained in _Santonica_. [Gr. _santonicon_, a wormwood found in the country of the _Santones_ in Gaul.]

SAP, sap, _n._ the vital juice of plants: (_bot._) the part of the wood next to the bark: the blood: a simpleton: a plodding student.--_v.i._ to play the part of a ninny: to be studious.--_ns._ SAP'-BEE'TLE a beetle which feeds on sap; SAP'-COL'OUR, a vegetable juice inspissated by slow evaporation, for the use of painters.--_adj._ SAP'FUL, full of sap.--_ns._ SAP'-GREEN, a green colouring matter from the juice of buckthorn berries; SAP'HEAD, a silly fellow.--_adj._ SAP'LESS, wanting sap: not juicy.--_ns._ SAP'LING, a young tree, so called from being full of sap: a young greyhound during the year of his birth until the end of the coursing season which commences in that year; SAP'LING-CUP, an open tankard for drinking new ale; SAP'PINESS.--_adj._ SAP'PY, abounding with sap: juicy: silly.--_ns._ SAP'-TUBE, a vessel that conveys sap; SAP'-WOOD, the outer part of the trunk of a tree, next the bark, in which the sap flows most freely: albumen.--CRUDE SAP, the ascending sap. [A.S. _saep_; Low Ger. _sapp_, juice, Ger. _saft_.]

SAP, sap, _v.t._ to destroy by digging underneath: to undermine: to impair the constitution.--_v.i._ to proceed by undermining:--_pr.p._ sap'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sapped.--_n._ a narrow ditch or trench by which approach is made from the foremost parallel towards the glacis or covert-way of a besieged place.--_n._ SAP'PER, one who saps. [O. Fr.

_sappe_--Low L. _sapa_, a pick, prob. from Gr. _skapan[=e]_, a hoe.]

SAPAJOU, sap'a-zh[=oo], _n._ a name sometimes applied to all that division of American monkeys which have a prehensile tail, and sometimes limited to those of them which are of a slender form, as the genera _Ateles_ or spider-monkey, _Cebus_, &c.--Also SAJOU'.

SAPERDA, s[=a]-p[.e]r'da, _n._ a genus of long-horned beetles, mostly wood-borers. [Gr. _saperd[=e]s_, a fish.]

SAPHENOUS, sa-f[=e]'nus, _adj._ prominent, as a vein of the leg.--_n._ SAPH[=E]'NA, a prominent vein or nerve. [Gr. _saph[=e]n[=e]s_, plain.]

SAPID, sap'id, _adj._ well-tasted: savoury: that affects the taste.--_n._ SAPID'ITY, savouriness.--_adj._ SAP'IDLESS, insipid.--_n._ SAP'IDNESS.

[Fr.,--_L. sapidus_--_sap[)e]re_, to taste.]

SAPIENCE, s[=a]'pi-ens, _n._ discernment: wisdom: knowledge: reason.--_adjs._ S[=A]'PIENT, wise: discerning: sagacious, sometimes used ironically; S[=A]PIEN'TIAL.--_adv._ S[=A]'PIENTLY. [L. _sapiens_, _sapientis_, pr.p. of _sap[)e]re_, to be wise.]

SAPINDUS, s[=a]-pin'dus, _n._ a genus of polypetalous trees, as _Soapberry_. [L. _sapo Indicus_, Indian soap.]

SAPIUM, s[=a]'pi-um, _n._ a genus of apetalous plants belonging to the _Euphorbiaceae_, including the Jamaica milkwood or gum-tree, &c.

SAPI-UTAN, sap'i-[=oo]'tan, _n._ the wild ox of Celebes.--Also SAP'I-OU'TAN. [Malay, _sapi_, cow, _[=u]t[=a]n_, woods.]

SAPO, s[=a]'p[=o], _n._ the toad-fish. [Sp., a toad.]

SAPODILLA, sap-[=o]-dil'a, _n._ a name given in the West Indies to the fruit of several species of Achras, the seeds aperient and diuretic, the pulp subacid and sweet. [Sp. _sapotilla_--_sapota_, the sapota-tree.]

SAPONACEOUS, sap-o-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ soapy: soap-like.--_n._ SAP[=O]N[=A]'RIA, a genus of polypetalous plants, including the soapwort.--_adj._ SAPON'IF[=I]ABLE.--_n._ SAPONIFIC[=A]'TION, the act or operation of converting into soap.--_v.t._ SAPON'IFY, to convert into soap:--_pr.p._ sapon'ifying; _pa.p._ sapon'ified.--_n._ SAP'ONIN, a vegetable principle, the solution of which froths when shaken, obtained from soapwort, &c. [L. _sapo_, _saponis_, soap.]

SAPORIFIC, sap-o-rif'ik, _adj._ giving a taste.--_ns._ S[=A]'POR; SAPOROS'ITY.--_adj._ SAP'[=O]ROUS. [L. _sapor_, _saporis_, taste, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SAPOTACEae, sap-o-t[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n._ a natural order of trees and shrubs, often abounding in milky juice, including the gutta-percha tree--one species yields the star-apple, another the Mammee-Sapota or American marmalade. [_Sapodilla._]

SAPPAN-WOOD, sa-pan'-w[=oo]d, _n._ the wood of Caesalpinia sappan, used in dyeing.

SAPPER, sap'[.e]r, _n._ a soldier employed in the building of fortifications, &c.

