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_Raddol._ Raddolcendo. Gradually softer and sweeter.

_Rall._ Rallentando. Becoming gradually slower.


Repeat. When placed at the beginning and end of a passage or movement, indicates that the portion so marked is to be played over again.

_Rit._ Ritardando. Retarding, holding back the time.

[Segno] Segno. The sign--as _Al Segno_, to the sign; _Dal Segno_, from the sign.

_Sem._, _Semp._ Sempre. Always, throughout--as _sempre legato_, smooth throughout; _sempre ritardando_, continually slackening the time.

7^{tte} Septet.

6^{tte} Sextet, or Sestet.

[Sforzando] Sforzando. Denoting emphasis applied to a particular note or notes. Abbreviated _sf._, _sfz._

[Sforzato-piano.] Sforzato-piano. A sudden _forte_ followed by a _diminuendo_ or _piano_. Abbreviated _sfp._, _sfz.p._

[Sharp] Sharp. The sign which raises the pitch of a note one semitone.

[Double Sharp] Double Sharp. Used before a note already sharp, raising the pitch by a semitone. It is contradicted by a natural and a sharp.

[Slur] Slur. Showing that the notes over which it is placed must be played in a smooth (_legato_) manner.

_Sos._, _Sos^{_t_}._ Sostenuto. Sustained; prolonging the tone for the full duration of time indicated.

_Spir._ Spiritoso. In a spirited or lively manner.


Stave or Staff. The horizontal and parallel lines on which the notes are placed, used to indicate their relative position as regards pitch.

_Trem._ Tremolando. With trembling or wavering; a note or chord played with great rapidity so as to produce such an effect.

3^o Trio.


Triplet. A group of three notes performed in the time of two.

_T.S._ Tasto solo. One key alone: a direction to play a part in unison.


The following are the correct ceremonious modes of addressing and beginning letters to persons of title or holding offices:

AMBASSADOR, BRITISH--Address: 'His Excellency [in other respects according to his rank], H.B.M.'s Ambassador and Plenipotentiary.' Begin: 'Sir,' 'My Lord,' &c., according to rank. Refer personally to as 'Your Excellency.' An Ambassador's wife, when resident abroad, is sometimes, but not very correctly, designated 'Your Excellency.'

ARCHBISHOP--'His Grace the Lord Archbishop of ----.' Begin: 'My Lord Archbishop.' Refer to as 'Your Grace.' In formal documents the Archbishop of Canterbury is addressed as 'The Most Reverend Father in God, Frederick, by Divine Providence Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England and Metropolitan;' the Archbishop of York as 'The Most Reverend Father in God, William, by Divine permission Lord Archbishop of York, Primate of England and Metropolitan.' But an Irish Archbishop appointed since 1868 is only 'The Most Reverend the Archbishop of ----,' unless he happen to be a temporal peer, in which case he is 'The Right Hon. and Most Rev.'

ARCHDEACON--'The Venerable the Archdeacon of ----.' Begin: 'Venerable Sir.'

BARON--'The Right Hon. Lord ----,' or 'The Lord ----.' Begin: 'My Lord.'

Refer to as 'Your Lordship.'

BARON'S DAUGHTER--If unmarried, 'The Hon.' [Christian name and surname]; if married, 'The Hon. Mrs' [husband's surname]. Begin: 'Madam.' If married to a Baronet or Knight, 'The Hon. Lady' [husband's surname]. Begin: 'My Lady.'

If the wife of a peer, or of the son of a Duke or Marquess, address as such.

BARON'S SON--'The Hon.' [Christian name and surname]. Begin: 'Sir.' But the eldest sons of Barons in the Peerage of Scotland are usually addressed as 'The Hon. the Master of' [peerage title].

BARON'S SON'S WIFE--'The Hon. Mrs' [husband's surname], or, if necessary for distinction, the husband's Christian name should also be used. Begin: 'Madam.' If the daughter of an Earl, Marquess, or Duke, address as such.

BARONESS, EITHER IN HER OWN RIGHT OR HER HUSBAND'S--'The Right Hon. the Baroness ----,' 'The Right Hon. Lady ----,' or 'The Lady ----.' Begin: 'My Lady.' Refer to as 'Your Ladyship.'

BARONET--'Sir [Christian name and surname], Bart.' Commence: 'Sir.'

BARONET'S WIFE--'Lady' [surname]. Begin: 'Madam.' Refer to as 'Your Ladyship.'

BISHOP, COLONIAL--As Scottish bishop.

BISHOP, ENGLISH--'The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of London,' or 'The Lord Bishop of London.' Begin: 'My Lord Bishop.' Refer to as 'Your Lordship.' In formal documents a Bishop is 'The Right Rev. Father in God, John, by Divine permission Lord Bishop of Salisbury.'


BISHOP, IRISH, CONSECRATED SINCE 1868--'The Right Rev. the Bishop of Ossory,' or in case of the Bishops of Meath and Tuam, 'The Most Rev.'

Begin: 'Right Rev. Sir,' or 'Most Rev. Sir.'

BISHOP, RETIRED--'The Right Rev. Bishop ----,' or 'The Right Rev. ---- ----, D.D.' Begin: 'Right Rev. Sir.'

BISHOP, SCOTTISH--'The Right Rev. the Bishop of Edinburgh,' or 'The Right Rev. Bishop Dowden.' The Bishop who holds the position of Primus is generally addressed, 'The Most Rev. the Primus.' The use of 'Lord Bishop'

and 'My Lord' is incorrect.

BISHOP SUFFRAGAN--'The Right Rev. the Bishop Suffragan of Bedford.' Begin: 'Right Rev. Sir.'


CLERGY--'The Rev.' [Christian name and surname]. Begin: 'Rev. Sir.' If son of a Duke or Marquess, 'The Rev. Lord' [Christian name and surname]. If the son of an Earl, Viscount, or Baron, 'The Rev. the Hon.' [Christian name and surname] is beginning to supersede 'The Hon. and Rev.' The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland during his year of office is styled 'Right Rev.;' ex-moderators are usually spoken of as 'Very Rev.'

COMPANION OF AN ORDER OF KNIGHTHOOD--The initials, C.B., C.M.G., C.S.I., or C.I.E., as it may be, are subjoined to the ordinary form of address.

CONSUL, BRITISH--'---- ----, Esq., H.B.M.'s Agent and Consul-General,'

'Consul-General,' 'Consul,' or 'Vice-Consul,' as it may be.

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