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_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STAND, stand, _v.i._ to cease to move: to be stationary: to occupy a certain position: to stagnate: to be at rest: to be fixed in an upright position, to be erect, to be on the feet--as opposed to _sit_, _lie_, _kneel_, &c.: to become or remain erect: to have a position or rank: to be in a particular state, to be with relation to something else: to maintain an attitude: to be fixed or firm: to keep one's ground: to remain unimpaired: to endure, to be consistent: to consist: to depend or be supported: to offer one's self as a candidate: to have a certain direction: to hold a course at sea.--_v.t._ to endure: to sustain: to suffer: to abide by: to be at the expense of, to offer and pay for:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stood.--_ns._ STAND'ER; STAND'ER-BY (_Shak._), a spectator; STAND'ER-UP, one who stands up or who takes a side.--_adj._ STAND'ING, established: settled: permanent: fixed: stagnant: being erect.--_n._ continuance: existence: place to stand in: position in society: a right or capacity to sue or maintain an action.--_n._ STAND'ING-GROUND, a place on which to stand, any basis or principle on which one STAND'ING-OR'DERS, the name given to permanent regulations made by either House of Parliament for the conduct of its proceedings, and enduring from parliament to parliament unless rescinded.--_ns._ STAND'ING-POOL (_Shak._), a pool of stagnant water; STAND'ING-RIG'GING, the ropes in a ship that remain fixed; STAND'ING-ROOM, place in which to STAND'ING-STONES, monoliths of unhewn stone, erected singly or in groups.--_n._ STAND'ISH, a standing dish for pen and ink.--_adj._ STAND'-OFF, holding others off, reserved--also STAND'-OFF'ISH.--_ns._ STAND'-OFF'ISHNESS, a distant, reserved, and haughty manner; STAND'-PIPE, a vertical pipe at a reservoir, into which the water is pumped up so as to give it a head: a small pipe inserted into an opening in a water-main: a pipe permitting expansion, as of hot water: a pipe sufficiently high for its contents to be forced into a boiler against the steam-pressure; STAND'-POINT, a station or position from which objects are viewed: a basis or fundamental principle according to which things are compared and judged; STAND'STILL, a standing without moving forward: a stop.--_adj._ STAND'-UP, standing erect: done standing, noting a fair boxing-match.--STAND AGAINST, to resist; STAND BY, to support; STAND FAST, to be unmoved; STAND FIRE, to remain steady under the fire of an enemy--also figuratively; STAND FOR, to be a candidate for: (_naut._) to direct the course towards; STAND FROM, to direct the course from; STAND IN, to cost; STAND IN WITH, to have a secret understanding with, as policemen with publicans; STAND LOW (_print._), to fall short of the standard height; STAND OFF, to keep at a distance: to direct the course from: (_Shak._) to forbear compliance or intimacy; STAND OFF AND ON, to sail away from shore and then towards it; STAND ON, to continue on the same tack or course: (_Shak._) to be satisfied or convinced of; STAND ONE'S GROUND, to maintain one's position; STAND OUT, to project, to be prominent: not to comply, to refuse to yield; STAND TO, to agree to, adhere to, abide by, maintain; STAND TOGETHER, to agree, to be consistent with; STAND TRIAL, not to give up without trial; STAND UNDER (_Shak._), to undergo, to sustain; STAND UP, to rise from a sitting posture; STAND UP FOR, to support or attempt to defend; STAND UPON (_B._), to attack; STAND UP TO, to meet face to face, to fulfil manfully; STAND UP WITH, to dance with as a partner; STAND WITH, to be consistent. [A.S. _standan_; Goth.

_standan_, Ger. _stehen_; cf. Gr. _histanai_, to place, L. _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STAND, stand, _n._ a place where one stands or remains for any purpose: a place beyond which one does not go, the highest or ultimate point: an erection for spectators at races, &c.: the place of a witness in court: something on which anything rests, a frame for glasses, &c.: a stop, obstruction, rest, quiescence: a state of cessation from action, motion, or business: a state of perplexity or hesitation: a difficulty, resistance.--BE AT A STAND, to stop on account of doubt or difficulty: to hesitate, to be perplexed; MAKE A STAND, to halt and offer resistance; PUT TO A STAND, to stop, arrest.

