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SEXTANT, seks'tant, _n._ (_math._) the sixth part of a circle: an optical instrument having an arc=the sixth part of a circle, and used for measuring angular distances.

SEXTET, SEXTETTE, seks-tet', _n._ (_mus._) a work for six voices or instruments: a musical company of six.

SEXTILE, seks'til, _n._ the position of two planets when at the distance of the sixth part of a circle (60), marked thus *. [L.,--_sex_, six.]

SEXTILLION, seks-til'yun, _n._ a million raised to the sixth power, expressed by a unit with 36 ciphers attached: 1000 raised to the seventh power.

SEXTO, seks'to, _n._ a size of book made by folding a sheet of paper into six leaves.--_n._ SEX'TO-DEC'IMO, a size of book made by folding a sheet of paper into sixteen leaves: a book of this size.

SEXTON, seks'tun, _n._ an officer who has charge of a church, attends the clergyman, digs graves, &c.: a burying-beetle.--_ns._ SEX'TON-BEE'TLE, a coleopterous insect of the genus _Necrophorus_; SEX'TONSHIP, the office of a sexton. [A corr. of _sacristan_.]

SEXTUPLE, seks't[=u]-pl,--_adj._ sixfold: (_mus._) having six beats to the measure.--_v.t._ to multiply by six.--_n._ SEX'T[=U]PLET (_mus._), a note divided into six parts instead of four.

'SFOOT, sf[=oo]t, _interj._ (_Shak._) a minced imprecation. [Abbrev. from _God's foot_. Cf. _'sblood_.]

SFORZANDO, sfor-tsan'd[=o], _adj._ (_mus._) forced, with sudden emphasis.

Abbrev. _sf._ and _sfz._, or marked [horizontal sforzando], [vertical sforzando].--Also SFORZATO (sfor-tsa't[=o]). [It., pr.p. of _sforzare_, to force--L. _ex_, out, Low L. _fortia_, force.]

SGRAFFITO, sgraf-f[=e]'t[=o], _n._ (same as _Graffito_, q.v.): a kind of decorative work in pottery and superimposed metals, in which clays, &c., of different colours are laid one upon another, and the pattern is produced by cutting away the outer layers:--_pl._ SGRAFFI'TI.

SHABBY, shab'i,--_adj._ threadbare or worn, as clothes: having a look of poverty: mean in look or conduct: low: paltry.--_adv._ SHABB'ILY.--_n._ SHABB'INESS.--_adj._ SHABB'Y-GENTEEL', keeping up or affecting an appearance of gentility, though really shabby. [An adj. formed from _shab_, an old by-form of _scab_--thus a doublet of _scabby_.]

SHABRACK, shab'rak, _n._ a trooper's housing or saddle-cloth. [Fr.,--Ger.

_shabracke_--Pol. _czaprak_.]

SHACK, shak, _v.i._ to tramp or wander about.--_n._ a tramp, a vagabond.

SHACK, shak, _v.i._ to shed or fall out, as ripe grain from the ear: to feed on stubble: (_U.S._) to hibernate, to go into winter quarters.--_n._ grain, &c., fallen on the ground: liberty of winter pasturage: a hastily-built cabin, a rickety house.--_ns._ SHACK'-BAIT, such bait as may be picked up at sea; SHACK'LE, stubble. [_Shake_.]

SHACKLE, shak'l, _n._ a curved bar, as of iron: a link or staple: a link securing two ankle-rings or two wrist-rings together, and so (_pl._) fetters, manacles: a hinderance.--_v.t._ to fetter: to tie the limbs of: to confine.--_ns._ SHACK'LE-BOLT, a bolt having a shackle on the end: (_her._) a bearing representing a fetlock for hobbling a horse; SHACK'LE-JOINT, a peculiar kind of articulation seen in the exoskeleton of some fishes. [A.S.

_sceacul_, _scacul_, a shackle--_sceacan_, to shake; cog. with Old Dut.

_schakel_, a link of a chain, Ice. _skokull_, the pole of a cart.]

SHAD, shad, _n._ a fish of the herring kind, but having the upper jaw deeply notched, and ascending rivers to spawn.--_adj._ SHAD'-BELL'IED, flat-bellied--opp. to _Pot-bellied_: sloping away gradually in front, cut away.--_ns._ SHAD'-BIRD, the common American snipe: the sandpiper; SHAD'-BUSH, the June-berry or service-berry; SHAD'-FLY, a May-fly; SHAD'-FROG, a large and very agile American frog; SHAD'-WAIT'ER, the pilot-fish or round-fish. [A.S. _sceadda_.]

SHADDOCK, shad'ok, _n._ a tree of the same genus as the orange, having larger leaves, flowers, and fruit. [Named from Captain _Shaddock_, who introduced it to the West Indies from China about 1810.]

