SPHAGNUM, sfag'num, _n._ a genus of mosses--peat or bog-moss, belonging to the order _Sphagnaceae_.--_ns._ SPHAGNOL'OGIST, one who has studied the foregoing; SPHAGNOL'OGY, the study of the same.--_adj._ SPHAG'NOUS. [Gr.
SPHECIUS, sf[=e]'shi-us, _n._ a genus of digger-wasps. [Gr. _sph[=e]x_, a wasp.]
SPHENDONE, sfen'd[=o]-n[=e], _n._ an ancient Greek form of women's head-band: an elliptical or semi-elliptical auditorium. [Gr., a sling.]
SPHENE, sf[=e]n, _n._ titanite. [Fr.,--Gr. _sph[=e]n_, wedge.]
SPHENIC, sf[=e]'nik, _adj._ wedge-like. [Gr. _sph[=e]n_, a wedge.]
SPHENISCUS, sf[=e]-nis'kus, _n._ a genus of penguins, of the family _Spheniscidae_, the jackass-penguins.
SPHENODON, sf[=e]'n[=o]-don, _n._ a genus of South American fossil sloths; a genus of extinct New Zealand lizards.--_adj._ SPH[=E]'NODONT. [Gr.
_sph[=e]n_, a wedge, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]
SPHENOID, -AL, sf[=e]'noid, -al, _adj._ wedge-shaped: inserted like a wedge, denoting a bone at the base of the skull.--_adjs._ SPHENETH'MOID, pertaining to the sphenoid and the ethmoid bone; SPH[=E]'N[=O]-FRON'TAL, -M[=A]'LAR, -PAL'ATINE, -PAR[=I]'ETAL, -TEM'PORAL, pertaining to the sphenoid and frontal, malar, palatine, parietal, and temporal bones respectively.--_n._ SPH[=E]'NOGRAM, a cuneiform character.--_adjs._ SPH[=E]NOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ SPH[=E]NOG'RAPHY, the art of writing or deciphering cuneiform inscriptions.--_adjs._ SPH[=E]NOT'IC, pertaining to the sphenoid bone and the otic capsule; SPH[=E]'NO-TUR'BINAL, sphenoidal and turbinated or whorled. [Gr. _sph[=e]n_, _sph[=e]nos_, a wedge, _eidos_, form.]
SPHERE, sf[=e]r, _n._ a ball or globe: an orb or circle: circuit of motion: province or duty: definite range: rank, position in society: (_geom._) a surface every point of which is equidistant from one and the same point, called the centre.--_adjs._ SPH[=E]R'AL; SPHERE'LESS.--_ns._ SPHERE'-MET'AL (_Milt._), metal like that of which the celestial spheres were anciently supposed to be made; SPHERE'-M[=U]'SIC, the music of the spheres.--_adjs._ SPHER'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or like, a sphere.--_n._ SPHERICAL'ITY.--_adv._ SPHER'ICALLY.--_ns._ SPHER'ICALNESS, SPHERIC'ITY, state or quality of being spherical: roundness; SPHER'ICLE, a little sphere; SPHER'ICS, the geometry and trigonometry of the sphere; SPH[=E]'ROID, a body or figure nearly spherical, but not quite so--a species of ellipsoid (_prolate_ spheroid, a slightly lengthened sphere; _oblate_ spheroid, a slightly flattened sphere).--_adj._ SPH[=E]ROI'DAL, having the form of a spheroid.--_ns._ SPH[=E]ROIDI'CITY, SPH[=E]ROID'ITY, the state of being spheroidal; SPH[=E]'ROM[=E]RE, one of the symmetrical segments of a radiate; SPH[=E]ROM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the sphericity of portions of spherical surfaces--for example, lenses; SPH[=E]'ROSID'ERITE, the name given to impure or earthy and frequently concretionary varieties of carbonate of iron.--_adj._ SPHER'[=U]LAR.--_ns._ SPHER'[=U]LE, a little sphere; SPHER'[=U]LITE, a radiating spherical group of minute acicular crystals common in silicious volcanic rocks.--_adjs._ SPHER[=U]LIT'IC; SPH[=E]'RY, spherical, round: belonging to the celestial spheres. [Fr.,--L. _sphaera_--Gr. _sphaira_.]
SPHEX, sfeks, _n._ a genus of hymenopterous insects of the family _Sphegidae_, closely allied to the true wasps (_Vespidae_). [Gr. _sph[=e]x_, a wasp.]