STANDARD, stand'ard, _n._ that which stands or is fixed, as a rule: the upright post of a truss: that which is established as a rule or model: a grade of classification in English elementary schools: a staff with a flag: an ensign of war: one of the two flags of a heavy cavalry regiment: (_hort._) a standing shrub or tree, not supported by a wall.--_adj._ according to some standard: legal: usual: having a fixed or permanent value.--_n._ STAND'ARD-BEAR'ER, the soldier or junior officer who carries the colours: the spokesman or representative of a movement. [O. Fr.

_estandart_--Old High Ger. _standan_, to stand, with suff. _-art._]

STANG, stang, _n._ a wooden bar, a pole.--RIDING THE STANG, a popular manner of punishing an unpopular man by carrying him astride of a stang.

[A.S. _staeng_, a pole; Dut. _stang_.]

STANG, stang, _v.i._ (_prov._) to throb with pain--also a Scotch form of _sting_.

STANHOPE, stan'h[=o]p, _n._ a light open one-seated carriage without a top, formerly with two wheels, now usually with four.

STANIEL, stan'yel, _n._ the kestrel or windhover.--Also STAN'NEL, STAN'YEL.

[A.S. _stangella_.]

STANK, stangk, _pa.t._ of stink.

STANK, stangk, _n._ (_Scot._) a ditch, a pool, a tank. [O. Fr. _estang_, a pond--L. _stagnum_, a stagnant pool.]

STANNARY, stan'ar-i, _adj._ of or relating to tin mines or works.--_n._ a tin-mine.--_n._ STANN'ATE, a salt formed with stannic acid and a base.--_adjs._ STANN'IC, pertaining to, or procured from, tin; STANNIF'EROUS, producing or containing tin.--_n._ STANN'INE, a mineral of a grayish-black colour, consisting chiefly of sulphur, tin, copper, and iron.--_adj._ STANN'OUS, containing tin.--STANNARY COURTS, courts in Cornwall for the tin-miners. [L. _stannum_, tin.]

STANZA, stan'za, _n._ a series of lines or verses connected with and adjusted to each other in a fixed order of sequence as regards length and metrical form: a division of a poem containing every variation of measure in the poem.--_adj._ STANZ[=A]'IC. [It. _stanza_, a stop--Low L.

_stantia_--L. _st[=a]re_, stand.]

STAPELIA, sta-p[=e]'li-a, _n._ a genus of showy fleshy African plants of the milkweed family. [From J. B. van _Stapel_.]

STAPES, st[=a]'p[=e]z, _n._ the inmost of the three auditory ossicles, situated in the tympanum.--_adjs._ STAP[=E]'DIAL, stirrup-shaped: pertaining to the stapes; STAPEDIF'EROUS, having a stapes.--_n._ STAP[=E]'DIUS, a stapedial muscle. [Low L. _stapes_, a stirrup--Old High Ger. _stapf_, a step.]

STAPHYLINE, staf'i-lin, _adj._ of the form of a bunch of grapes.--_ns._ STAPH'YLE, the uvula; STAPHYL[=O]'MA, STAPHYL[=O]'SIS, a protrusion of any of the coats of the eye.--_adjs._ STAPHYLOMAT'IC; STAPHYL[=O]'MATOUS.--_ns._ STAPH'YLOPLASTY, the operation for replacing the soft palate; STAPHYLOR'APHY, the operation of uniting a cleft palate; STAPHYLOT'OMY, the amputation of the uvula. [Gr. _staphyl[=e]_, a bunch of grapes, the uvula.]

STAPLE, st[=a]'pl, _n._ a settled mart or market: the principal production or industry of a district or country: the principal element: the thread of textile fabrics: unmanufactured material.--_adj._ established in commerce: regularly produced for market.--_n._ ST[=A]'PLER, a dealer. [O. Fr.