SHADE, sh[=a]d, _n._ partial darkness: interception of light: obscurity: a shady place: protection: shelter: a screen: degree of colour: a very minute change: (_paint._) the dark part of a picture: the soul separated from the body: a ghost: (_obs._, _poet._) a bodily shadow: (_pl._) the departed spirits, or their unseen abode, Hades.--_v.t._ to screen from light or heat: to shelter: to mark with gradations of colour: to darken: (_Spens._) to foreshadow, represent.--_adjs._ SH[=A]'DED, marked with gradations of colour: sheltered; SHADE'FUL, shady; SHADE'LESS, without shade.--_n._ SH[=A]'DER.--_adv._ SH[=A]'DILY.--_ns._ SH[=A]'DINESS; SH[=A]'DING, the act of making a shade: the effect of light and shade, as in a picture; SH[=A]'DING-PEN, a pen with a broad flat nib.--_adj._ SH[=A]'DY, having, or in, shade: sheltered from light or heat: (_coll._) not fit to bear the light, of dubious honesty or morality. [A.S. _sceadu_--_scead_, shade.]

SHADINE, sha-d[=e]n', _n._ the menhaden, or American sardine.

SHADOOF, sha-d[=oo]f', _n._ a contrivance for raising water by means of a long rod pivoted near one end, the shorter arm weighted to act as the counterpoise of a lever, the longer carrying a bucket which is lowered into the water--much used on the Nile for irrigation purposes.--Also SHADUF'.

[Ar. _sh[=a]d[=u]f_.]

SHADOW, shad'[=o], _n._ shade caused by an object: darkness: shelter: security: favour: the dark part of a picture: an inseparable companion: a mystical representation: faint appearance: a ghost, spirit: something only in appearance.--v.t to shade: to cloud or darken: to shade, as a painting: to represent faintly: to hide, conceal: (_coll._) to attend like a shadow, watch continuously and carefully.--_ns._ SHAD'OW-FIG'URE, a silhouette; SHAD'OWINESS, the state of being shadowy or unsubstantial; SHAD'OWING, shading: gradation of light and colour.--_adj._ SHAD'OWLESS.--_n._ SHAD'OW-STITCH, in lace-making, a very delicate kind of ladder-stitch used in fine open-work.--_adj._ SHAD'OWY, full of shadow: dark: obscure: typical: unsubstantial: (_rare_) indulging in fancies.--SHADOW OF DEATH, approach of death: terrible disaster. [A.S. _sceadu_; cog. with Old High Ger. _scato_, and perh. Gr. _skotos_, darkness, _skia_, shadow.]

SHAFIITE, shaf'i-[=i]t, _n._ a member of one of the four principal sects of the Sunnites, or orthodox Muslims. [Ar. _Sh[=a]fi'[=i]_, the name of the founder.]

SHAFT, shaft, _n._ anything long and straight, as the stem of an arrow, &c.: a long arrow, anything like an arrow in form or effect: the part of a column between the base and capital: the stem of a feather: the pole or thill of a carriage: the handle of a tool of any kind.--_adj._ SHAFT'ED, having a shaft or handle.--_ns._ SHAFT'-HORSE, the horse that is harnessed between the shafts of a carriage; SHAFT'ING (_mach._), the system of shafts connecting machinery with the prime mover.--MAKE A SHAFT OR A BOLT OF IT (_Shak._), to take the risk and make the best of it--the shaft and the bolt being the arrows of the long-bow and the cross-bow respectively. [A.S.

_sceaft_; prob. orig. pa.p. of _scafan_, to shave.]

SHAFT, shaft, _n._ a well-like excavation sunk into a mine for pumping, hoisting, &c.: the tunnel of a blast-furnace. [Prob. in this sense from Ger. _schacht_, a shaft; cog. with foregoing.]

SHAG, shag, _n._ woolly hair: cloth with a rough nap: a kind of tobacco cut into shreds.--_adj._ rough, hairy.--_v.t._ to roughen, make shaggy.--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to hang in shaggy clusters.--_adjs._ SHAG'-EARED (_Shak._), having shaggy or rough ears; SHAG'GED, shaggy, rough.--_n._ SHAG'GEDNESS.--_adv._ SHAG'GILY.--_n._ SHAG'GINESS.--_adjs._ SHAG'GY, covered with rough hair or wool: rough: rugged; SHAG'-HAIRED, having long, rough hair. [A.S. _sceacga_, a head of hair; Ice. _skegg_, beard, _skagi_, cape (in Shetland, _skaw_).]

SHAGREEN, sha-gr[=e]n', _n._ the skin of various sharks, rays, &c., covered with small nodules, used for covering small caskets, boxes, cigar and spectacle cases, &c.: a granular leather prepared by unhairing and scraping the skin of horses, asses, &c.--formerly CHAGRIN'.--_adj._ (also SHAGREENED') made of, or covered with, shagreen. [Fr. _chagrin_--Turk.

_s[=a]ghr[=i]_, the back of a horse.]

SHAH, sha, _n._ the monarch of Persia. [Pers.]

SHAHEEN, sha-h[=e]n', _n._ a peregrine falcon. [Pers. _sh[=a]h[=i]n_.]

SHAHI, sha'i, _n._ a Persian copper coin. [Pers. _sh[=a]h[=i]_, royal.]

