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SPARROW, spar'[=o], _n._ an Old World genus of birds of fringilline family.--_ns._ SPARR'OW-BILL, a small shoe-nail, so called from its shape--also SPAR'ABLE; SPARR'OW-GRASS, asparagus; SPARR'OW-HAWK, a genus of long-legged, short-winged falcons, like the goshawks, but smaller.--_adj._ SPARR'OW-TAIL (see SWALLOW-TAIL). [A.S. _spearwa_; Goth. _sparwa_, Ice.

_sporr_, Ger. _sper-ling_.]

SPARRY, spar'i, _adj._ consisting of, or like, spar.--_n._ SPARR'Y-[=I]'RON, a carbonite of iron, siderite.

SPARSE, spars, _adj._ thinly scattered: scanty.--_adv._ SPARSE'LY.--_n._ SPARSE'NESS.--_adj._ SPAR'SILE.--_n._ SPAR'SITY. [L. _sparsum_, pa.p. of _sparg[)e]re_, to scatter; Gr. _speirein_, to sow.]

SPARTAN, spar'tan, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Sparta_ in Greece: hardy, rigorously severe: fearless.

SPARTERIE, spar't[.e]r-i, _n._ articles made from esparto--mats, nets, ropes, &c.

SPARTH, -E, sparth, _n._ a halberd, mace.

SPASM, spazm, _n._ an irregular and violent contraction of muscular parts--involuntary even when the voluntary muscles are concerned. When persistent it is _tonic spasm_ or _cramp_, _catalepsy_, _tetanus_; when the relaxations alternate with the contractions, it is _clonic spasm_, as in _epilepsy_, _convulsive hysteria_, _chorea_, &c.--_n._ SPASMOD'IC, a medicine for removing spasms.--_adjs._ SPASMOD'IC, -AL, relating to, or consisting in, spasms: convulsive.--_adv._ SPASMOD'ICALLY, in a spasmodic manner: in fits.--_ns._ SPAS'MODIST; SPASMOL'OGY, scientific knowledge of spasms.--_adj._ SPAS'TIC, relating to spasms, spasmodic.--_adv._ SPAS'TICALLY.--_n._ SPASTIC'ITY, tendency to spasm.--SPASMODIC SCHOOL, a group of English poets, including P. J. Bailey, Sydney Dobell, and Alexander Smith, marked by overstrained and unnatural sentiment and expression. [Fr. _spasme_--L. _spasmus_--Gr. _spasmos_--_spaein_, to draw.]

SPAT, spat, _pa.t._ of _spit_, to throw from the mouth.

SPAT, spat, _n._ the spawn of shellfish.--_v.i._ to shed spawn. [From root of _spit_.]

SPAT, spat, _n._ a slap: a large drop, as of rain: a petty quarrel.--_v.t._ to slap, to strike lightly.--_v.i._ to engage in a petty quarrel.

SPAT, spat, _n._ a gaiter or legging--usually in _pl._ [_Spatter-dashes_.]

SPATANGUS, sp[=a]-tang'gus, _n._ the typical genus of _Spatangidae_, a family of irregular sea-urchins, the SPATANG'IDA, the spatangoid sea-urchins.--_adj._ SPATANG'OID, like a cordate urchin.--_n._ one of SPATANGOI'DA, SPATANGOI'D[=E]A, the _Spatangidae_, an order of petalostichous sea-urchins, generally excluding the clypeastroids or flat sea-urchins. [Gr. _spatang[=e]s_, a sea-urchin.]

SPATCH-COCK, spach'-kok, _n._ a fowl killed and immediately roasted or broiled for some sudden occasion. [Prob. a corr. of _despatch_ and _cock_.]

SPATE, SPAIT, sp[=a]t, _n._ a sudden flood, as in a stream after heavy rain. [Prob. Ir. _speid_.]

SPATHE, sp[=a]th, _n._ (_bot_.) a sheathing bract, which encloses one or more flowers, as in the narcissus.--_adjs._ SPATH[=A]'CEOUS, spathe-bearing; SP[=A]THED, having a spathe.--_n._ SPATHIL'LA, a secondary or diminutive spathe.--_adjs._ SP[=A]'THOSE, SP[=A]'THOUS (_bot_.), having a spathe or sheath-like bract, bursting longitudinally. [L. _spatha_--Gr.

_spath[=e]_, a broad blade.]

SPATHIC, spath'ik, _adj._ (_min._) foliated, lamellar.--_adj._ SPATH'IFORM, spathic. [Ger. _spath_, spar.]

SPATHURA, sp[=a]-th[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of humming-birds with peculiar tail-feathers expanding into a spatule at the end, and leg-muffs. [Gr.

