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SANCHO-PEDRO, sang'k[=o]-p[=e]'dr[=o], _n._ a game of cards--the nine of trumps called _Sancho_, the five _Pedro_.

SANCTIFY, sangk'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make sacred or holy: to set apart to sacred use: to free from sin or evil: to consecrate: to invest with a sacred character: to make efficient as the means of holiness: to secure from violation:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sanc'tif[=i]ed.--_n._ SANCTANIM'ITY, holiness of mind.--_v.t._ SANCTIF'IC[=A]TE.--_n._ SANCTIFIC[=A]'TION, act of sanctifying: state of being sanctified: that work or process of God's free grace whereby the new principle of spiritual life implanted in regeneration is developed until the whole man is renewed in the image of God: consecration.--_adj._ SANC'TIFIED, made holy: sanctimonious.--_adv._ SANCTIF[=I]'EDLY, sanctimoniously.--_n._ SANC'TIFIER, one who sanctifies: the Holy Spirit.--_adv._ SANC'TIFYINGLY.--_adj._ SANCTIM[=O]'NIOUS, having sanctity: holy, devout: affecting holiness.--_adv._ SANCTIM[=O]'NIOUSLY.--_ns._ SANCTIM[=O]'NIOUSNESS, SANC'TIMONY, affected devoutness, show of sanctity; SANC'TITUDE, holiness, goodness, saintliness: affected holiness; SANC'TITY, quality of being sacred or holy: purity: godliness: inviolability: a saint, any holy object.--_v.t._ SANC'TUARISE (_Shak._), to shelter by sacred privileges, as in a sanctuary.--_ns._ SANC'T[=U]ARY, a sacred place: a place for the worship of God: the most sacred part of the Temple of Jerusalem: the Temple itself: the part of a church round the altar: an inviolable asylum, refuge, a consecrated place which gives protection to a criminal taking refuge there: the privilege of taking refuge in such a consecrated place; SANC'TUM, a sacred place: a private room; SANC'TUS, the ascription, 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts,' from Isa. vi.: a musical setting of the same.--SANCTUM SANCTORUM, the Holy of Holies: any specially reserved retreat or room.--ODOUR OF SANCTITY, the aroma of goodness. [Fr.,--L. _sanctific[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_sanctus_, sacred, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SANCTION, sangk'shun, _n._ act of ratifying, or giving authority to: confirmation: support: a decree, a law.--_v.t._ to give validity to: to authorise: to countenance.--_adjs._ SANC'TIONABLE; SANC'TIONARY. [Fr.,--L.