SPHINCTER, sfingk't[.e]r, _n._ (_anat._) a muscle that contracts or shuts an orifice or opening which it surrounds--around the anus, &c.--_adjs._ SPHINC'TER[=A]TE, provided with a sphincter, contracted as if by a sphincter; SPHINCT[=E]'RIAL, SPHINCTER'IC, relating to a sphincter or its function.--_n._ SPHINCTEROT'OMY, the operation of cutting a sphincter. [Gr.
_sphingkt[=e]r_,--_sphinggein_, to bind tight.]
SPHINX, sfingks, _n._ a monster of Greek mythology, with the head of a woman and the body of a lioness, that proposed riddles to travellers, and strangled those who could not solve them: an enigmatic or inscrutable person: a hawk-moth: the Guinea baboon. [Gr.,--_sphinggein_, to throttle.]
SPHRAGISTICS, sfr[=a]-jis'tiks, _n._ knowledge about seals, their age, history, &c. [Gr. _sphragistikos_, pertaining to seals--_sphragis_, a seal.]
SPHRIGOSIS, sfri-g[=o]'sis, _n._ in fruit-trees, excessive growth in wood and leaves at the expense of fruit. [Gr. _sphrigan_, to be vigorous.]
SPHYGMOGRAPH, sfig'm[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for ascertaining and recording the form, force, and frequency of the pulse-beat, and the changes it undergoes in certain morbid states.--_adj._ SPHYG'MIC, pertaining to the pulse.--_n._ SPHYG'MOGRAM, the record made by a sphygmograph.--_adj._ SPHYGMOGRAPH'IC.--_n._ SPHYGMOG'RAPHY, the act of taking pulse-tracings.--_adj._ SPHYG'MOID, pulse-like.--_ns._ SPHYGMOL'OGY, the science of the pulse; SPHYGM[=O]M[=A]NOM'ETER, SPHYGMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the tension of blood in an artery; SPHYG'MOPHONE, an instrument by means of which a pulse-beat makes a sound: SPHYG'M[=O]SC[=O]PE, an instrument for making arterial pulsations visible; SPHYG'MUS, the pulse. [Gr. _sphygmos_, the pulse, _graphein_, to write.]
SPHYRNA, sf[.e]r'na, _n._ a genus of hammer-headed sharks.--_adj._ SPHYR'NINE. [Gr. _sphyra_, a hammer.]
SPIAL, sp[=i]'al, _n._ (_obs._) espial: a spy, a scout.
SPICA, sp[=i]'ka, _n._ a spiral bandage with reversed turns: (_ornith._) a spur.--_adjs._ SP[=I]'CAL, SP[=I]'C[=A]TE, -D, arranged in, or having the form of, a spike.--_n._ SPIC[=A]'TUM, in ancient masonry, herring-bone work. [L. _spicatus_, pa.p. of _spic[=a]re_--_spica_, ear.]
SPICE, sp[=i]s, _n._ an aromatic and pungent vegetable substance used as a condiment and for seasoning food--pepper, cayenne pepper, pimento, nutmeg, mace, vanilla, ginger, cinnamon, cassia, &c.: a characteristic touch or taste, smack, flavour: anything that adds piquancy or interest: an aromatic odour.--_v.t._ to season with spice: to tincture, vary, or diversify.--_ns._ SPICE'-BOX, an ornamental box for keeping spices: (_coll._) a hot-tempered person; SPICE'-BUSH, an aromatic American shrub of the laurel family; SPICE'-CAKE, a cake flavoured with spice of some kind.--_adjs._ SPICED, impregnated with a spicy odour: over-scrupulous; SPICE'FUL, aromatic.--_ns._ SP[=I]'CER, one who seasons with spice; SP[=I]'CERY, spices in general: a repository of spices: spiciness; SPICE'-TREE, an evergreen tree of the Pacific United States, yielding a fine hard wood--the _Mountain-laurel_, _California-laurel_, _Olive-_ or _Bay-tree_, and _Cajeput_; SPICE'-WOOD, the spice-bush. [O. Fr. _espice_ (Fr. _epice_)--Late L. _species_, kinds of goods, spices--L. _species_, a particular kind, &c.]
SPICIFEROUS, SPICIFORM, SPICOUS, &c. See SPIKE.
SPICK, spik, _n._ a nail, a spike.--_adj._ tidy, fresh.--_adj._ SPICK'-AND-SPAN, new and fresh, brand-new.--SPICK-AND-SPAN NEW, i.e. as new as a spike just made and a chip just split. [_Spike_, nail.]
SPICKNEL, spik'nel, _n._ the baldmoney.--Also SPIG'NEL. [Prob.
SPICY, sp[=i]'si, _adj._ producing or abounding with spices: fragrant: pungent: piquant, pointed, racy: showy.--_adv._ SP[=I]'CILY.--_n._ SP[=I]'CINESS.
