STADTHOLDER, stad-h[=o]l'd[.e]r, _n._ a barbarous English form of the Dutch _Stadhouder_, 'stead-holder,' of which the French _lieu-tenant_ is a literal translation, _Statthalter_ being the corresponding German.
STAFF, staf, _n._ a stick carried for support or defence: a prop: a long piece of wood: pole: a flagstaff: the long handle of an instrument: a stick or ensign of authority: the five lines and spaces on which music is written: a stanza (the previous meanings have _pl._ STAFFS or STAVES, st[=a]vz): a body of skilled officers whose duty it is, under orders from the commanding officers of various grades, to arrange the movements and supply of the various bodies which go to make up an army: a similar body of persons in any undertaking, acting under a manager or chief (the last two meanings have _pl._ STAFFS, stafs).--_ns._ STAFF'-CAPTAIN, the senior grade in the navigating branch in the British navy; STAFF'-COLL'EGE, a college where military officers are trained in the higher branches of professional knowledge, and prepared for holding staff-appointments; STAFF'-CORPS, a body of intelligent officers and men who performed engineering and siege duties, made reconnaissances, &c. during the wars of Wellington; (INDIAN) a body of British officers serving on the permanent Indian establishment, appointed from it to do duty with native regiments, &c.; STAFF'-D[=U]'TY, the occupation of an officer who serves on a staff, having been detached from his regiment; STAFF'-NOT[=A]'TION, musical notation in which a staff is used, as opposed to the tonic-solfa system; STAFF'-SUR'GEON, a navy surgeon of senior grade; STAFF'-SYS'TEM, a block-system in use on single-line railways in which the station-master gives the engine-driver a staff authorising him to proceed over a given portion. [A.S. _staef_; Ice.
_stafr_, Ger. _stab_.]
STAG, stag, _n._ the male deer, esp. one of the red deer:--_fem._ _Hind_: a speculator who applies for shares or stock in new concerns quoted at a premium, hoping to obtain an allotment and secure a profit without holding the stock, one who sells new securities quoted at a premium before allotment.--_v.t._ to follow, to dog, to shadow.--_v.i._ to act as a stag on the stock-exchange.--_ns._ STAG'-BEE'TLE, a genus of Lamellicorn beetles, nearly allied to the Scarabees, the males with large projecting mandibles; STAG'-DANCE, -PART'Y, a dance or party of men only; STAG'HOUND, a name applied both to the buck-hound and the Scottish deer-hound. [Ice.
_steggr_, a male animal, _stiga_, to mount.]
STAGE, st[=a]j, _n._ an elevated platform, esp. in a theatre: the theatre: theatrical representations, the theatrical calling: any place of exhibition or performance: a place of rest on a journey or road: distance between places: degree of progress.--_v.t._ to represent or place for representation on the stage.--_ns._ STAGE'-COACH, a coach that runs regularly with passengers from stage to stage; STAGE'-CRAFT, skill in putting a play on the stage; STAGE'-DOOR, the actors' entrance to a theatre; STAGE'-DRIV'ER, one who drives a stage; STAGE'-EFFECT', theatrical effect; STAGE'-F[=E]'VER, a passion to go on the stage; STAGE'-FRIGHT, nervousness before an audience, esp. for the first time; STAGE'-MAN'AGER, one who superintends the production of plays, and has general charge of everything behind the curtain; STAGE'-PLAY, a play for representation on a stage; STAGE'-PLAY'ER, a player on the stage; ST[=A]'GER, a stage-horse: one who has had much experience in anything.--_adj._ STAGE'-STRUCK, sorely smitten with stage-fever.--_ns._ STAGE'-WAG'ON, a wagon for conveying goods and passengers at fixed times; STAGE'-WHIS'PER, a loud whisper, as that of an actor meant to be heard by the audience.--_adjs._ ST[=A]'GEY, ST[=A]'GY, suggesting the stage, theatrical.--_ns._ ST[=A]'GINESS; ST[=A]'GING, a structure for workmen in building. [O. Fr. _estage_ (Fr. _etage_), a story of a house, through a L. form _staticus_, from _st[=a]re_, to stand.]
STAGGER, stag'[.e]r, _v.i._ to reel from side to side: to begin to give way: to begin to doubt: to hesitate.--_v.t._ to cause to reel: to cause to doubt or hesitate: to shock.--_adv._ STAGG'ERINGLY.--_n._ STAGG'ERS, a popular term applied to several diseases of horses.--GRASS, or STOMACH, STAGGERS, an acute indigestion; MAD, or SLEEPY, STAGGERS, an inflammation of the brain. [Ice. _stakra_, to push, freq. of _staka_, to push.]