SAND, sand, _n._ fine particles of crushed or worn rocks, used in founding: force of character: (_pl._) lands covered with sand: a sandy beach: moments of time, from the use of sand in the hour-glass.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with sand.--_ns._ SAND'-BAG (_fort._), a canvas bag filled with sand or earth, forming a ready means of giving cover against an enemy's fire, or of tamping the charge in a mine: an engraver's leather cushion, &c.; SAND'-BAG'GER, a robber who uses a sand-bag to stun his victims; SAND'-BALL, a ball of soap mixed with fine sand for the toilet; SAND'-BAND, a guard-ring to keep sand from working into the axle-box; SAND'-BANK, a bank of sand formed by tides and currents; SAND'-BATH, a vessel of hot sand for heating vessels without direct exposure to the fire: a bath in which the body is covered with warm sea-sand: saburration; SAND'-BEAR, the Indian badger; SAND'-BED, the bed into which the iron from the blast-furnace is run; SAND'-BIRD, a sandpiper: a shore bird; SAND'-BLAST, sand driven by a blast of air or steam for cutting and engraving figures on glass or metal.--_adj._ SAND'-BLIND, afflicted with partial blindness, in which particles of sand seem to float before the eyes.--_ns._ SAND'-BLIND'NESS; SAND'-BLOW'ER, a sand bellows; SAND'-BOX, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling sand on writing, a contrivance formerly used by way of blotting-paper: a box with sand to prevent the wheels of a rail from slipping; SAND'-BRAKE, a device for stopping trains automatically; SAND'-BUG, a burrowing crustacean: a digger-wasp; SAND'-BUR, a weed found in the plains of the western United States; SAND'-CANAL', the stone canal of an echinoderm; SAND'-CHERR'Y, the dwarf cherry; SAND'-COCK, the redshank; SAND'-CRAB, the lady-crab; SAND'-CRACK, a crack in a horse's hoof: a crack in a moulded brick before burning; SAND'-CRICK'ET, a name applied to certain large crickets in the western United States; SAND'-DAB, a kind of plaice; SAND'-DART, a British noctuid moth; SAND'-DART'ER, -DIV'ER, a small etheostomine fish of the Ohio valley; SAND'-DOLL'AR, a flat sea-urchin; SAND'-DRIFT, a mound of drifted sand; SAND'-DUNE, a ridge of loose sand drifted by the wind.--_adj._ SAND'ED (_Shak._), marked with yellow spots: sprinkled with sand: short-sighted.--_ns._ SAND'-EEL, a small eel-like fish, which buries itself in the sand when the tide retires; SAND'ERLING, a genus of birds of the snipe family, characterised by the absence of a hind-toe, common on the coast, eating marine worms, small crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs; SAND'-FENCE, a barrier in a stream of stakes and iron wire; SAND'-FISH, a fish of the genus Trichodon; SAND'-FLAG, sandstone which splits up into flagstones; SAND'-FLEA, the chigoe or jigger; SAND'-FLOOD, a moving mass of desert sand; SAND'-FLOUN'DER, a common North American flounder; SAND'-FLY, a small New England biting midge; SAND'-GLASS, a glass instrument for measuring time by the running out of sand; SAND'-GRASS, grass that grows by the sea-shore; SAND'-GROUSE, a small order of birds, quite distinct from the true grouse, having two genera, _Pterocles_ and _Syrrhaptes_, with beautiful plumage, heavy body, long and pointed wings, very short legs and toes; SAND'-HEAT, the heat of warm sand in chemical operations; SAND'-HILL, a hill of sand; SAND'-HILL CRANE, the brown crane of North America; SAND'-HILL'ER, one of the poor whites living in the sandy hills of Georgia; SAND'-HOP'PER, a small crustacean in the order _Amphipoda_, often seen on the sandy sea-shore, like swarms of dancing flies, leaping up by bending the body together, and throwing it out with a sudden jerk: a sand-flea; SAND'-HORN'ET, a sand-wasp; SAND'INESS, sandy quality, esp. as regards colour; SAND'ING, the process of testing the surface of gilding, after it has been fired, with fine sand and water: the process of burying oysters in sand.--_adj._ SAND'ISH (_obs._).--_ns._ SAND'-JET (see SAND'-BLAST); SAND'-LARK, a wading-bird that runs along the sand: a sandpiper; SAND'-LIZ'ARD, a common lizard; SAND'-LOB, the common British lug or lob worm; SAND'-MAR'TIN, the smallest of British swallows, which builds its nest in sandy river-banks and gravel-pits; SAND'-M[=A]'SON, a common British tube-worm; SAND'-MOLE, a South African rodent; SAND'-MOUSE, the dunlin: a sandpiper; SAND'-NATT'ER, a sand-snake; SAND'-P[=A]'PER, paper covered with a kind of sand for smoothing and polishing; SAND'-PEEP, the American stint: the peetweet; SAND'-PERCH, the grass-bass; SAND'PIPER, a wading-bird of the snipe family, which frequents sandy river-banks, distinguished by its clear piping SAND'-PIPES, perpendicular cylindrical hollows, tapering to a point, occurring in chalk deposits, and so called from being usually filled with sand, gravel, or clay.--_ns._ SAND'-PIT, a place from which sand is extracted; SAND'-PLOV'ER, a ring-necked plover; SAND'-PRIDE, a very small species of lamprey found in the rivers of Britain; SAND'-PUMP, a long cylinder with valved piston for use in drilling rocks--a SAND'-SLUDG'ER: a sand-ejector, modified from the jet-pump, used in caissons for sinking the foundations of bridges; SAND'-RAT, a geomyoid rodent, esp. the camass rat; SAND'-REED, a shore grass; SAND'-REEL, a windlass used in working a sand-pump; SAND'-RIDGE, a sand-bank; SAND'-ROLL, a metal roll cast in sand; SAND'-RUN'NER, a sandpiper; SAND'-SAU'CER, a round mass of agglutinated egg-capsules of a naticoid gasteropod, found on beaches; SAND'-SCOOP, a dredge for scooping up sand; SAND'-SCREEN, a sand-sifter; SAND'-SCREW, an amphipod which burrows in the sand; SAND'-SHARK, a small voracious shark; SAND'-SHOT, small cast-iron balls cast in sand; SAND'-SHRIMP, a shrimp; SAND'-SKINK, a European skink found in sandy places; SAND'-SKIP'PER, a beach flea; SAND'-SNAKE, a short-tailed boa-like serpent; SAND'-SNIPE, the sandpiper; SAND'-SPOUT, a moving pillar of sand; SAND'STAR, a starfish: a brittle star; SAND'-STONE, a rock formed of compacted and more or less indurated sand (OLD RED SANDSTONE, a name given to a series of strata--along with the parallel but nowhere coexisting _Devonian_--intermediate in age between the Silurian and Carboniferous systems); SAND'-STORM, a storm of wind carrying along clouds of sand; SAND'-SUCK'ER, the rough dab; SAND'-THROW'ER, a tool for throwing sand on newly sized or painted surfaces; SAND'-TRAP, a device for separating sand from running water; SAND'-V[=I]'PER, a hog-nosed snake; SAND'-WASHER, an apparatus for separating sand from earthy substances; SAND'-WASP, a digger-wasp.--_v.t._ SAND'-WELD, to weld iron with sand.--_ns._ SAND'-WORM, a worm that lives in the sand; SAND'-WORT, any plant of the genus _Arenaria_.--_adj._ SAND'Y, consisting of, or covered with, sand: loose: of the colour of sand.--_n._ a nick-name for a Scotsman (from _Alexander_).--_ns._ SAND'Y-CAR'PET, a geometrid moth; SAND'Y-LAV'EROCK (_Scot._), a sand-lark. [A.S. _sand_; Dut. _zand_, Ger.

