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CAER, CADER (W.), CAHER (Ir.), 'fortified enclosure;' as _Caer_leon, _Caer_narvon, _Car_digan, _Car_lisle, _Cader_-Idris, San_quhar_, _Car_lingford.

CAM (Celt.), 'crooked;' as _Cam_, _Cam_beck, _Cam_buskenneth, More_cambe_ Bay, _Cam_brai.

CARRICK (Gael. and Ir. _carraig_), CARREG (W.), 'a sea-cliff,' 'rock;' as _Carrick_fergus, _Carrick_-on-Suir, _Carrig_afoyle, _Cerrig_-y-Druidion.

CASTER, CHESTER, CESTER (--L. _castra_), 'a camp,' as Don_caster_, _Chester_, Win_chester_, Lei_cester_.

CEANN (Gael.), 'a head,' 'promontory;' as _Kin_tyre, _King_horn, _Ken_more.

CEFN (Celt.), 'a ridge;' as _Cefn_coed, _Chevin_, _Keyn_ton, _Chevin_gton, _Cheviot_, _Cevennes_.

CHEAP and CHIPPING (A.S. _ceap_), 'price,' 'a market;' as _Chipping_-Norton, _Chep_stow, _Cheap_side, _Copen_hagen (Dan.

_Kjoben-havn_, 'merchants' haven'). [See _Cheap_ in Dict.]

CIVITA (It.), CIUDAD (Sp.), 'a city;' as _Civita_ Vecchia ('old city'); _Ciudad_ Rodrigo ('city of Roderick'). [From L. _civitas_.]

CLACH, CLOCH, CLOUGH (Gael.), 'a stone;' as _Clack_mannan, _Clogh_er, Auchna_cloy_, _Clon_akilty.

CLACHAN (Gael.), 'a village,' often also 'church.' There are perhaps twenty clachans in Scotland.

CLUAN, CLOON (Gael.), 'a meadow;' as _Clun_ie, _Clon_mel, _Clon_tarf, _Clyn_der.

CLYD (Celt.), 'warm,' CLYTH (Celt.), 'strong;' as _Clwyd_--most prob. not _Clyde_.

CNOC (Gael.), 'a knoll,' 'hill,' as _Knock_meledown. Sir Herbert Maxwell (_Studies in the Topography of Galloway_, 1885) gives 220 _Knocks_ in Galloway alone.

COED (Celt.), 'a wood;' _Cots_wold Hills, _Chat_moss.

COLN (from L. _colonia_), 'a colony;' as Lin_coln_, _Colne_, _Cologne_ (_Koln_). [See _Colony_ in Dict.]

COMBE (A.S.), CWM or CUM (Celt.), 'a hollow between hills;' as Wy_combe_, _Comp_ton, The _Coombs_, _Com_o.

CRAIG, CRAG (Celt.), 'a rock;' as _Craig_ie, _Crath_ie, _Carrick_, _Crick_, _Crick_lade, _Croagh_-Patrick. See _Carrick_ (above).

CROFT (A.S.), 'an enclosed field;' as _Croft_on, Thorny_croft_.

DAGH (Turk.), 'mountain;' as Kara_dagh_.

DAL (Scand.), THAL (Ger.), DAIL and DOL (Celt.), 'a dale,' 'a field;' as Liddes_dale_, Ry_dal_, Ken_dal_, Arun_del_, Rhein_thal_; (in Celtic names prefixed) _Dal_ry, _Dal_keith, _Dol_gelly. [See _Dale_ in Dict.]

DAR (Ar.), 'a dwelling,' 'district;' as _Dar_fur, _Diar_bekr.

DEN or DEAN (Teut.), 'a deep wooded valley;' as Tenter_den_, South_dean_, Hazel_dean_, _Den_holm.


DOUR (Celt.), 'water;' as the _Dour_, _Adour_, _Douro_, _Dore_, _Thur_, _Doro_, _Adder_, _Der_went, _Dar_win, _Dar_ent, _Dar_t, _Dor_chester, _Dor_dogne.