STAGIRITE, STAGYRITE, staj'i-r[=i]t, _adj._ pertaining to _Stageira_ in Macedonia.--_n._ a native or inhabitant thereof, esp. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).
STAGNANT, stag'nant, _adj._ stagnating: not flowing: motionless: impure from being motionless: not brisk: dull.--_n._ STAG'NANCY, the state of being stagnant.--_adv._ STAG'NANTLY.--_v.i._ STAG'NATE, to cease to flow: to become dull or motionless.--_n._ STAGN[=A]'TION, act of stagnating: state of being stagnant or motionless: dullness. [L. _stagnans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _stagn[=a]re_.]
STAHLIANISM, stal'i-an-izm, _n._ the doctrines of Georg Ernst _Stahl_, a German physician (1660-1734), who held that there exists a mysterious force residing in, but independent of, matter, not only forming the body, but directing it in all its functions--also STAHL'ISM.--_adj._ STAHL'IAN.
STAID, st[=a]d, _adj._ steady: sober: grave.--_adv._ STAID'LY.--_n._ STAID'NESS. [For _stayed_--_stay_.]
STAIG, st[=a]g, _n._ (_Scot._) a young horse, a stallion.
STAIN, st[=a]n, _v.t._ to tinge or colour: to give a different colour to: to impregnate, as a tissue, with some substance whose reaction colours some parts but not others, thus making form or structure plainly visible: to dye: to mark with guilt or infamy: to bring reproach on: to sully: to tarnish.--_v.i._ to take or impart a stain.--_n._ a discoloration: a spot: taint of guilt: cause of reproach: shame.--_n._ STAIN'ER, one who stains or blots: a dyer.--_adj._ STAIN'LESS, without or free from stain.--_adv._ STAIN'LESSLY.--_n._ STAIN'LESSNESS.--STAINED GLASS, glass painted with certain pigments fused into its surface. [Short for _distain_--O. Fr.
_desteindre_--L. _dis-_, away, _ting[)e]re_, to dye.]
STAIR, st[=a]r, _n._ a series of steps for ascending to a higher level: one of such steps: a flight of steps, only in _pl._: (_Spens._) a degree.--_ns._ STAIR'-CAR'PET, carpet suitable for stairs; STAIR'CASE, a flight of stairs with balusters, &c.; STAIR'-ROD, one of a number of metallic rods for holding a stair-carpet in its place.--_adv._ DOWN'STAIRS, in the lower part of a house--opp. to _Upstairs_.--BACK-STAIRS, adjectively for secret, underhand; BELOW STAIRS, in a lower story, in the basement.
[A.S. _st['ae]ager_--_stigan_, to ascend; Ger. _steigen_, to climb, Ice.
_stegi_, a step.]
STAITH, STATHE, st[=a]th, _n._ (_prov._) the extremity of a line of rails laid on a platform, for discharging coals, &c., into vessels. [A.S.
_staeth_, _steth_, bank.]
STAKE, st[=a]k, _n._ a strong stick pointed at one end: one of the upright pieces of a fence: a post to which an animal is tied, esp. that to which a martyr was tied to be burned: martyrdom: a tinsmith's anvil: anything pledged in a wager: a prize, anything to gain or lose.--_v.t._ to fasten, or pierce with a stake: to mark the bounds of with stakes (often with off and out): to wager, to hazard.--_ns._ STAKE'-HOLD'ER, the person with whom the stakes in a wager are deposited; STAKE'-NET, a form of fishing-net hung on stakes.--AT STAKE, hazarded, in danger. [A.S. _staca_, a stake.]
STALACTITE, sta-lak't[=i]t, _n._ a deposit of carbonate of lime, hanging like an icicle from the roof of a cavern, formed by the dripping of water.--_adjs._ STALAC'TIC, -AL, STALACTIT'IC, -AL, having the form or properties of a stalactite; STALAC'TIFORM, like a stalactite. [Gr.
_stalaktos_--_stalazein_, to drip.]
STALAGMITE, sta-lag'm[=i]t, _n._ a deposit of carbonate of lime, &c., on the floor of a cavern, usually cylindrical or conical in form, caused by the dripping from the roof of water holding some substance in solution; it is the counterpart to a _Stalactite_, and both are often fused together, forming a _Stalactitic column_.--_adjs._ STALAGMIT'IC, -AL, having the form of stalagmites.--_adv._ STALAGMIT'ICALLY. [Gr. _stalagmos_, a dropping--_stalazein_, to drip.]
STAL'D, st[=a]ld, _pa.p._ (_Spens._) stolen, taken. [_Steal_.]