_sand_, Ice. _sand-r_.]

SANDAL, san'dal, _n._ a kind of shoe consisting of a sole bound to the foot by straps: a loose slipper: a half-boot of white kid: a strap for fastening a slipper: an india-rubber shoe.--_adj._ SAN'DALLED, wearing sandals: fastened with such. [Fr.,--L. _sandalium_--Gr. _sandalon_, prob. from Pers.]

SANDAL, san'dal, _n._ a long narrow boat used on the Barbary coast. [Ar.]

SANDALWOOD, san'dal-w[=oo]d, _n._ a compact and fine-grained tropical wood, remarkable for its fragrance. [Fr. _sandal_--Low L. _santalum_--Late Gr.


SANDARAC, san'da-rak, _n._ a friable, dry, almost transparent, tasteless, yellowish-white resin, imported from Mogador, Morocco: red sulphuret of arsenic--also SAN'DARACH.--_n._ SAN'DARAC-TREE, a native of the mountains of Morocco. [Fr. _sandaraque_--L. _sandaraca_--Gr. _sandarak[=e]_--Sans.

_sind[=u]ra_, realgar.]

SANDEMANIAN, san-de-m[=a]'ni-an, _n._ a follower of Robert _Sandeman_ (1718-71), a Glassite (q.v.).

SANDIVER, san'di-v[.e]r, _n._ the saline scum which forms on glass during its first fusion: glass-gall: product of glass-furnaces.--Also SAN'DEVER.

[O. Fr. _suin de verre_, _suint de verre_--_suin_, grease, _de_, of, _verre_, glass--L. _vitrum_.]

SANDIX, san'diks, _n._ red lead.--Also SAN'DYX. [L.,--Gr. _sandix_, vermilion.]

SANDWICH, sand'wich, _n._ two slices of bread with ham, &c., between, said to be named from the fourth Earl of _Sandwich_ (1718-92), who had such brought to him at the gaming-table that he might play on without stopping.--_v.t._ to lay or place between two layers, to fit tight between two objects.--_n._ SAND'WICH-MAN, a man who perambulates the streets between two advertising boards.

