SPINAL, sp[=i]n'al, _adj._ pertaining to the spine or backbone.--_n._ SP[=I]'NA, a spine, the backbone: one of the quills of a spinet: a barrier dividing the Roman hippodrome longitudinally.--_adj._ SPIN'[=A]TE, covered with spines or spine-like processes.--SPINAL COLUMN, the backbone; SPINAL CORD, MARROW, the main neural axis of every vertebrate.
SPINDLE, spin'dl, _n._ the pin from which the thread is twisted: a pin on which anything turns: the fusee of a watch: anything very slender.--_v.i._ to grow long and slender.--_adjs._ SPIN'DLE-LEGGED, -SHANKED, having long slender legs, like spindles.--_ns.pl._ SPIN'DLE-LEGS, -SHANKS, long slim legs--hence an over-long and slender person.--_adj._ SPIN'DLE-SHAPED, shaped like a spindle: thickest in the middle and tapering to both ends.--_ns._ SPIN'DLE-SHELL, a spindle-shaped shell; SPIN'DLE-TREE, a shrub whose hard-grained wood was formerly used for making musical instruments and for spindles, and is now for skewers, &c.; SPIN'DLING, a person or thing too long and slender: a slender shoot.--_adj._ long and slender.--_adj._ SPIN'DLY, disproportionally long and slender. [A.S.
_spinl_--_spinnan_, to spin; Ger. _spindel_.]
SPINDRIFT, spin'drift, _n._ the spray blown from the crests of waves.--Also SPOON'DRIFT.
SPINE, sp[=i]n, _n._ a thorn: a thin, pointed spike, esp. in fishes: the backbone of an animal: any ridge extending lengthways: the heart-wood of trees.--_adjs._ SPINED, having spines; SPINE'LESS, having no spine, weak; SPINES'CENT, somewhat spiny; SP[=I]NIF EROUS, bearing spines or thorns; SP[=I]'NIFORM, shaped like a spine or thorn; SP[=I]NIG'EROUS, bearing spines, as a hedgehog; SP[=I]'NIGRADE, moving by means of spines, as an echinoderm.--_n._ SP[=I]'NINESS.--_adjs._ SP[=I]NIREC'TOR, erecting the spine of the muscles of the back; SP[=I]NISPIR'ULAR, spiny and somewhat spiral.--_ns._ SP[=I]N[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the spinal cord in the horse, &c; SPIN'NEY, SPIN'NY, a small thicket with underwood.--_adjs._ SP[=I]'NOSE, SP[=I]'NOUS, full of spines: thorny.--_ns._ SPINOS'ITY, thorniness; SPIN'[=U]LA, SPIN'[=U]LE, a minute spine.--_adjs._ SPIN'[=U]L[=A]TE, SPIN'[=U]L[=O]SE, SPIN'[=U]LOUS, covered with spinules or minute spines; SP[=I]'NY, full of spines: thorny: troublesome: perplexed.
[O. Fr. _espine_ (Fr. _epine_)--L. _spina_, a thorn.]
SPINEL, spin'el, or spi-nel', _n._ a mineral composed chiefly of magnesia and alumina, and crystallising in octahedra--_ruby_, or _magnesia spinel_, reddish; _pleonaste_, dark green to black; _picotite_, or _chrome spinel_, black; _gahnite_, or _zinc spinel_, green to brown; _hercynite_, or _iron spinel_, black. [Low L. _spinellus_, dim. of _spina_, a thorn.]
SPINET, spin'et, _n._ (_mus._) an old-fashioned keyed instrument like the harpsichord. [O. Fr. _espinette_--It. _spinetta_, dim. of _spina_--L.
_spina_, a thorn.]
SPINIFEX, spin'i-feks, _n._ porcupine-grass, a very coarse, hard, and spiny grass which grows in tussocks, and in some interior parts of Australia covers hundreds of square miles together.
SPINK, spingk, _n._ the chaffinch.
SPINK, spingk, _n._ the primrose, the lady's-smock.
SPINNAKER, spin'[=a]-k[.e]r, _n._ a jib-headed sail sometimes carried on the side opposite the mainsail by racing yachts. [Prob. formed from _spin_.]
SPINNEY. See under SPINE.
SPINODE, sp[=i]'n[=o]d, _n._ (_geom._) a cusp or stationary point of a curve.
SPINOZISM, spi-n[=o]z'izm, _n._ the doctrine of Benedict _Spinoza_ (1632-1677), who taught that God is not only the creator, but also the original matter of the universe, which consists of and is a development of Himself.--_n._ SPIN[=O]'ZIST, a follower of Spinoza.--_adj._ SPIN[=O]ZIS'TIC.