_spath[=e]_, a blade, _oura_, a tail.]

SPATIAL, sp[=a]'shal, _adj._ relating to space.--_n._ SP[=A]TIAL'ITY.--_adv_. SP[=A]'TIALLY.

SPATILOMANCY, sp[=a]-til'[=o]-man-si, _n._ divination by means of animal excrements. [Gr. _spatil[=e]_, excrement, _manteia_, divination.]


SPATTER, spat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to throw out or scatter upon: to scatter about: to sprinkle with dirt or anything moist: to defame.--_n._ the act of spattering: what is SPATT'ER-DASH'ES, coverings for the legs, to keep them clean from water and mud, a kind of gaiters.--_n._ SPATT'ER-WORK, a method of producing designs by covering the surface with the pattern and then spattering colouring matter on the parts exposed. [A freq. of _spot_.]

SPATULA, spat'[=u]-la, SPATTLE, spat'l, _n._ a little spade: a broad kind of knife for spreading plasters.--_n._ SPAT'ULAMANCY, a method of divination by a sheep's shoulder-blade.--_adj._ SPAT'UL[=A]TE, shaped like a spatula.--_n._ SPAT'ULE, a spatulate formation.--_adjs._ SPAT'ULIFORM, SPATULIG'EROUS. [L. _spatula_, _spathula_, dim. of _spatha_--Gr.


SPAVIN, spav'in, _n._ a disease of horses occurring under two different forms--_bog-spavin_, in which the hock-joint is distended with dark-coloured synovia or joint-oil, and _bone-spavin_, in which a bony enlargement occurs towards the inside of the hock, at the head of the shank-bone, or between some of the small bones of the hock.--_adj._ SPAV'INED, affected with spavin. [O. Fr. _esparvain_ (Fr. _eparvin_)--Old High Ger. _sparo_, _sparwe_, a sparrow.]

SPAWL, spawl, _n._ spittle, slaver.--_v.i._ to eject saliva.

SPAWN, spawn, _n._ the eggs of fish or frogs when ejected: offspring.--_adj._ containing spawn.--_v.t._ to produce, as fishes and frogs do their eggs: to bring forth.--_v.i._ to deposit eggs, as fishes or frogs: to issue, as offspring.--_ns._ SPAWN'ER, the female fish from which the spawn is ejected; SPAWN'ING; SPAWN'ING-BED, -GROUND, a bed made in the bottom of a stream on which fish deposit their spawn. [O. Fr. _espandre_, to shed--L. _expand[)e]re_, to spread out.]

SPAY, sp[=a], _v.t._ to make an animal barren by destroying its ovaries.--Also SP[=A]VE. [L. _spado_--Gr. _spad[=o]n_, a eunuch--Gr.

_spaein_, draw out.]

SPEAK, sp[=e]k, _v.i._ to utter words or articulate sounds: to say: to talk: to converse: to sound: to give expression by any means, to intimate, to hint.--_v.t._ to pronounce: to converse in: to address: to declare: to express by signs:--_pa.t._ spoke or sp[=a]ke; _pa.p._ sp[=o]'ken.--_adj._ SPEAK'ABLE, capable of being spoken: (_Milt._) having the power of speech.--_ns._ SPEAK'-EAS'Y (_U.S._), an illicit dram-shop, shebeen; SPEAK'ER, one who speaks or proclaims: the person who presides in a deliberative or legislative body, as the House of Commons; SPEAK'ERSHIP, the office of Speaker; SPEAK'ING, the act of expressing ideas in words: discourse.--_adj._ seeming to speak: natural: used to assist the voice.--_adv._ SPEAK'INGLY.--_ns._ SPEAK'ING-TRUM'PET, an instrument for enabling the sound of the voice to be conveyed to a greater distance; SPEAK'ING-TUBE, a tube communicating from one room to another for speaking through; SPEAK'ING-VOICE, the kind of voice used in speaking.--SPEAK A SHIP, to hail and speak to some one on board her; SPEAK FAIR, to address one in conciliatory terms; SPEAK FOR, to speak on behalf of: to be a proof of: to bespeak, engage; SPEAKING TERMS, a relationship between two persons not extending beyond the courtesy of verbal salutation, &c.; SPEAK OF, to talk about: to mention, or to be worth mentioning; SPEAK ONE'S MIND, to say frankly what one thinks; SPEAK OUT, to assert boldly or loudly; SPEAK TO, to reprove: to attest, testify to; SPEAK UP, to speak out; SPEAK WELL FOR, to witness favourably to.--SO TO SPEAK, as one might put it, as it were.