_estaple_--Low Ger. _stapel_, a heap.]

STAPLE, st[=a]'pl, _n._ a loop of iron, &c., for holding a bolt, &c.: the metallic tube to which the reed is fastened in the oboe, &c. [A.S.

_stapel_, a prop--_stapan_, step; cf. Ger. _stapel_.]

STAR, star, _n._ one of the bright bodies in the heavens, except the sun and moon: one of the heavenly bodies shining by their own light, and which keep the same relative position in the heavens: anything star-like or star-shaped: a representation of a star worn as a badge of rank or honour: a person of brilliant or attractive qualities: the chief actor or actress in a dramatic company: (_print._) an asterisk (*).--_v.t._ to set with stars: to bespangle.--_v.i._ to shine, as a star: to attract attention: to appear as a star-actor (TO STAR IT, esp. on a provincial tour):--_pr.p._ star'ring; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ starred.--_ns._ STAR'-AP'PLE, the fruit of the West Indian tree _Chrysophyllum Cainito_; STAR'-BLAST'ING, the noxious influence of the stars.--_adjs._ STAR'-BLIND, so blind as not to see the stars: half-blind; STAR'-BROI'DERED (_Tenn._), embroidered with figures in the shape of stars.--_ns._ STAR'-BUZZ'ARD, an American goshawk; STAR'-CAT'ALOGUE, a list of stars, with their places, magnitudes, &c.--_adj._ STAR'-CROSSED, not favoured by the stars.--_ns._ STAR'-DRIFT, a common proper motion of a number of fixed stars in the same region of the heavens; STAR'-DUST, cosmic dust, matter in fine particles falling upon the earth from some outside source, like meteorites; STAR'-FINCH, the redstart; STAR'FISH (_Asteroidea_), an Echinoderm, nearly allied to the Brittle-stars (_Ophiuroidea_) and to the Sea-urchins (_Echinoidea_); STAR'-FLOW'ER, one of various plants with bright star-shaped flowers, the Star-of-Bethlehem: chickweed; STAR'-FORT, a fort surrounded with projecting angles, like the points of a star; STAR'-FRUIT, a small water-plant of southern Europe, with long-pointed radiating carpels; STAR'-G[=A]Z'ER, an astrologer: an astronomer; STAR'-G[=A]Z'ING, astrology; STAR'-GRASS, a grass-like plant, with star-shaped, yellow flowers; STAR'-HY'ACINTH, a bulbous-rooted plant, a species of squill, with pinkish purple flowers, found on the coast in the south of England; STAR'-JELL'Y, the common species of nostoc.--_adj._ STAR'LESS, having no stars visible: having no light from stars.--_n._ STAR'LIGHT, light or lustre of the stars.--_adjs._ STAR'-LIKE, resembling a star: radiated like a star: bright, illustrious; STAR'LIT, lighted by the stars.--_ns._ STAR'-NOSE, a North American mole; STAR'-OF-BETH'LEHEM, a garden plant of the lily family, with bright white star-like flowers: the miraculous star of the Nativity (Matt. ii. 2, 9, 10).--_adj._ STAR'-PROOF (_Milt._), impervious to starlight.--_n._ STAR'-READ (_Spens._), knowledge of the stars, astrology.--_adj._ STARRED, adorned or studded with stars.--_ns._ STAR'-REED, a South American plant used in Peru against dysentery, &c.; STAR'RINESS.--_adj._ STAR'RY, abounding or adorned with stars: consisting of, or proceeding from, the stars: like, or shining like, the stars.--_n._ STARS'-AND-STRIPES, the flag of the United States of America, with thirteen stripes alternately red and white, and a blue field containing as many stars as there are states.--_adj._ STAR'-SPANG'LED, spangled or studded with stars.--_n._ STAR'-STONE, a variety of corundum which, when cut in a particular way, exhibits a reflection of light in the form of a star.--_adj._ STAR'-STROWN (_Tenn._), strewn or studded with stars.--_ns._ STAR'-THIS'TLE, a species of centaury, so called from its star-like flowers; STAR'-WHEEL, a spur-wheel with V-shaped teeth; STAR'WORT, a genus of plants nearly allied to the Asters, with star-like flowers. [A.S. _steorra_; Ger. _stern_, L. _stella_ (for _sterula_), Gr.