SPINSTER, spin'st[.e]r, _n._ an unmarried female: an old maid: (_obs._) a woman of loose character, fit for the spinning-house.--_ns._ SPIN'STERDOM, the world of old maids collectively; SPIN'STERHOOD, SPIN'STERSHIP, the state of being a spinster; SPIN'STRESS, one who spins. [Orig. one who _spins_.]
SPINTEXT, spin'tekst, _n._ a lengthy preacher.
SPIRACLE, spir'a-kl, _n._ a breathing-hole: any minute passage.--_adjs._ SPIRAC'ULAR; SPIRAC'ULATE; SPIRACULIF'EROUS; SPIRAC'ULIFORM.--_n._ SPIRAC'ULUM:--_pl._ SPIRAC'ULA. [L. _spiraculum_, formed as a double dim.
from _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]
SPIRaeA, sp[=i]-r[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Rosaceae_, containing many species of herbaceous plants and low deciduous shrubs--_Dropwort_, _Meadow-sweet_, &c. [L.,--Gr. _speiraia_, meadow-sweet--_speira_, a coil.]
SPIRAL, sp[=i]'ral, _adj._ pertaining to, or like, a spire: winding like the thread of a screw.--_n._ a spiral line: a curve which continually recedes from a centre about which it revolves: a screw.--_n._ SPIRAL'ITY.--_adv._ SP[=I]'RALLY, in a spiral form or direction.--_adj._ SPIR[=A]'TED, spiral, whorled.
SPIRANT, sp[=i]'rant, _n._ a consonant which is fricative or continuable--opp. to explosive, esp. _v_ and _f_, _th_, _dh_; by others made to include the sibilants, and the semi-vowels _w_ and _y_.
SPIRANTHY, sp[=i]-ranth'i, _n._ the spiral distortion sometimes occurring in the parts of a flower.--_adj._ SPIRANTH'IC. [Gr. _speira_, a spire, _anthos_, a flower.]
SPIRASTER, sp[=i]-ras't[.e]r, _n._ in sponges, a short curved axial rod-like spicule with thick spines. [Gr. _speira_, spire, _ast[=e]r_, star.]
SPIRATION, sp[=i]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ a breathing: (_theol._) the procession of the Holy Ghost.
SPIRE, sp[=i]r, _n._ a winding line like the threads of a screw: a curl: a wreath: a tapering body, a slender stalk, a shoot or sprout: any one of various tall grasses, rushes, or sedges--the _Marram_, _Reed canary-grass_, &c.: the top or summit of anything: a very acute pyramidal roof in common use over the towers of churches.--_v.i._ to sprout, shoot up.--_v.t._ to furnish with a spire.--_adjs._ SP[=I]RED, having a spire; SPIR'ULATE, spiral in form or arrangement; SP[=I]'RY, of a spiral form: wreathed: tapering like a spire or a pyramid: abounding in spires. [Fr.,--L. _spira_; Gr. _speira_, anything wound round or upon a thing; akin to _eirein_, to fasten together in rows.]
SPIRIC, sp[=i]'rik, _adj._ like a tore or anchor-ring.--_n._ a curve, the plane section of a tore.--_n._ SPIR'ICLE, one of those threads in the hairs on the surface of certain seeds and achenes which uncoil when wet.
SPIRIFER, spir'i-f[.e]r, _n._ a brachiopod of the Carboniferous system.--_adjs._ SP[=I]RIF'ERINE; SP[=I]RIF'EROID; SP[=I]RIF'EROUS. [L.
_spira_, a spire, _ferre_, to bear.]
SPIRILLUM, sp[=i]-ril'um, _n._ a genus of bacteria with cylindrical spirally twisted cells:--_pl._ SPIRILL'A.