[A.S. _specan_ (for _sprecan_); Dut. _spreken_, Ger. _sprechen_.]

SPEAL-BONE, sp[=e]l'-b[=o]n, _n._ the shoulder-blade.

SPEAR, sp[=e]r, _n._ a long weapon used in war and hunting, made of a pole pointed with iron: a lance with barbed prongs used for catching fish.--_v.t._ to pierce or kill with a spear.--_ns._ SPEAR'-FISH, a kind of carp-sucker--also _Sail-fish_ and _Skimback_: the bill-fish, a histiophoroid fish related to the swordfish; SPEAR'-FOOT, the off or right hind-foot of a horse; SPEAR'-GRASS, a name applied to various grasses, esp.

those known as meadow-grass, the Kentucky blue-grass: either of two New Zealand plants of the parsley family with long spinous leaflets; SPEAR'-HEAD, the iron point of a spear; SPEAR'-LIL'Y, a plant of one of the species of the Australian genus _Doryanthes_ of the _Amaryllideae_, with sword-shaped leaves; SPEAR'MAN, a man armed with a spear; SPEAR'MINT, the common garden-mint; SPEAR'-THIS'TLE, the common thistle; SPEAR'-WOOD, one of two Australian trees whose wood makes good spear-shafts; SPEAR'-WORT, the name of several species of Ranunculus with lance-shaped leaves. [A.S.

_spere_; Ger. _speer_, L. _sparus_; cf. _Spar_.]

SPEC, a colloquial abbrev. of _speculation_.

SPECIAL, spesh'al, _adj._ of a species or sort; particular: distinctive: uncommon: designed for a particular purpose: confined to a particular subject or application.--_n._ any special or particular person or thing: any person or thing set apart for a particular duty--a constable, a railway-tram, &c.: a newspaper extra, a despatch from a special correspondent.--_n._ SPECIALIS[=A]'TION, the act or process of specialising: differentiation, as of organs, functions, &c.--_v.t._ SPEC'IALISE, to make specifically distinct, to limit to a particular kind of action or use.--_v.i._ to act in some particular way, to take a particular direction, as to devote one's self especially to some particular branch of study.--_ns._ SPEC'IALISM, devotion to some particular study or pursuit; SPEC'IALIST, one who devotes himself to a special subject.--_adj._ SPECIALIST'IC.--_n._ SPECIAL'ITY, the particular characteristic of a person or thing: a special occupation or object of attention.--_adv._ SPEC'IALLY.--_ns._ SPEC'IALTY, something special or distinctive: any special product, article of sale or of manufacture: any special pursuit, department of study, &c.: a special contract for the payment of money; SPECIE (sp[=e]'shi), gold and silver coin, metallic money (abl. of L.

_species_, kind); SP[=E]'CIES, a group of individuals having common marks or characteristics, specialised from others of the same _genus_ to which it is subordinate: a group under a higher class, a kind or sort, a distinct constituent part, an element: an appearance to the senses, an image of an external object presented to the eye or the mind; SP[=E]'CIES-MONG'ER, one who busies himself with classifications only, indifferent to wider biological relations, one who makes distinctions for distinction's sake; SP[=E]CIF'IC, a remedy which has a special power in a particular disease: an infallible remedy.--_adjs._ SP[=E]CIF'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or constituting, a species: that specifies: peculiar to: produced by some special cause: precise: infallible.--_adv._ SP[=E]CIF'ICALLY.--_ns._ SP[=E]CIF'ICALNESS, SP[=E]CIF'ICNESS, the state or quality of being specific.--SPECIAL CONSTABLE (see CONSTABLE); SPECIAL LICENSE (see License); SPECIAL PLEADING (see PLEAD); SPECIAL VERDICT (see VERDICT).--SPECIFIC DENSITY, the mass of any given substance contained in unit volume; SPECIFIC GRAVITY, the weight of any given substance as compared with the weight of an equal bulk or volume of water or other standard substance at the same temperature and pressure; SPECIFIC HEAT (see HEAT).

SPECIFY, spes'i-f[=i], _v.t._ to mention particularly: to set down as a requisite:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ spec'if[=i]ed.--_v.t._ SPECIF'ICATE, to specify.--_n._ SPECIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of specifying: any point or particular specified: the description of his invention presented by an applicant for a patent.--LOGICAL SPECIFICATION is the counterpart of generalisation--implying that beings the most like or homogeneous disagree or are heterogeneous in some respect. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _specific[=a]re_--L.

_species_, kind, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

SPECILLUM, sp[=e]-sil'um, _n._ a surgical probe: a lens, eyeglass.

[L.,--_spec[)e]re_, to look.]