SHAIRL, sh[=a]rl, _n._ a fine cloth woven from the hair of a Tibetan variety of the Cashmere goat.

SHAIRN, sh[=a]rn, _n._ (_Scot._) cow-dung.

SHAITAN, sh[=i]'tan, _n._ the devil, any evil spirit or devilish person.


SHAKAL, shak'al, _n._ the same as JACKAL.

SHAKE, sh[=a]k, _v.t._ to move with quick, short motions: to agitate: to make to tremble: to threaten to overthrow: to cause to waver: to give a tremulous note to.--_v.i._ to be agitated: to tremble: to shiver: to lose firmness:--_pa.t._ shook, (_B._) sh[=a]ked; _pa.p._ sh[=a]k'en,--_n._ a rapid tremulous motion: a trembling or shivering: a concussion: a rent in timber, rock, &c.: (_mus._) a rapid repetition of two notes: (_slang_) a brief instant.--_n._ SHAKE'DOWN, a temporary bed, named from the original shaking down of straw for this purpose.--_adj._ SH[=A]K'EN, weakened, disordered.--_ns._ SH[=A]K'ER, one of a small communistic religious sect founded in Manchester about the middle of the 18th century, so nicknamed from a peculiar dance forming part of their religious service; SHAKE'-RAG (_obs._), a ragged fellow; SH[=A]K'ERISM.--_adv._ SH[=A]K'ILY.--_n._ SH[=A]K'INESS.--_adj._ SH[=A]K'Y, in a shaky condition: feeble: (_coll._) wavering, undecided: of questionable ability, solvency, or integrity: unsteady: full of cracks or clefts.--SHAKE DOWN, or TOGETHER, to make more compact by shaking; SHAKE HANDS, to salute by grasping the hand: (_with_) to bid farewell to; SHAKE OFF THE DUST FROM ONE'S FEET, to renounce all intercourse with; SHAKE THE HEAD, to move the head from side to side in token of reluctance, disapproval, &c.; SHAKE TOGETHER (_coll._), to get friendly with; SHAKE UP, to restore to shape by shaking: (_Shak._) to upbraid.--GREAT SHAKES (_coll._), a thing of great account, something of value (usually 'No great shakes'). [A.S. _sceacan_, _scacan_.]

SHAKESPEARIAN, sh[=a]k-sp[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to, or in the style of, _Shakespeare_, or his works--also SHAKESP[=E]'RIAN, SHAKSPEAR'EAN, SHAKSP[=E]'RIAN.--_n._ a student of Shakespeare (1564-1616) SHAKESPEARI[=A]'NA, details or learning connected with Shakespeare and his writings.--_n._ SHAKESPEA'RIANISM, anything peculiar to Shakespeare.

SHAKO, shak'[=o], _n._ a military cap of cylindrical shape, worn mostly by infantry, and generally plumed. [Hung. _csako_.]

SHALE, sh[=a]l, _n._ clay or argillaceous material, splitting readily into thin laminae.--_adj._ SH[=A]'LY. [Ger. _schale_, a scale.]

SHALE, sh[=a]l, _n._ a shell or husk. [A.S. _sceale_.]

SHALL, shal, _v.t._ (_obs._) to be under obligation: now only auxiliary, used in the future tense of the verb, whether a _predictive_ or a _promissive_ future (in the first person implying mere futurity; in the second and third implying authority or control on the part of the speaker, and expressing promise, command, or determination, or a certainty about the future. In the _promissive_ future 'will' is used for the first person, and 'shall' for the second and third). [A.S. _sceal_, to be obliged; Ger.

_soll_, Goth. _skal_, Ice. _skal_, to be in duty bound.]

SHALLI, shal'i, _n._ a soft cotton stuff made in India, mostly red.

SHALLOON, sha-l[=oo]n', _n._ a light kind of woollen stuff for coat-linings, &c., said to have been first made at _Chalons-sur-Marne_ in France.

SHALLOP, shal'op, _n._ a light boat or vessel, with or without a mast. [O.

Fr. _chaluppe_; Ger. _schaluppe_; prob. of East Ind. origin.]

SHALLOT, sha-lot', _n._ a species of onion with a flavour like that of garlic.--Also SHALOT'. [O. Fr. _eschalote_, formed from _eschalone_, _escalone_, whence Eng. _scallion_ (q.v.).]

SHALLOW, shal'[=o], _n._ a sandbank: a place over which the water is not deep: a shoal.--_adj._ not deep: not profound: not wise: trifling.--_v.t._ to make shallow.--_v.i._ to grow shallow.--_adjs._ SHALL'OW-BRAINED, -P[=A]'TED, weak in intellect; SHALL'OW-HEART'ED, not capable of deep feelings.--_adv._ SHALL'OWLY (_Shak._), simply, foolishly.--_n._ SHALL'OWNESS. [Scand., Ice. _skjalgr_, wry; cf. Ger. _scheel_.]

SHALM. Same as _Shawm_ (q.v.).

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