SPIRIT, spir'it, _n._ vital force: the soul: a ghost: mental disposition: enthusiasm, animation, courage, mettle: real meaning: essence, chief quality: a very lively person: any volatile, inflammable liquid obtained by distillation, as brandy: (_pl._) intellectual activity: liveliness: persons with particular qualities of mind: mental excitement: spirituous liquors.--_v.t._ to inspirit, encourage, cheer: to convey away secretly, to kidnap.--_ns._ SPIR'IT-BLUE, an aniline blue obtained from coal-tar; SPIR'IT-DUCK, the buffle-head, from its rapid diving.--_adj._ SPIR'ITED, full of spirit, life, or fire: animated.--_adv._ SPIR'ITEDLY.--_n._ SPIR'ITEDNESS.--_adj._ SPIR'ITFUL.--_n._ SPIR'ITING, the office of a spirit or sprite; SPIR'ITISM=_Spiritualism_; SPIR'ITIST=_Spiritualist_; SPIR'IT-LAMP, a lamp in which alcohol is burned, generally used for heating.--_adj._ SPIR'ITLESS, without spirit, cheerfulness, or courage: dejected: dead.--_adv._ SPIR'ITLESSLY.--_ns._ SPIR'ITLESSNESS, the state of being spiritless: want of animation or energy; SPIR'IT-LEV'EL, in surveying, a cylindrical glass tube, slightly convex on one side, and so nearly filled with alcohol that only a small bubble of air remains inside--from the position of the bubble the amount of variation from perfect levelness is determined.--_adj._ SPIR'ITOUS, of the nature of spirit, pure: ardent, spirituous.--_ns._ SPIR'ITOUSNESS; SPIR'IT-RAP'PER, one to whom spirits convey intelligence by raps or knocks; SPIR'IT-RAP'PING.--_adjs._ SPIR'IT-STIR'RING, rousing the spirit; SPIR'IT[=U]AL, consisting of spirit: having the nature of a spirit: immaterial: relating to the mind: intellectual: pertaining to the soul: holy: divine: relating to sacred things: not lay or temporal.--_n._ SPIRITUALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SPIR'IT[=U]ALISE, to make spiritual: to imbue with spirituality: to refine: to free from sensuality: to give a spiritual meaning to.--_ns._ SPIR'ITUALISER; SPIR'ITUALISM, a being spiritual: the philosophical doctrine that nothing is real but soul or spirit: the doctrine that spirit has a real existence apart from matter: the name applied to a varied series of abnormal phenomena purporting to be for the most part caused by spiritual beings acting upon specially sensitive persons or mediums; SPIR'IT[=U]ALIST, one who has a regard only to spiritual things: one who holds the doctrine of spiritualism or spiritism.--_adj._ SPIRIT[=U]ALIST'IC, relating to, or connected with, spiritualism.--_n._ SPIRIT[=U]AL'ITY, state of being spiritual: essence distinct from matter.--_adv._ SPIR'IT[=U]ALLY.--_ns._ SPIR'IT[=U]AL-MIND'EDNESS, the state of having holy affections; SPIR'IT[=U]ALNESS, the state or quality of being spiritual.--_adj._ SPI'RIT[=U]ELLE, showing great grace and delicacy.--_n._ SPIRIT[=U]OS'ITY, spirituous character: immateriality.--_advs._ SPIRIT-U[=O]'SO, SPIRIT[=O]'SO (_mus._), with spirit or animation.--_adj._ SPIR'IT[=U]OUS, possessing the qualities of spirit: containing much alcohol: volatile.--_ns._ SPIR'IT[=U]OUSNESS, the quality of being spirituous: stimulating quality: ardour: activity; SPIR'ITUS, a breathing, an aspirate: any spirituous preparation; SPIR'ITWORLD, the world of disembodied spirits.--_adj._ SPIR'ITY (_Scot._), full of spirit, spirited.--SPIRIT OF WINE, alcohol; SPIRITUAL COURT, an ecclesiastical court; SPIRITUS ASPER, a rough breathing; SPIRITUS LENIS, a soft or smooth breathing.--ANIMAL SPIRITS, constitutional liveliness of spirits; HOLY SPIRIT (see under HOLY); THE SPIRIT, the Holy Spirit: the human spirit under the influence of the Holy Spirit. [L. _spiritus_, a breath--_spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]
SPIRKET, spir'ket, _n._ a space forward and aft between floor-timbers.--_n._ SPIR'KETTING, quick-work.
SPIROMETER, sp[=i]-rom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring the capacity of the lungs, or the quantity of air that one can breathe out after a forced inspiration.--_n._ SP[=I]'ROGRAPH, an instrument for marking down the breathing movement.--_adj._ SP[=I]ROMET'RIC.--_ns._ SP[=I]ROM'ETRY; SP[=I]'ROPHORE, an apparatus for inducing artificial respiration by means of an air-tight case for the body and an air-pump; SP[=I]ROPH'YTON, a genus of fossil algae found in the Devonian in New York state; SP[=I]ROZ[=O]'OID, the filamentous defensive zooid of certain hydroids, coiled spirally when not in action. [L. _spir[=a]re_, to breathe, Gr. _metron_, a measure.]
SPIRT, sp[.e]rt. Same as SPURT.
SPIRULA, spir'[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of sepioid cuttle-fishes. [L.
_sp[=i]ra_, a spire.]
SPIRULATE, SPIRY. See under SPIRE.