SPECIMEN, spes'i-men, _n._ a portion of anything to show the kind and quality of the whole: a sample, a typical individual: a preparation in natural history, &c., exemplifying anything noticeable in a species or other group. [L. _specimen_--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECIOUS, sp[=e]'shus, _adj._ that looks well at first sight: showy: plausible: appearing actual, not merely imaginary.--_ns._ SP[=E]CIOS'ITY, SP[=E]'CIOUSNESS, plausible appearance.--_adv._ SP[=E]'CIOUSLY. [Fr.,--L.

_speciosus_, showy--_species_, form--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECK, spek, _n._ a spot: a blemish: a mark betokening decay: a separate piece or particle, an atom, the least morsel or quantity: a percoid fish of the United States, a darter.--_v.t._ to spot. [A.S. _specca_; Low Ger.

_spakig_, spotted with wet.]

SPECK, spek, _n._ fat, lard.--_n._ SPECKTIONEER', the chief harpooner in whale-fishing. [A.S. _spic_, bacon; Ger. _speck_, Dut. _spek_, fat.]

SPECKLE, spek'l, _n._ a little speck or spot in anything different in substance or colour from the thing itself: (_Scot._) kind, sort.--_v.t._ to mark with speckles.--_adj._ SPECK'LED, variegated, piebald.--_n._ SPECK'LEDNESS.--_adjs._ SPECK'LESS, spotless, perfectly clean; SPECK'Y, partially spotted.

SPECTACLE, spek'ta-kl, _n._ a sight: show, a pageant, exhibition: (_pl._) a pair of lenses mounted in frames to assist the sight, aids to mental vision: a marking resembling spectacles, as in the cobra.--_adjs._ SPEC'TACLED, wearing spectacles: marked like spectacles, as the bear, cobra, &c.; SPECTAC'ULAR, marked by display.--_n._ SPECTACULAR'ITY.--_adv._ SPECTAC'ULARLY. [L. _spectaculum_--_spect[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, intens. of _spec[)e]re_, to look at.]

SPECTANT, spek'tant, _adj._ looking forward.--_v.t._ SPEC'T[=A]TE, to survey.--_n._ SPEC'T[=A]TION. [L. _spectans_, _-antis_, pr.p. of _spect[=a]re_.]

SPECTATOR, spek-t[=a]'tor, _n._ one who looks on:--_fem._ SPECT[=A]'TRESS, SPECT[=A]'TRIX.--_adj._ SPECTAT[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ SPECT[=A]'TORSHIP, the office or quality of a spectator: (_Shak._) the act of beholding.

SPECTRE, spek't[.e]r, _n._ a ghost.--_adj._ SPEC'TRAL, relating to, or like, a spectre.--_n._ SPECTRAL'ITY, the state of being spectral, a spectral object.--_adv._ SPEC'TRALLY.--_n._ SPEC'TRE-BAT, a South American leaf-nosed bat or vampire. [L. _spectrum_, a vision--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECTRUM, spek'trum, _n._ the image of something seen continued after the eyes are closed: the colours of light separated by a prism, and exhibited as spread out on a screen:--_pl._ SPEC'TRA.--_n._ SPEC'TROGRAPH, an apparatus for photographing a spectrum.--_adjs._ SPECTROGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ SPECTROG'RAPHY, the art of using the spectrograph.--_adj._ SPECTROLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ SPECTROLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ SPECTROL'OGY, the division of physical science that embraces spectrum analysis: demonology; SPECTROM'ETER, an instrument like a spectroscope, by means of which the angular deviation of a ray of light in passing through a prism can be accurately measured.--_adj._ SPECTROMET'RIC.--_n._ SPEC'TROPH[=O]NE, an adaptation of the spectroscope, in which, on the principle of the radiophone, perception of a succession of sounds takes the place of observation by the eye.--_adj._ SPECTROPHON'IC.--_ns._ SPEC'TRO-POLAR'ISCOPE, a polariscope combined with a spectroscope; SPEC'TROSCOPE, an instrument for forming and examining spectra of luminous bodies, so as to determine their composition.--_adjs._ SPECTROSC[=O]P'IC, -AL.--_adv._ SPECTROSC[=O]P'ICALLY.--_ns._ SPEC'TROSC[=O]PIST, one skilled in spectroscopy; SPEC'TROSC[=O]PY, the use of the spectroscope and the study of spectrum analysis. [L.,--_spec[)e]re_, to see.]

SPECULAR, spek'[=u]-lar, _adj._ resembling a speculum: having a smooth reflecting surface: assisting vision, serving for inspection.--SPECULAR IRON ORE, a variety of hematite, with a brilliant metallic lustre. [L.]

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