SPIDER, sp[=i]'d[.e]r, _n._ an arachnid of the order _Araneida_, the body divided into two distinct parts--an unsegmented cephalo-thorax, bearing six pairs of appendages, and a soft unsegmented abdomen, at the end of which are the spinnerets from each of which numerous 'spinning-spools' ooze forth the viscid fluid which hardens into the silken thread: a frying-pan with feet, a trivet.--_ns._ SP[=I]'DER-CATCH'ER, the wall-creeper; SP[=I]'DER-CRAB, a spider-like crab, or sea-spider with long thin legs; SP[=I]'DER-D[=I]V'ER, the little grebe, or dabchick; SP[=I]'DERDOM, spiders collectively.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DERED, cobwebbed.--_n._ SP[=I]'DER-FLY, a pupiparous fly, as a bird-louse, &c.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DER-LIKE, like a spider.--_ns._ SP[=I]'DERLING, a young spider; SP[=I]'DER-MON'KEY, an American platyrrine monkey, with long slender legs and tail; SP[=I]'DER-STITCH, a stitch in lace or netting in which threads are carried diagonally and parallel to each other; SP[=I]'DER-WASP, a pompilid wasp which fills its nest with spiders for its young; SP[=I]'DER-WEB, the snare spun by the spider; SP[=I]'DER-WHEEL, in embroidery, a circular pattern with radiating lines; SP[=I]'DER-WORK, lace worked by spider-stitch; SP[=I]'DER-WORT, any plant of the genus _Tradescantia_, esp. _T.
virginica_, an American perennial with deep-blue or reddish-violet flowers.--_adj._ SP[=I]'DERY, spider-like. [M. E. _spither_--A.S.
_spinnan_, to spin; cf. Dan. _spinder_, Ger. _spinne_.]
SPIE, sp[=i], _n._ (_Spens._) a keen glance, the eye. [_Spy_.]
SPIEGELEISEN, sp[=e]'gl-[=i]-zen, _n._ a white cast-iron containing from eight to fifteen per cent. of manganese, largely used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer process. [Ger.,--_spiegel_--L. _speculum_, a mirror, Ger. _eisen_, iron.]
SPIFFY, spif'i, _adj._ (_slang_) smart, spruce, well-dressed.
SPIFLICATE, spif'li-k[=a]t, _v.t._ (_slang_) to suffocate, kill: to beat severely, to confound.--_n._ SPIFLIC[=A]'TION.
SPIGELIA, sp[=i]-j[=e]'li-a, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Loganiaceae_, containing the _Worm-grass_ and _Carolina-pink_, the root--_Pink-root_--being purgative, narcotic, and poisonous, a powerful vermifuge.--_adj._ SPIG[=E]'LIAN, denoting the _lobulus spigelii_, one of the lobes of the liver. [From the Belgian Ad. van der _Spiegel_ (1558-1625).]
SPIGHT, sp[=i]t, v. and _n._ (_Spens._). Same as SPITE.
SPIGOT, spig'ut, _n._ a plug for stopping a small hole in a cask. [Gael.
_spiocaid_, W. _ysbigod_--L. _spica_.]
SPIKE, sp[=i]k, _n._ an ear of corn: (_bot._) an inflorescence in which sessile flowers, or flowers having very short stalks, are arranged around an axis: a small pointed rod: a large nail.--_v.t._ to set with spikes: to stop the vent of with a cast-iron spike driven in hard and then broken off, as by soldiers obliged to abandon their own guns or unable to remove those of the enemy which they have captured.--_adjs._ SP[=I]'CATE, SP[=I]'COSE, SP[=I]'COUS, having spikes or ears, like corn; SPICIF'EROUS, bearing spikes: having spurs; SP[=I]'CIFORM, having the form of a spike.--_n._ SPICOS'ITY, state of being spicous or eared.--_adjs._ SPIC'[=U]LAR, resembling a dart: in the shape of, or having, sharp points; SPIC'[=U]LATE, covered with, or divided into, minute points.--_n._ SPIC'[=U]LE (_bot._), a little spike--also SPIC'[=U]LA: a minute, slender granule or point.--_adjs._ SPIC'UL[=I]FORM; SPIC[=U]LIG'ENOUS, SPIC[=U]LIF'EROUS, producing spicules; SPIC'[=U]L[=O]SE, SPIC'[=U]LOUS, having spicules.--_ns._ SPIC'[=U]LUM, a spicule; SPIKE'BILL, a merganser, a sawbill: the marbled godwit.--_p.adj._ SPIKED, furnished, fastened, or stopped with spikes.--_ns._ SPIKE'-EXTRACT'OR, an apparatus for drawing out spikes, as from railway-ties; SPIKE'-FISH, a kind of sail-fish; SPIKE'-GRASS, one of several American grasses with conspicuous spikelets of flowers; SPIKE'LET, a little spike; SPIKE'-NAIL, a spike; SPIKE'-OIL, the oil of spike, a species of lavender; SPIKE'-PLANK, a platform before the mizzen-mast of a vessel, used in Arctic voyages.--_adj._ SP[=I]'KY, furnished with spikes: having a sharp point. [L. _spica_, an ear of corn.]