STARBOARD, star'b[=o]rd, _n._ the right-hand side of a ship, to one looking toward the bow.--_adj._ pertaining to, or lying on, the right side of a ship. [A.S. _steorbord_--_steor_, a rudder, _bord_, a board, the side of a ship. Cf. _Board_ and _Larboard_.]

STARCH, starch, _n._ the pure fecula or white farinaceous matter of vegetables, yielding a translucent jelly used for stiffening clothes in the laundry: stiffness, formality.--_adj._ stiff, rigid, formal.--_adj._ STARCHED, stiffened with starch: formal.--_adv._ STARCH'EDLY.--_ns._ STARCH'EDNESS; STARCH'ER; STARCH'-HY'ACINTH, a plant allied to the hyacinth, so called from the smell of the flower.--_adv._ STARCH'ILY, in a starch or stiff manner: formally.--_ns._ STARCH'INESS, the state or quality of being starchy: stiffness of manner: formality; STARCH'-SU'GAR, glucose.--_adj._ STARCH'Y, consisting of, or like, starch: stiff: precise.

[A special use of adj. _stark_; cf. Ger. _starke_, starch--_stark_, strong.]

STAR-CHAMBER, star'-ch[=a]m'b[.e]r, _n._ a tribunal with a civil and criminal jurisdiction, which met in the old council chamber of the palace of Westminster, abolished in the reign of Charles I. [Probably named from the gilt _stars_ on the ceiling, hardly from the Jewish bonds (called _starrs_, from Heb. _shetar_) kept in the council-room.]

STARE, st[=a]r, _v.i._ to look at with a fixed gaze, as in horror, astonishment, &c.: to look fixedly.--_v.t._ to influence in some way by staring.--_n._ a fixed look.--_ns._ ST[=A]R[=EE]', one who is stared at; ST[=A]'RER, one who stares or gazes; ST[=A]'RING, the act of staring.--_adv._ ST[=A]'RINGLY, in a staring manner: with a fixed look.

[A.S. _starian_, from a Teut. root seen in Ger. _starr_, rigid; also in Eng. _stern_.]

STARK, stark, _adj._ stiff: gross: absolute: entire: naked, an abbreviation of STARK'-N[=A]'KED, quite naked, which is really a corr. of M. E.

_start-naked_=tail-naked (A.S. _steort_, a tail).--_adv._ absolutely: completely.--_v.t._ to make stark, as in death.--_v.t._ STARK'EN, to stiffen, to make obstinate.--_adv._ STARK'LY.--_n._ STARK'NESS, the state or quality of being stark: stiffness; stoutness. [A.S. _stearc_, hard, strong; cog. Ice. _sterk-r_, Ger. _stark_.]

STARLING, starling, _n._ a genus _Sturnus_ and family _Sturnidae_ of Passerine birds: (_archit._) a ring of piles supporting the pier of a bridge. [Dim. from obs. _stare_--A.S. _staer_; Ger. _staar_, L. _sturnus_.]

STAROST, star'ost, _n._ a Polish noble holding a STAR'OSTY or domain by grant of life-estate from the crown. [Pol. _starosta_, elder--_stary_, old.]


START, start, _v.i._ to move suddenly aside: to wince: to deviate: to begin: to proceed: to give way somewhat.--_v.t._ to cause to move suddenly: to disturb suddenly: to rouse suddenly from concealment: to set in motion: to call forth: to invent or discover: to move suddenly from its place: to loosen: to empty: to pour out.--_n._ a sudden movement: a sudden motion of the body: a sudden rousing to action: an unexpected movement: a sally: a sudden fit: a quick spring: the first motion from a point or place: the outset.--_n._ START'ER, one who starts.--_adj._ START'FUL, apt to start.--_adv._ START'INGLY (_Shak._), by fits or starts.--_ns._ START'ING-POINT, the point from which anything starts, or from which motion begins; START'ING-POST, the post or barrier from which the competitors in a race start or begin the race.--_adj._ START'ISH, apt to start, skittish.--_ns._ START'-UP (_Shak._), an upstart; START'UPPE (_Spens._), a kind of high shoe or half-boot.--START AFTER, to set out after, to pursue; START UP, to rise suddenly, to come suddenly into notice.--GET, or HAVE, THE START, to begin before another, to obtain an advantage over another.