DRUM AND DROM (Celt.), 'a backbone,' 'a ridge;' as _Drom_ore, _Drum_mond, Augh_rim_, Leit_rim_.

DU (Celt.), 'black;' as _Dou_glas; the rivers _Du_las, _Dou_las; _Dub_lin ('dark pool').

DUM, DUN (Gael.), DINAS, DIN (W.), 'a hill-fortress;' as _Dun_more, _Dun_blane, _Dun_keld, _Dum_barton, _Dum_fries, _Dun_stable, _Dun_mow, _Down_patrick, _Don_egal, Mal_don_, Ver_dun_, Ley_den_, _Din_as-fawr, _Din_an, _Den_bigh. [See _Down_, a hill, in Dict.]

DYSART (Celt.--L. _desertum_), 'a hermitage;' as _Dysart_, _Dysert_more.

EA, EY (A.S. _ig_, Ice. _ey_, Norw. and Dan. _o_), 'an island;' as Swan_sea_, _E_ton, Jers_ey_, Romn_ey_, Shepp_ey_, Rothes_ay_, Staff_a_, Far_oe_. [See _Island_ in Dict.]

ECCLES, EGLES (like Fr. _eglise_, through L., from Gr. _ekkl[=e]sia_), 'a church;' as _Eccle_ston, _Eccle_fechan, _Eccles_machan, _Eccles_iamagirdle, _Eagles_ham, Terr_egles_.

ELF, ELV (Goth.), 'a river;' as _Elbe_.

ERMAK (Turk.), 'a river;' as Kizil-_ermak_.

ESK (Gael. and Ir. _easg_ [obs.] or _uisge_, W. _wysg_), 'water;' as the _Esk_, _Usk_, _Ise_, _Oise_, _Ease_burn, _Ash_bourne, _Iz_, _Is_is, _Exe_, _Ux_, _Ouse_, _Wis_beach, _Wis_, _Isch_ia, _Is_ere, _Ais_ne, _Aus_onne.

ESKI (Turk.), 'old,' as _Eski_-djuma ('old ditch').

FAHR, FUHR (Teut.), 'way,' 'passage;' as _Fahr_enbach, Camp_vere_, Queens_ferry_, Connel-_Ferry_.

FELD, or VELD (Teut.), 'plain,' 'field;' as Hudders_field_, Lich_field_, Spital_fields_.

FELL (Old Norse _fjall_, _fell_), 'a mountain;' as Carter_fell_, Goat_fell_, Snae_fell_.

FIN, FINN (Gael.), 'fair,' 'white;' as _Fin_don, _Fin_try, _Fin_castle, Knock_fin_.

FIORD, FJORD (Scand.), 'a creek,' 'inlet of the sea;' as Lax_fiord_, Water_ford_, Wex_ford_.

FLEET (Scand. _fljot_, a stream), 'a small river' or 'channel;' as Pur_fleet_; found in Normandy as _fleur_, as Har_fleur_, Bar_fleur_.

FOLK (A.S.), 'people;' as Nor_folk_ ('north people'), Suf_folk_ ('south people').

FORD (A.S.), 'a shallow passage over a river,' as Chelms_ford_, Here_ford_, Stam_ford_.

FORS, FOSS (Scand.), 'a waterfall;' as High _Force_, Wilber_force_, _Fos_ton.

GARTH (Scand.), 'yard;' GOROD, GROD, GRADE, GRaTZ (Slav.), 'enclosure,'

'town;' as Stutt_gart_, Nov_gorod_ (=Newton), _Grod_no, Bel_grade_ (=Whitton), Konig_gratz_ (=Kingston).

GARW (Celt.), 'rough;' hence _Gar_onne, _Gar_ioch, _Yar_row, _Yair_, possibly _Garry_.

GATE (Teut.), 'a passage' or 'road;' as Canon_gate_, Harrow_gate_, Rei_gate_ (=Ridge_gate_), Catte_gat_.

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