SPIKENARD, sp[=i]k'nard, _n._ an aromatic oil or balsam yielded by an Indian plant, the _Nardus_, closely allied to valerian: the plant itself.
[L. _spica nardi_.]
SPILE, sp[=i]l, _n._ a wooden plug serving as a spigot, a wooden pin or wedge: a spout driven into a sugar-maple tree, a tapping-gouge: a pile, or large timber driven into the ground for a foundation.--_v.t._ to pierce and provide with a spile: to drive piles into.--_n._ SP[=I]'LING, building-piles: the edge-curve of a plank or of a strake in a vessel's hull. [Cf. _Spill_ (2).]
SPILL, spil, _v.t._ to allow to run out of a vessel: to shed: to waste: (_coll._) to throw from a vehicle or the saddle: to empty the belly of a sail of wind for reefing.--_v.i._ to be shed: to be allowed to fall, be lost, or wasted:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spilled, spilt.--_n._ a fall, a throw: a downpour.--_ns._ SPILL'ER; SPILL'ING-LINE, a rope for spilling the wind out of a square sail to facilitate reefing or furling; SPILL'-STREAM, a stream formed by overflow water, a bayou; SPILL'WAY, a passage for overflow-water from a dam. [A.S. _spillan_; Dut. _spillen_, Ice. _spilla_, to destroy.]
SPILL, spil, _n._ a small peg or pin to stop a hole: a thin strip of wood or twisted paper for lighting a candle, a pipe, &c.--_n._ SPILL'IKIN, one of a number of small pieces of wood, ivory, &c. for playing a game with: the game played--also SPIL'KIN. [A.S. _speld_, a torch; cf. Ger. _spalten_, to cleave, Dut. _speld_, a splinter.]
SPILOMA, spi-l[=o]'ma, _n._ a birth-mark, a naevus. [Gr.]
SPILOSITE, spil'o-s[=i]t, _n._ a greenish schistose rock spotted with chlorite, occurring in the Harz--the German _Fleckenschiefer_. [Gr.
_spilos_, a spot.]
SPILOTES, sp[=i]-l[=o]'t[=e]z, _n._ a genus of colubrine serpents.
SPILT, spilt, _p.adj._ (_Spens._) pieced, inlaid.
SPILTH, spilth, _n._ spilling, anything spilt or poured out lavishly, excess of supply.
SPILUS, sp[=i]'lus, _n._ a naevus or birth-mark. [Gr. _spilos_, a spot.]
SPIN, spin, _v.t._ to draw out and twist into threads: to draw out a thread as spiders do: to draw out tediously: to cause to whirl rapidly: to fish with a swivel or spoon-bait: to reject at an examination.--_v.i._ to practise the art or trade of spinning, to perform the act of spinning: to issue in a small or thread-like current: to whirl, to go fast:--_pr.p._ spin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spun.--_n._ a rapid revolving motion, a spurt at high speed.--_ns._ SPIN'NER, one who spins: (_Shak._) a spider: a spinneret;
SPIN'NERET, an organ, or one of the organs, with which insects form their webs.--_adj._ SPINNER'ULAR.--_ns._ SPIN'NERULE, one of the tubules of a spinneret; SPIN'NERY, a spinning-mill.--_adj._ SPIN'NING, used in spinning.--_ns._ SPIN'NING-HOUSE, a place of correction where lewd and incorrigible women were made to spin; SPIN'NING-JENN'Y, a machine by which a number of threads can be spun at the same time; SPIN'NING-MILL, a factory where thread is spun; SPIN'NING-WHEEL, a machine for spinning yarn, consisting of a wheel driven by the hand or by a treadle, which drives one or two spindles.--SPIN A YARN, to tell a long story; SPIN OUT, to prolong tediously. [A.S. _spinnan_; Ger. _spinnen_.]
SPINACH, SPINAGE, spin'[=a]j, _n._ an esculent vegetable whose thick succulent young leaves are boiled and seasoned, or fried with butter, forming a wholesome dish.--_adj._ SPIN[=A]'CEOUS. [It. _spinace_--Low L.
_spin[=a]ceus_--_spina_, a thorn.]