[M. E. _sterten_; closely akin to Dut. and Low Ger. _storten_, to plunge, Ger. _sturzen_.]

STARTLE, start'l, _v.i._ to start or move suddenly: to feel sudden alarm.--_v.t._ to excite suddenly: to shock: to frighten.--_n._ sudden alarm or surprise.--_n._ START'LER.--_adj._ START'LING, such as to strike with astonishment or alarm.--_adv._ START'LINGLY.--_adj._ START'LISH, apt to start. [Extension of _start_.]

STARVE, starv, _v.i._ to die of hunger or cold: to suffer extreme hunger or want: to be in want of anything necessary, to deteriorate for want of anything essential.--_v.t._ to kill with hunger or cold: to destroy by want: to deprive of power.--_n._ STARV[=A]'TION, act of starving: state of being starved.--_adj._ STARVE'LING, hungry: lean: weak.--_n._ a thin, weak, pining animal or plant. [A.S. _steorfan_, to die; Dut. _sterven_, Ger.

_sterben_, to die.]

STASIDION, sta-sid'i-on, _n._ a stall in a Greek church.

STASIMON, stas'i-mon, _n._ an ode sung by the whole chorus, after the parode:--_pl._ STAS'IMA. [Gr.]

STASIMORPHY, stas'i-mor-fi, _n._ any deviation from the normal form of a bodily organ due to arrested development [Gr. _stasis_, standing.]

STASIS, st[=a]'sis, _n._ the arrest of the blood in its circulation: one of the sections of a cathisma or portion of the psalter. [Gr.]

STATANT, st[=a]'tant, _adj._ (_her._) standing with all the feet on the ground. [L. _st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STATE, st[=a]t, _n._ position: condition: situation: circumstances at any time: the whole body of people under one government: the public: the civil power: estate, one of the orders or classes of men forming the body politic (as nobles, clergy, commonalty): a body of men united by profession: rank, quality: pomp: dignity: style of living: stability, continuance: (_pl._) the bodies constituting the legislature of a country: (_obs._) a seat of dignity: a stage, condition, as of an etched or engraved plate at one particular stage of its progress.--_adj._ belonging to the state: public: royal: ceremonial: pompous: magnificent.--_v.t._ to set forth: to express the details of: to set down fully and formally: to narrate: to set in order: to settle.--_adj._ ST[=A]T'ABLE, capable of being stated.--_ns._ STATE'-CRAFT, the art of managing state affairs; STATE'-CRIM'INAL, one who commits an offence against the state, as treason.--_adj._ ST[=A]T'ED, settled: established: fixed: regular.--_adv._ ST[=A]T'EDLY.--_ns._ STATE'-HOUSE, the building in which the legislature of a state holds its sittings; ST[=A]TE'LINESS.--_adj._ ST[=A]TE'LY, showing state or dignity: majestic: grand.--_adv._ majestically: (_Milt._) loftily.--_ns._ ST[=A]TE'MENT, the act of stating: that which is stated: a narrative or recital; STATE'-P[=A]'PER, an official paper or document relating to affairs of state; STATE'-PRIS'ON; STATE'-PRIS'ONER, a prisoner confined for offence against the state; STATE'-RELIG'ION, the establishment or endowment by the government of a country of some particular form of religion; STATE'ROOM, a stately room in a palace or mansion: principal room in the cabin of a ship; STATES'-GEN'ERAL, the name given to the representative body of the three orders (nobility, clergy, burghers) of the French kingdom; STATES'MAN, a man acquainted with the affairs of government: one skilled in government: one employed in public affairs: a politician: one who farms his own estate, a small landholder.--_adj._ STATES'MAN-LIKE, like a statesman.--_adv._ STATES'MANLY, in a manner becoming a statesman.--_n._ STATES'MANSHIP.--STATE SOCIALISM, a scheme of government which would entrust to the state the carrying on of the great enterprises of private industry; STATES OF THE CHURCH, the former temporal possessions of the popes. [O. Fr. _estat_ (Fr. _etat_)--L. _status_, from _st[=a]re_, _st[=a]tum_, to stand.]

