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_-if_ from L. _-ivus_; cf. _-ive_]; as sill_y_, dirt_y_, an_y_ [A.S. _-ig_; cog. with Ger. _-ig_, Goth. _-ha_, _-ga_, L. _-cu-s_, Gr. _-ko-s_].

-Y, noun suffix, as stor_y_, famil_y_, Ital_y_ [Fr. _-ie_, L. _-ia_]; as augur_y_, jo_y_, remed_y_ [from L. _-ium_]; as all_y_, clergy, deput_y_, treat_y_ [from L. _-[=a]tus_, Fr. _-e_]; as progen_y_ [from L. _-ies_]; as arm_y_, countr_y_, entr_y_ [from L. _-[=a]ta_, Fr. _ee_]; as bod_y_ [from A.S. _-ig_]; and perhaps the modern Eng. in forming diminutives or words of contempt, as pupp_y_, bab_y_, lass_ie_, from _pup_, _babe_, _lass_; Bill_y_ from _Bill_; Bets_y_, Lizz_ie_, &c.

-YER, as in law_yer_. See -er, noun suffix.


The following are the more important significant syllables or words that enter into the composition of the names of rivers, mountains, towns, &c. See C. Blackie's _Dictionary of Place-Names_, Dr Joyce's _Irish Names of Places_, Isaac Taylor's _Words and Places_, and the Rev. James B. Johnston's _Place-Names of Scotland_ (1892).

A (A.S. _ea_, Ice. -_aa_), 'a stream;' as Gret_a_, Roth_a_, Thurs_o_ ('Thor's stream'), Lax_ay_ ('salmon stream').

ABAD (Pers. and Sans.), 'a dwelling;' as Hyder_abad_, Allah_abad_.

ABER (Celt.), 'a confluence,' 'an embouchure;' as _Aber_feldy, _Aber_deen, _Aber_ystwith, _Bar_mouth, _Aber_brothwick or _Ar_broath, Foch_abers_, Loch_aber_, _Apple_cross for Aber-Crossan. [Synonymous with _Inver_.]

AIN (Heb.), 'a fountain;' as _En_gedi.

AK (Turk.), 'white;' as _Ak_-serai, 'white palace.'

ALL (Gael.), 'white;' AL-IAN, 'white water,' so the rivers _Allen_, _Ellen_, _Aln_, _Lune_, _Allwen_, _Elwin_.

ALT (Gael.), 'a stream;' as _Alt_rive, _Alt_naharra, Garv_ald_.

AR, ARA, found in many river-names; as _Aire_, _Ayr_, _Aar_, _Aray_, _Ir_vine, _Arno_, _Arve_. [Perh. conn. with Sans. _ara_, 'swift,'


ARD (Celt.), 'high;' as _Ard_och, _Aird_rie, _Ard_rossan, _Ard_glass, _Ard_en, _Ard_ennes.

ATH (Ir. and Gael.), 'a ford;' as _Ath_lone, _Ath_truim (now Trim), _Ath_ole. The Gael. _abh_, 'water,' appears in _Ab_oyne, _Awe_.

AUCH (Gael.), AGH (Ir.), 'a field;' as _Auch_inleck, _Agh_inver, _Agh_adoe.

AUCHTER (Gael.), 'summit;' as _Auchter_arder, _Auchter_muchty.

AVON (Celt.), 'a river;' as _Avon_, _Aven_, _Aisne_, _Inn_, _Ain_, _Vienne_; also in _Devon_, _Evan_, Guadi_ana_, Punj_aub_.

AY. See Ea.

BAB (Ar.), 'a gate;' as _Bab_-el-mandeb, _Bab_-el.

BAD (Teut.), 'a bath;' as _Bath_, _Bad_en, Karls_bad_.

BAHR (Ar.), 'a sea,' 'lake,' 'river;' as in _Bahr_ein, _Bahar_-el-azrak.

BALA (Turk.), 'high;' as _Balla_-hissar, _Bal_kan.

BALLOCH (Gael.), 'a pass;' as _Balloch_myle, _Ballagh_more.

BALLY (Ir. and Gael.), 'a village' or 'town;' as _Bally_more, _Bal_briggan, _Bal_moral, _Ball_antrae, _Bal_quhidder.

BAN (Celt.), 'white;' as _Ban_na, _Ban_on, _Ban_chory; the rivers _Ben_, _Bann_, _Ban_don, _Ban_ney, &c.

BECK (Scand.), BACH (Ger.), 'a brook;' as Hol_beck_, Lauter_bach_. [See _Beck_ in Dict.]

BEDD (W.), 'a grave;' as _Bedd_gelert.

BEER (Heb.), 'a well;' as _Beer_sheba, _Beir_out.

BEG, BIHAN (Celt.), 'little;' as Bally_beg_, Mor_bihan_.

BEN (Gael. and Ir.), 'mountain,' PEN (W.), 'headland,' 'hilltop;' as _Ben_ Nevis, _Ben_ Lomond, The Twelve _Pins_, _Ban_gor; _Pen_, _Pen_nigant, _Pen_zance, _Pen_nine Alps, _Apen_nines, _Pin_dus.

BERG, BOROUGH (A.S. beorh), 'a hill;' as Ingle_borough_, Flam_borough_ Head, Brow_berg_ Hill, Konigs_berg_, _Berg_en. [From the same root as _Burgh_ (below).]

BETH (Heb.), 'a house;' as _Beth_el (house of God).

BETTWS (W.), 'a dwelling;' as _Bettws_-y-coed.

BLAIR (Gael.), 'a plain,' 'a battlefield;' as _Blair_-Athole, _Blair_gowrie.

BOCA (Sp.), 'a mouth;' as _Boca_-grande.

BOR (Slav.), 'wood;' as _Bor_ovsk, Rati_bor_.

BOTTLE or BATTLE, BuTTEL (Teut.), 'a dwelling;' as New_battle_, _Buittle_, More_battle_, Wolfen_buttel_.

BROAD (Eng.), as _Brad_don, _Brad_shaw, _Brad_ford.

BRUNN (Ger.), 'a spring;' as Salz_brunn_, Pader_born_.

BRYN (W.), 'a hill-ridge;' as _Brown_-Willy.

BUEN (Sp.), 'good;' as _Buenos_-Ayres ('good breezes').

BURGH, BOROUGH, BURY (Teut.), 'a fortified place,' 'a town;' as Edin_burgh_, Peter_borough_, Shrews_bury_, Ham_burg_, Cher_bourg_, Caris_brook_, _Burg_os. [A.S. _burg_, _burh_ (see _Borough_ in Dict.), Ger.


BURN (Northern Eng. and Scotch, A.S. _burna_), 'a brook.;' as _Burn_foot, Black_burn_, Ty_burn_, East_bourne_.

BY (Scand.), 'a dwelling,' 'a town;' as Der_by_, Rug_by_, Whit_by_, El_boeuf_. [Cf. _Bylaw_ in Dict.]

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