SANE, s[=a]n, _adj._ sound in mind or body: healthy: not disordered in intellect.--_adv._ SANE'LY.--_n._ SANE'-NESS. [L. _sanus_; akin to Gr.

_saos_, _s[=o]s_, sound.]

SANG, sang, _pa.t._ of _sing_.--_n._ a Scotch form of _song_.

SANG, sang, _n._ blood, in heraldic use.--_adj._ SANG'LANT, bloody or dropping blood.--_n._ SANG-DE-BOEUF, a deep-red colour peculiar to Chinese porcelain.

SANG, sang, _n._ a Chinese wind-instrument.

SANGAR, sang'gar, _n._ a stone breastwork: a low wall of loose stones, used as cover for soldiers. [Hindi sangar, war, entrenchment; from the Sanskrit.]

SANGAREE, sang-ga-r[=e]', _n._ a West Indian beverage, of wine, sugar or syrup, water, and nutmeg, drunk cold.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make or drink such. [Sp. _Sangria_.]

SANG-FROID, sang-frwo', _n._ coolness, indifference, calmness. [Fr., _sang_, blood, _froid_, cold.]

SANGLIER, sang'li-[.e]r, _n._ (_her._) a wild boar used as a bearing. [Fr., orig. _porc sanglier_--Low L. _singularis_ (_porcus_), the wild boar.]

SANGRAAL, san-gr[=a]l', _n._ in medieval legends, the holy cup supposed to have been used at the Last Supper.--Also SANG'REAL. [Cf. _Grail_.]

SANGRADO, san-gra'do, _n._ one who lets blood--from the leech in _Gil Blas_.

SANGUINE, sang'gwin, _adj._ abounding with blood, bloody: bloodthirsty: ruddy, red: ardent, hopeful, confident: characterised by a fullness of habit.--_n._ the colour of red.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to stain with blood.--_n._ SANG'SUE, a leech--also SANG'UISUGE.--_adjs._ SANGUIC'OLOUS, living in the blood, as a parasite; SANGUIF'EROUS, receiving and conveying blood, circulatory.--_ns._ SANGUIFIC[=A]'TION; SAN'GUIFIER.--_adj._ SANGUIF'LUOUS, flowing with blood.--_v.i._ SAN'GUIFY, to make blood.--_v.t._ to convert into blood.--_n._ SANGUIN[=A]'RIA, a genus of the poppy family, one species, the Blood-root or Puccoon of North America, much used by the Indians for staining.--_adv._ SAN'GUINARILY.--_n._ SAN'GUINARINESS.--_adj._ SAN'GUINARY, bloody: attended with much blood-shed: bloodthirsty.--_n._ the yarrow: the blood-root.--_adj._ SAN'GUINELESS, destitute of blood.--_adv._ SAN'GUINELY, hopefully, confidently.--_n._ SAN'GUINENESS, sanguine character, ardour: ruddiness: plethora.--_adj._ SANGUIN'EOUS, sanguine: resembling or constituting blood.--_ns._ SANGUIN'ITY, sanguineness; SANGUIN'OLENCE, SANGUIN'OLENCY.--_adj._ SANGUIN'OLENT, tinged with blood: sanguine.--_ns._ SANGUISORB[=A]'CEae, SANGUISOR'BEae, a sub-order of _Rosaceae_, containing about 150 species; SANGUIS[=U]'GA, a genus of leeches.--_adjs._ SANGUIS[=U]'GENT, SANGUIS[=U]'GOUS, blood-sucking; SANGUIV'OLENT, bloodthirsty; SANGUIV'OROUS, feeding on blood, as a vampire--also SANGUINIV'OROUS. [Fr.,--L. _sanguineus_--_sanguis_, _sanguinis_, blood.]

SANHEDRIM, SANHEDRIN, san'h[=e]-drim, -drin, _n._ the supreme ecclesiastical and judicial tribunal of the Jews down to 425 A.D.: any similar assembly, a parliament. [Heb. _sanhedrin_--Gr. _synedrion_--_syn_, together, _hedra_, a seat.]

SANHITa, san'hi-ta, _n._ the name of that portion of the Vedas which contains the Mantras or hymns.