STATER, st[=a]'t[.e]r, _n._ the standard gold coin of ancient Greece.

STATIC, -AL, stat'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to statics: pertaining to bodies at rest or in equilibrium: resting: acting by mere weight.--_adv._ STAT'ICALLY.--_n._ STAT'ICS, the science which treats of the action of force in maintaining rest or preventing change of motion. [Gr. _statik[=e]_ (_epist[=e]m[=e]_, 'science,' being understood)--_hist[=e]mi_.]

STATION, st[=a]'shun, _n._ the place where a person or thing stands: post assigned: position: office: situation: occupation, business: state: rank: condition in life: the place where railway trains come to a stand in order to take up and set down passengers and goods, the buildings erected at such a place for railway business: a regular stopping-place: a stock farm in Australia: a district or branch police-office: the place in India where the group of English officials or the officers of a garrison reside: a recess in a mine-shaft or passage for a pumping-machine: (_pl._) in R.C. usage, applied to certain places of reputed sanctity, appointed to be visited as places of prayer, any one of the fourteen (fifteen, or even eleven) images or pictures ranged round a church, starting from one side of the high altar and ending at the other, representing the several stages of the Passion--the whole series the Way of Calvary.--_v.t._ to assign a station to: to set: to appoint to a post, place, or office.--_adj._ ST[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ ST[=A]'TIONARINESS.--_adj._ ST[=A]'TIONARY, pertaining to a station: standing: fixed: settled: acting from, or in, a fixed position (as an engine): not progressing or retrogressing: not improving.--_n._ ST[=A]'TIONER, one who sells paper and other articles used in writing.--_adj._ ST[=A]'TIONERY, belonging to a stationer.--_n._ the articles sold by a stationer.--_ns._ ST[=A]'TION-HOUSE, a temporary place of arrest; ST[=A]'TION-MAS'TER, one who has charge of a station, esp. on a railway.--STATIONERS' HALL, the hall in London belonging to the Company of the Stationers, who enjoyed until the passing of the Copyright Act in 1842 an absolute monopoly of printing and publishing; STATIONERY OFFICE, an office in London for providing books, stationery, &c. to the government offices at home and abroad, and for making contracts for the printing of government reports and other public papers. [Fr.,--L. _statio_--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

STATIST, st[=a]'tist, _n._ a statesman, a politician.

STATISTICS, sta-tist'iks, _n._ a collection of facts and figures regarding the condition of a people, class, &c.: the science which treats of the collection and arrangement of facts bearing on the condition--social, moral, and material--of a people.--_adjs._ STATIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or containing, statistics.--_adv._ STATIST'ICALLY.--_n._ STATISTIC'IAN, one skilled in statistics. [Coined (as if from a form _statistik[=e]_) from Gr.

_statizein_, to set up.]

STATIVE, st[=a]'tiv, _adj._ standing still, pertaining to a permanent camp: indicating a physical state or reflex action, of certain Hebrew verbs.

STATUE, stat'[=u], _n._ a likeness of a human being or animal carved out of some solid substance: an image--(_obs._) STAT'UA.--_n._ STAT'[=U]ARY, the art of carving statues: a statue or a collection of statues: one who makes statues: a dealer in statues.--_adj._ STAT'UED, furnished with statues.--_n._ STATUETTE', a small statue. [Fr.,--L.

_statua_--_statu[)e]re_, to cause lo stand--_st[=a]re_.]

STATUESQUE, stat-[=u]-esk', _adj._ like a statue.--_adv._ STATUESQUE'LY.

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