SPISSATED, spis'[=a]-ted, _adj._ inspissated, thickened.--_n._ SPISS'IT[=U]DE, density. [L. _spiss[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, thicken.]
SPIT, spit, _n._ an iron prong on which meat is roasted: a long piece of land or a narrow shoal running into the sea: a wire or spindle holding a spool in a shuttle.--_v.t._ to pierce with a spit: to string on a stick and hang up to dry:--_pr.p._ spit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spit'ted.--_p.adj._ SPIT'TED, put upon a spit, impaled: shot out to a point.--_n._ SPIT'TER, one who puts meat on a spit: a young deer whose antlers have shot out but not branched. [A.S. _spitu_; Dut. _spit_, Ger. _spitze_.]
SPIT, spit, _v.t._ to throw out from the mouth: to eject with violence.--_v.i._ to throw out saliva from the mouth: to fall in scattered drops, as rain at the beginning of a shower: to make a spitting sound, like an angry cat:--_pr.p._ spit'ting; _pa.t._ spit, spat; _pa.p._ spit.--_n._ saliva, spume: a light fall of rain or snow.--_ns._ SPIT'-BOX, a spittoon; SPIT'-CURL (_coll._), a soap-lock; SPIT'FIRE, a hot-tempered person; SPIT'POISON, a venomous calumniator.--_pa.p._ SPIT'TED (_B._), thrown out from the mouth.--_ns._ SPIT'TER, one who spits; SPIT'TING, the act of one who or that which spits: an appearance on the surface of melted silver or platinum allowed to cool slowly, jets of oxygen forming small cones and sometimes throwing up drops of molten metal--also called SPROUT'ING; SPIT'TLE, the moist matter thrown from the mouth: saliva; SPITTOON', a vessel for the convenience of such smokers as spit. [A.S. _spittan_, also _sp['ae]tan_; Ice. _spta_, Ger. _sputzen_.]
SPITAL, spit'al, _n._ Same as HOSPITAL.
SPITCH-COCK, spich'-kok, _n._ an eel split and broiled.--_v.t._ to split and broil, as an eel. [_Spatch-cock_.]
SPITE, sp[=i]t, _n._ grudge: lasting ill-will: hatred.--_v.t._ to vex: to thwart: to hate.--_adj._ SPITE'FUL, full of spite: desirous to vex or injure: malignant.--_adv._ SPITE'FULLY.--_n._ SPITE'FULNESS.--IN SPITE OF, in opposition to all efforts of, in defiance of, in contempt of. [Short for despite.]
SPITZ, spitz, _n._ a Pomeranian dog. [Ger.]
SPIZA, sp[=i]'za, _n._ a genus of fringilline birds, including the United States dickcissel or black-throated bunting, &c.--_adj._ SPIZ'INE. [Gr., a finch.]
SPIZELLA, spi-zel'a, _n._ a genus of small American finches or sparrows, the chipping-sparrows.--_adj._ SPIZELL'INE.
SPLACHNUM, splak'num, _n._ a genus of bryaceous mosses. [Gr.]
SPLANCHNIC, splangk'nik, _adj._ relating to the viscera, intestinal.--_ns._ SPLANCH'NOCOELE, a visceral cavity; SPLANCHNOG'RAPHY, descriptive splanchnology; SPLANCHNOL'OGY, the knowledge of the viscera; SPLANCH'NO-SKEL'ETON, the visceral skeleton; SPLANCHNOT'OMY, the anatomy of the viscera. [Gr. _splangchnon_ (pl. _splangchna_), bowels.]
SPLASH, splash, _v.t._ to spatter with water or mud.--_v.i._ to dabble in water, to dash about water or any liquid.--_n._ water or mud thrown on anything: a spot of dirt, a daub: a complexion powder.--_ns._ SPLASH'BOARD, a guard to keep those in a vehicle from being splashed with mud; SPLASH'ER, one who, or that which, splashes.--_adj._ SPLASH'Y, splashing: wet and muddy: full of dirty water. [_Plash_.]
SPLATTER, splat'[.e]r, _v.i._ to spatter water or the like about.--_n._ SPLATT'ER-DASH, an uproar, commotion.--_adj._ SPLATT'ER-FACED, flat-faced.
SPLAY, spl[=a], _v.t._ (_archit._) to slope or slant: to dislocate, as the shoulder-bone.--_adj._ turned outward, as in _splay-foot_, awkward.--_n._ SPLAY'-FOOT, a flat foot turned outward.--_adj._ SPLAY'-FOOTED.--_n._ SPLAY'-MOUTH, a wide mouth, a mouth stretched out in grinning.--_adj._ SPLAY'-MOUTHED. [_Display_.]