SAPPHIC, saf'ik, _adj._ pertaining to _Sappho_, a passionate Greek lyric poetess of Lesbos (_c._ 600 B.C.): denoting a kind of verse said to have been invented by Sappho.--_ns._ SAPPH'IC-STAN'ZA, a metre of Horace, the stanzas of four verses each, three alike, made up of four trochees, with a dactyl in the third place; SAPPH'ISM, unnatural passion between women; SAPPH'[=O], a humming-bird.

SAPPHIRE, saf'[=i]r, or saf'ir, _n._ a highly transparent and brilliant precious stone, a variety of Corundum, generally of a beautiful blue colour--the finest found in Ceylon: (_her._) a blue tincture.--_adj._ deep pure blue.--_n._ SAPPH'IRE-WING, a humming-bird.--_adj._ SAPPH'IRINE, made of, or like, sapphire.--GREEN SAPPHIRE, the Oriental emerald; RED SAPPHIRE, the Oriental ruby; VIOLET SAPPHIRE, the Oriental amethyst. [Fr.,--L.

_sapphirus_--Gr. _sappheiros_--Heb. _sapp[=i]r_, sapphire.]

SAPPING, sap'ing, _n._ the act of excavating trenches.

SAPPLES, sap'lz, (_Scot._) soapsuds.

SAPREMIA, sap-r[=e]'mi-a, _n._ a condition of blood-poisoning.--_adjs._ SAPR[=E]'MIC, SAPRae'MIC. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _haima_, blood.]

SAPROGENOUS, sap-roj'e-nus, _adj._ engendered in putridity.--Also SAPROGEN'IC. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _-gen[=e]s_, producing.]

SAPROHARPAGES, sap-r[=o]-har'pa-j[=e]z, _n._ a group of vultures. [Gr.

_sapros_, rotten, _harpax_, a vulture.]

SAPROLEGNIA, sap-r[=o]-leg'ni-a, _n._ a genus of fungi, causing a destructive salmon-disease. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _legnon_, an edge.]

SAP-ROLLER, sap'-r[=o]l'[.e]r, _n._ a gabion employed by sappers in the trenches.

SAPROMYZA, sap-r[=o]-m[=i]'za, _n._ a large group of reddish-yellow flies.

[Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _myzein_, to suck.]

SAPROPHAGOUS, sap-rof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on decaying matter.--_n._ SAPROPH'AGAN, one of the saprophagous beetles. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _phagein_, to eat.]

SAPROPHYTE, sap'r[=o]-f[=i]t, _n._ a plant that feeds upon decaying vegetable matter.--_adjs._ SAPROPHYT'IC, SAPROPH'ILOUS.--_adv._ SAPROPHYT'ICALLY.--_n._ SAP'ROPHYTISM. [Gr. _sapros_, rotten, _phyton_, a plant.]

SAPROSTOMOUS, sap-ros't[=o]-mus, _adj._ having a foul breath. [Gr.

_sapros_, rotten, _stoma_, mouth.]

SAP-ROT, sap'-rot, _n._ dry-rot in timber.

SAPSAGO, sap's[=a]-g[=o], _n._ a greenish Swiss cheese. [Ger.


SAP-SHIELD, sap'-sh[=e]ld, _n._ a steel plate for shelter to the sapper.

SAP-SUCKER, sap'-suk'[.e]r, _n._ the name in the United States of all the small spotted woodpeckers.--_adj._ SAP'-SUCK'ING.

SAPUCAIA, sap-[=oo]-k[=i]'a, _n._ a Brazilian tree, whose urn-shaped fruit contains a number of finely-flavoured oval seeds or nuts.

SAPYGA, s[=a]-p[=i]'ga, _n._ a genus of digger-wasps.

SARABAND, sar'a-band, _n._ a slow Spanish dance, or the music to which it is danced; a short piece of music, of deliberate character, and with a peculiar rhythm, in -time, the accent being placed on the second crotchet of each measure. [Sp. _zarabanda;_ from Pers. _sarband_, a fillet for the hair.]

SARACEN, sar'a-sen, _n._ a name variously employed by medieval writers to designate the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine, the Arabs generally, or the Arab-Berber races of northern Africa, who conquered Spain and Sicily and invaded France.--_adjs._ SARACEN'IC, -AL.--_n._ SAR'ACENISM.--SARACENIC ARCHITECTURE, a general name for Mohammedan architecture. [O. Fr.

_sarracin_, _sarrazin_--Low L. _Saracenus_--Late Gr. _Sarak[=e]nos_--Ar.

_sharkeyn_, eastern people, as opposed to _maghribe_, 'western people'--i.e. the people of Morocco.]

SARAFAN, sar'a-fan, _n._ a gala-dress. [Russ.]

SARANGOUSTY, sar-an-g[=oo]s'ti, _n._ a material used as a preservative of walls, &c., from damp.

SARBACAND, sar'ba-kand, _n._ a blow-gun.--Also SAR'BACANE.

SARCASM, sar'kazm, _n._ a bitter sneer: a satirical remark in scorn or contempt: irony: a gibe.--_adjs._ SARCAS'TIC, -AL, containing sarcasm: bitterly satirical.--_adv._ SARCAS'TICALLY. [Fr.,--L. _sarcasmus_--Gr.

_sarkasmos_--_sarkazein_, to tear flesh like dogs, to speak bitterly--_sarx_, _sarkos_, flesh.]

SARCEL, sar'sel, _n._ the pinion of a hawk's wing.--_adjs._ SAR'CELLED (_her._), cut through the middle--also SAR'CELe, SAR'CELLeE; DEM'I-SAR'CELED, -SAR'CELLED, partly cut through. [O. Fr. _cercel_--L.

_circellus_, dim. of _circulus_, a circle.]

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