STALDER, stal'd[.e]r, _n._ (_prov._) a pile of wood: a cask-stand.
STALE, st[=a]l, _adj._ too long kept: tainted: vapid or tasteless from age, as beer: not new: worn out by age: decayed: no longer fresh, trite: in athletics, over-trained, hence unfit, as in 'gone stale.'--_n._ anything become stale: urine of cattle, &c.: (_Shak._) a whore.--_v.t._ to render insipid, to make common.--_v.i._ to make water, as beasts.--_adv._ STALE'LY.--_n._ STALE'NESS. [Prov. Eng. _stale_, conn. with Old Dut.
_stel_, old. Skeat makes _stale_ that which reminds one of the stable, tainted, &c.--Sw. _stalla_, to put into a stall, also to stale (as cattle)--Sw. _stall_, a stable.]
STALE, st[=a]l, _n._ something offered or exhibited as an allurement to draw others to any place or purpose: (_Spens._) a decoy, a gull: (_Shak._) a dupe, laughing-stock.--_n._ STALL, a thief's assistant. [A.S. _stalu_, theft--_stelan_, to steal.]
STALE, st[=a]l, _n._ the handle of anything, a stalk. [A.S. _stael_, _stel_, a stalk.]
STALEMATE, st[=a]l'm[=a]t, _n._ in chess-playing, the position of the king when he cannot move without being placed in check.--_v.t._ to put into a condition of stalemate: to bring to a standstill.
STALK, stawk, _n._ the stem of a plant: the stem on which a flower or fruit grows: the stem of a quill: the handle of anything, the stem: a tall chimney.--_p.adj._ STALKED, having a stalk.--_adjs._ STALK'-EYED, podophthalmous, as a crustacean; STALK'LESS, having no stalk; STALK'Y, hard as a stalk: resembling a stalk. [An extension of A.S. _stael_, _stel_ (cf.
Ice. _stilkr_, Dan. _stilk_); cog. with Ger. _stiel_, which is allied to, perh. borrowed from, L. _stilus_, a stake.]
STALK, stawk, _v.i._ to walk as on stilts: to walk with long, slow steps: to walk behind a stalking-horse: to pursue game by approaching behind covers.--_v.t._ to approach secretly in order to kill, as deer.--_n._ a stately step: the pursuit of game by stealthy approach.--_ns._ STALK'ER, one who stalks, as a deer-stalker: a kind of fishing-net: (_pl._) the Gradatores; STALK'ING, the act of approaching game warily or behind a cover; STALK'ING-HORSE, a horse behind which a sportsman hides while stalking game: a mask or pretence. [A.S. _staelcan_, to walk cautiously, _stealc_, high; Dan. _stalke_, to walk with long steps.]
STALKOES, staw'k[=o]z, _n.pl._ walking gentlemen. [Ir. _stalcaire_, a bully.]
STALL, stawl, _n._ a place where a horse or other animal stands and is fed: a division of a stable for a single animal: a stable: a bench or table on which articles are exposed for sale: one of the seats in churches reserved for the clergy and choir, usually lining the choir or chancel on both sides, also an office entitling one to such a seat, or its stipend: a reserved seat in a theatre, usually one of those in the front division of the parquet--_orchestra stalls_.--_v.t._ to put or keep in a stall.--_v.i._ to inhabit.--_n._ STALL'AGE, liberty of erecting stalls in a fair or market: rent paid for this liberty.--_adj._ STALLED, kept or fed in a stall, fatted.--_v.t._ STALL'-FEED, to feed and fatten in a stall or stable.--_ns._ STALL'ING (_Tenn._) stabling; STALL'INGER (_prov._), a keeper of a stall; STALL'MAN, one who keeps a stall for the sale of any article; STALL'-READER, one who stands and reads books at a bookstall.
[A.S. _steal_; Ice. _stallr_, Ger. _stall_.]
STALLION, stal'yun, _n._ an uncastrated male horse, esp. one kept for breeding. [O. Fr. _estalon_ (Fr. _etalon_)--Late L. _equus ad stallum_, a horse at stall.]
STALWART, stawl'wart, _adj._ stout, strong, sturdy: determined in one's partisanship.--_n._ a resolute person.--(_arch._) STAL'WORTH.--_adv._ STAL'WARTLY.--_n._ STAL'WARTNESS--(_arch._) STAL'WORTHINESS. [M. E.
_stalworth_--A.S. _stael-wyrthe_, serviceable. Prob. _stathol_,foundation, _weorth_, good, worth.]
STAM, stam, _v.t._ (_prov._) to confound.--_n._ confusion.
