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-L, -LE, -EL (after _v_, _th_, _ch_, _n_), represents A.S. _-el_, _-ela_, _-ele_, and serves to form agent-nouns, instrumental substantives, and diminutives, as nai_l_, sai_l_; bead_le_, fidd_le_, sick_le_, app_le_, bramb_le_, bund_le_, icic_le_, nett_le_; runn_el_. -AL is sometimes from A.S. _-els_ from _isli_, as brid_le_, ridd_le_, buri_al_. -L, -LE, as a verbal suffix, gives to the root the sense of frequency, repetition, diminution, as knee_l_, drizz_le_, nest_le_, spark_le_.

-LEDGE. See -lock (1).

-LENCE, -LENCY, forming abstract nouns. [L. _-l-entia_, from _-lens_. See -lent.]

-LENT, adj. suffix, full of, as vio_lent_, viru_lent_. [L. _-lentus_.]

-LESS, adj. suffix, free from, wanting, as guilt_less_, god_less_. [A.S.

_-leas_, Ger. _-los_, Goth. _-laus_.]

-LET, dim., as brace_let_, leaf_let_, stream_let_. [From -L and -ET, dim.

in certain words formed with _-et_ on substantives ending in _-el_.]

-LIKE, like, as god_like_. [See _Like_ in Dict.]

-LING, dim., hence expressing affection, as dar_ling_ (A.S. _deorling_), duck_ling_, gos_ling_; sometimes implying depreciation, as hire_ling_, ground_ling_, under_ling_, world_ling_. [A.S. _-ling_.]

-LING, -LONG, adv. suffix, as dark_ling_, side_long_. [A.S. _-lunga_, _-linga_.]

-LOCK, noun suffix, in wed_lock_ and know_ledge_. It is the A.S. _lac_, the same as _lac_, sport.

-LOCK, -LICK, noun suffix, being a weakened form of A.S. _leac_, a leek, as in hem_lock_, gar_lic_, char_lock_.

-LY, adj. and adv. suffix, as man_ly_, on_ly_, wicked_ly_. [The adj. suffix is from A.S. _lic_, Eng. _like_; adv. is from _lic-e_, dat. of _lic_.]

-M, noun suffix, as blosso_m_ [A.S. _blostma_]; fatho_m_ [A.S. _-ma_, _-m_]; as real_m_, regi_me_ [Fr.,--L. _-men_].

-MA, noun suffix, as diora_ma_, ene_ma_. [Gr.]

-MEAL, adv. suffix, as inch_meal_, piece_meal_. [A.S. _-m['ae]lum_.]

-MEN, that which, state, as regi_men_, acu_men_. [Only in words borrowed from Latin. L. _-men_; Sans. _-man_. See -ment, -mony.]

-MENT, noun suffix, as nourish_ment_, establish_ment_, detri_ment_;--of Eng. formation, acknowledg_ment_, employ_ment_. [L. _-mentum_, Fr. _-ment_.

See -men.]

-MONY, as testi_mony_, parsi_mony_. [L. _-mon-iu-m_, _-mon-ia_. See -men.]

-MOST, suffix of superl. deg., as end_most_. See _Most_ in Dict. [In most cases this suffix is not the word _most_, the _m_ being part of the root, or an old superl. suffix, and _-ost_, the superl. suffix, as in in_most_=in_-m-ost_. See -est, superl. suffix.]

-N, in participles, as broke_n_, hew_n_; in substantives, as bair_n_, beaco_n_, burde_n_, chi_n_, cor_n_, heave_n_, maide_n_.

-NCE, -NCY, forming abstract nouns, as dista_nce_, dece_ncy_. [Fr.

_-nce_--L. _-nt-ia_.]

-ND, as fie_nd_ (lit. 'hating'), frie_nd_ (lit. 'loving'). [A.S. pr.p.


-NESS, noun suffix, denoting abstract idea, as tender_ness_, sweet_ness_.

[A.S. _-nis_, _-nes_, cog. with Ger. _-niss_.]

-OCK, dim., as hill_ock_, bull_ock_--also in proper names, as Poll_ock_ (from _Paul_), &c. In stir_k_ we see the simple suffix _-k_, the word being the diminutive of _steer_, A.S. _steor_, whence _stric_, a stirk. [A.S.

_-uca_--Aryan _-ka_. See -ie and -ing, dim.]

-OM, old dative suffix, now used as objective, as wh_om_; in adverbs of time, as seld_om_. [A.S. _-um_.]

-ON, -EON, -ION, noun suffix, as cap_on_, mas_on_, trunch_eon_, on_ion_, clar_ion_. [Fr.--L. _-onem_, _ionem_.]

-OON, noun suffix, often augmentative, as ball_oon_, sal_oon_. [Fr. _-on_, It. _-one_.]

-OR, -OUR, -ER, denoting the agent, sometimes directly from L. (see -tor), but mostly through O. Fr. _-[)o]r_, _-our_ (mod. Fr. _eur_), as emper_or_ (old spelling emper_our_, Fr. _empereur_--L. _imperatorem_); in others, Eng. _-er_ has supplanted _-eur_, _-our_, as preach_er_ (Fr. _precheur_--L.

_praedicatorem_), while _-or_ is at times affixed to Eng. roots, as sail_or_. In certain abstract nouns from L. _-or_, Fr. _-eur_ is still represented by -our, as col_our_, lab_our_, hon_our_, and in a few cases directly retained, as in grand_eur_. The words demean_our_ and behavi_our_ are English formations with _-our_.

-ORY, belonging to, as prefat_ory_ [L. _-orius_]; place where, as purgat_ory_. [L. _-orium_.]

-OSE, full of, as bellic_ose_, mor_ose_, verb_ose_. [L. _-osous_. See -ous.]

-OT, dim., as ball_ot_. [See -et, dim.]

-OUR. See -or.

-OUS, adj. suffix, as religi_ous_, deliri_ous_, curi_ous_ [L. _-osus_]; dubi_ous_, anxi_ous_ [L. _-us_].--In righte_ous_ the _ous_ has replaced _wis_, A.S. _rihtwis_.

-OW, noun suffix, as shad_ow_ [from A.S. _-u_]; swall_ow_ [from A.S.

_-ewe_]; marr_ow_ [from A.S. _-h_]. Also adj. suffix, as narr_ow_ [from A.S. _-u_].

-PLE. See _-ble_, fold.

-R, noun suffix, marking the instrument, as stai_r_, timb_er_; adj. suffix, as bitt_er_.

-RE, place, as he_re_. [A.S. _-r_, _-ra_, orig. a locative suffix.]

-RED, noun suffix, denoting manner, state, as hat_red_, kind_red_ (in A.S.

_cynren_, a shortening of _cynn-ryne_, in M. E. the meaningless _-ren_ being supplanted by _-red_). [A.S. _-r['ae]den_; cog. with Ger. _-rath_. See _Read_ in Dict.]

-RED, in hundred. This is cog. with Ice. hund_ra_, Ger. hund_ert_, the suffix implying number, reckoning.

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