SANICLE, san'ik'l, _n._ a plant of the genus _Sanicula_, the common wood-sanicle long supposed to have healing power. [Fr.,--L. _san[=a]re_, to heal.]

SANIDINE, san'i-din, _n._ a clear glassy variety of orthoclase. [Gr.

_sanis_, _sanidos_, a board.]

SANIES, s[=a]'ni-[=e]z, _n._ a thin discharge from wounds or sores.--_adj._ S[=A]'NIOUS. [L.]

SANIFY, san'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to make healthy. [L. _sanus_, sound, _fac[)e]re_ to make.]

SANITARY, san'i-tar-i, _adj._ pertaining to, tending, or designed to promote health.--_n._ SANIT[=A]'RIAN, a promoter of sanitary reforms.--_adv._ SAN'ITARILY.--_ns._ SAN'ITARY-WARE, coarse-glazed earthenware for sewer-pipes; SANIT[=A]'TION, the science of sanitary conditions and of preserving health, synonymous with Hygiene--usually restricted, however, to the methods and apparatus for making and maintaining houses healthy; SANIT[=O]'RIUM (incorrectly, SANIT[=A]'RIUM), a health station, particularly for troops.--SANITARY SCIENCE, such science as conduces to the preservation of health.

SANITY, san'i-ti, _n._ state of being sane: soundness of mind or body. [L.

_sanitas_--_sanus_, sane.]

SANJAK, san'jak, _n._ an administrative subdivision of a Turkish vilayet or eyalet.--Also SAN'JAK[=A]TE. [Turk.]

SANK, sangk, _pa.t._ of sink.

SANKHYA, san'kya, _n._ one of the six great systems of orthodox Hindu philosophy.

SANNUP, san'up, _n._ the husband of a squaw: a brave.--Also SANN'OP. [Amer.


SANS, sanz, _prep._ (_Shak._) without, wanting.--_n._ SANS'-APPEL', a person from whose decision there is no appeal.--SANS NOMBRE (_her._), repeated often, and covering the field; SANS SOUCI, without care: free and easy. [O. Fr. _sans_, _senz_--L. _sine_, without.]

SANSA, san'sa, _n._ a musical instrument of percussion, a tambourine.

SANSCULOTTE, sanz-k[=oo]-lot', _n._ a name given in scorn, at the beginning of the French Revolution, by the court party to the democratic party in Paris.--_n._ SANSCULOT'TERIE.--_adj._ SANSCULOT'TIC.--_ns._ SANSCULOT'TISM; SANSCULOT'TIST. [Fr. _sansculotte_, _sans_, without--L. _sine_, without, _culotte_, breeches, _cul_, breech--L. _culus_, the breech.]

SANSEVIERIA, san-sev-i-[=e]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the order _Haemodoraceae_, native to southern Africa and the East Indies, yielding _bowstring-hemp_. [Named after the Neapolitan Prince of _Sanseviero_ (1710-71).]

SANSKRIT, sans'krit, _n._ the ancient literary language of India, the easternmost branch of the great Indo-Germanic (Indo-European, Aryan) stock of languages.--_n._ SANS'KRITIST, one skilled in Sanskrit. [Sans.

_samskrita_, perfected, polished, from Sans. _sam_, together, _krita_, done, perfected, from _kri_, cog. with L. _cre[=a]re_, to create.]

SANTA CLAUS, san'ta klawz, _n._ a famous nursery hero, a fat rosy old fellow who brings presents to good children on Christmas Eve.

SANTALACEae, san-ta-l[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], _n._ an order of apetalous plants, the sandalwood family.--_adjs._ SANTAL[=A]'CEOUS; SANTAL'IC, pertaining to sandalwood.--_ns._ SAN'TALIN, the colouring matter of red sandalwood; SAN'TALUM, the type genus of the sandalwood family.

SANTIR, san't[.e]r, _n._ a variety of dulcimer used in the East.--Also SAN'TUR.

SANTOLINA, san-t[=o]-l[=i]'na, _n._ a genus of composite plants, of the Mediterranean region, of tribe _Anthemideae_, including the common lavender-cotton.

SANTON, san'ton, _n._ an Eastern dervish or saint. [Sp. _santon_--_santo_, holy--L. _sanctus_, holy.]

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