STAMEN, st[=a]'men, _n._ one of the male organs of a flower which produce the pollen:--_pl._ ST[=A]'MENS.--_adj._ ST[=A]'MENED, having stamens.--_n._ STAM'INA (prop. _pl._), the principal strength of anything: the firm part of a body which supports the whole.--_adjs._ STAM'INAL, STAMIN'[=E]OUS, consisting of or possessing stamens: pertaining to, or attached to, the stamen: apetalous, as certain flowers; STAM'INATE, -D, having or producing stamens; STAMINIF'EROUS, STAMINIG'EROUS, bearing or having stamens.--_ns._ STAM'INODE, STAMIN[=O]'DIUM, an abortive stamen; STAM'INODY, a condition of flowers in which sepals, pistils, &c. are metamorphosed into stamens. [L.
_stamen_ (pl. _stamina_)--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]
STAMMEL, stam'el, _n._ a kind of woollen cloth, dull red in colour: red colour.--_adj._ made of stammel, or like it in colour. [Earlier _stamin_--O. Fr. _estamine_--Low L. _stamina_--L. _stamineus_, _stamen_, a thread.]
STAMMEL, stam'el, _n._ (_prov._) a stumbling horse: a bouncing girl.
STAMMER, stam'[.e]r, _v.i._ to halt in one's speech, the result of failure in co-ordinate action of certain muscles and their appropriate nerves: to falter in speaking: to stutter.--_v.t._ to utter with hesitation.--_n._ hesitation in speech: defective utterance.--_ns._ STAMM'ERER; STAMM'ERING.--_adv._ STAMM'ERINGLY. [A.S. _stamor_; Dut. _stameren_.]
STAMNOS, stam'nos, _n._ an ancient Greek short-necked, two-handled wine-vase. [Gr.]
STAMP, stamp, _v.t._ to strike with the sole of the foot, by thrusting it down: to impress with some mark or figure: to imprint: to fix deeply: to coin: to form: to pound, bray, crush, bruise.--_v.i._ to step or plant the foot firmly down.--_n._ the act of stamping: the mark made by pressing something on a soft body: an instrument for making impressions on other bodies: that which is stamped: an official mark put on things chargeable with duty, as proof that the duty is paid: an instrument for cutting materials into a certain shape by a downward pressure: cast, form, character: distinguishing mark, imprint, sign, evidence: a species of heavy pestle, raised by water or steam power, for crushing and pulverising ores: (_pl._) stamp-duties: (_slang_) money, esp. paper money.--_ns._ STAMP'-ACT, an act for regulating stamp-duties; STAMP'-COLLECT'OR, an officer who collects stamp-duties: one who makes a collection of postage or other stamps; STAMP'-D[=U]'TY, a tax imposed on the paper on which legal documents are written; STAMP'ER; STAMP'ING; STAMP'ING-MACHINE', a machine used for stamping coins, in the stamping of brass-work, or in crushing metallic ores; STAMP'-, STAMP'ING-MILL, a crushing-mill for ores; STAMP'-NOTE, a certificate from a custom-house officer for goods to be loaded as freight of a ship; STAMP'-OFF'ICE, an office where stamp-duties are received and stamps issued.--STAMP OUT, to extinguish, extirpate. [A.S.
_stempan_; Ger. _stampfen_.]
STAMPEDE, stam-p[=e]d', _n._ a sudden fright seizing a herd of horses or other cattle, causing them to run: flight, or any sudden confused movement of a multitude, caused by panic.--_v.i._ to scamper off in panic. [Sp.
_estampido_, a crash--_estampar_, to stamp.]
STANCE, stans, _n._ (_Scot._) a station, site, stand.
STANCH, stansh, _v.t._ to stop the flowing of, as blood: to quench, allay.--_v.i._ (_B._) to cease to flow.--_adj._ constant: trusty: zealous: sound, strong, firm.--_n._ STANCH'ER.--_adj._ STANCH'LESS (_Shak._), that cannot be stanched or stopped.--_adv._ STANCH'LY.--_n._ STANCH'NESS. [O.
Fr. _estancher_ (Fr. _etancher_)--Low L. _stanc[=a]re_, to stanch--L.
_stagn[=a]re_, to be or make stagnant.]
STANCH, stansh, _adj._ Same as STAUNCH.
STANCHION, stan'shun, _n._ an upright iron bar of a window or screen: (_naut._) an upright beam used as a support.--_v.t._ to fasten by means of or to a stanchion.--A Scotch form is STAN'CHEL. [O. Fr.
_estancon_--_estancer_, to stop, _estance_--Low L. _stantia_--L.