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ZYGOMA, z[=i]-g[=o]'ma, _n._ the arch formed by the malar bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone of the skull.--_adj._ ZYGOMAT'IC.--ZYGOMATIC FOSSA, the lower part of the fossa bridged over by the zygomatic arch; ZYGOMATIC MUSCLES, two muscles (major and minor) arising from the zygomatic arch. [Gr. _zyg[=o]ma_--_zygon_, a yoke.]

ZYGOMORPHOUS, z[=i]-g[=o]-mor'fus, _adj._ yoke-shaped--of flowers divisible into similar halves in one plane only--also ZYGOMOR'PHIC.--_ns._ ZYGOMOR'PHISM, ZYGOMOR'PHY. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _morph[=e]_, form.]

ZYGOMYCETES, z[=i]-g[=o]-m[=i]-s[=e]'t[=e]z, a group of fungi marked by the production of zygospores--the commonest type _Mucor mucedo_, the common white mould of dead organic matter, as horse-dung.--_adj._ ZYGOMYC[=E]'TOUS. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _myk[=e]s_, _myk[=e]tos_, a mushroom.]

ZYGON, z[=i]'gon, _n._ a connecting bar: an [H shape]-shaped fissure of the brain. [Gr., a yoke.]

ZYGOPHYLLACEae, z[=i]-g[=o]-fil-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a natural order containing about 100 species of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees, chiefly natives of subtropical countries--the bean-caper family--the typical genus _Zygophyllum_. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

ZYGOPHYLLUM, z[=i]-g[=o]-fil'um, _n._ a genus of plants, natural order _Zygophylleae_, of the bean-caper family.

ZYGOPHYTE, z[=i]'g[=o]-f[=i]t, _n._ a plant in which reproduction takes place by means of zygospores. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _phyton_, a plant.]

ZYGOPLEURAL, z[=i]-g[=o]-pl[=oo]'ral, _adj._ bilaterally symmetrical. [Gr.

_zygon_, a yoke, _pleura_, the side.]

ZYGOSIS, z[=i]-g[=o]'sis, _n._ (_bot._) conjugation, the coalescence of two distinct cells: the sexual intercourse of protoplasmic bodies.--_n._ ZY'GO[=I]TE, an organism resulting from zygosis.--_adj._ ZY'GOSE, pertaining to zygosis. [Gr. _zyg[=o]sis_, a joining.]

ZYGOSPHENE, z[=i]'g[=o]-sf[=e]n, _n._ a process on the anterior face of each of the vertebral arches in the Lacertilia, which articulates with the _zygantrum_ of the preceding arch. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _sph[=e]n_, a wedge.]

ZYGOSPORE, z[=i]'g[=o]-sp[=o]r, _n._ a spore produced by the union of buds from two adjacent hyphaae in the process of conjugation by which some fungi multiply--the same as ZY'GOSPERM and ZY'GOTE. [Gr. _zygon_, a yoke, _spora_, seed.]

ZYLONITE=_Xylonite_ (q.v.).

ZYMASE, z[=i]'m[=a]s, _n._ the same as ENZYM. [See ZYME.]

ZYME, z[=i]m, _n._ a ferment: a disease-germ--the supposed specific cause of a zymotic disease.--_n._ ZY'MASE, enzym, any of the unorganised ferments.--_adj._ ZY'MIC, relating to fermentation.--_ns._ ZY'MITE, a priest using leavened bread in the Eucharist; ZY'MOGEN, a substance capable of developing by internal change into a ferment.--_adjs._ ZYMOGEN'IC; ZY'MOID, like a ferment; ZYMOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to zymology.--_ns._ ZYMOL'OGIST, one skilled in zymology; ZYMOL'OGY, the science of fermentation; ZYMOL'YSIS, ZYM[=O]'SIS, fermentation of any kind; ZYMOM'ETER, ZYMOSIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the degree of fermentation; ZY'MOPHYTE, a bacterioid ferment capable of liberating fatty acids from neutral fats.--_adjs._ ZYMOTECH'NIC, -AL, producing and utilising fermentation.--_n._ ZYMOTECH'NICS, the art of managing fermentation.--_adj._ ZYMOT'IC, pertaining to fermentation.--_adv._ ZYMOT'ICALLY.--ZYMOTIC DISEASE, a term for diseases caused by the multiplication of a living germ introduced from without into the body. [Gr.

_zym[=e]_, leaven, _zym[=o]sis_, fermentation.]

ZYMOME, z[=i]'m[=o]m, _n._ an old name for the part of gluten insoluble in alcohol.

ZYMURGY, z[=i]'m[.e]r-ji, _n._ that department of technological chemistry which treats of wine-making, brewing, distilling, and similar processes involving fermentation. [Gr. _zym[=e]_, leaven, _ergon_, work.]

ZYTHEPSARY, z[=i]-thep'sa-ri, _n._ (_obs._) a brewery.

ZYTHUM, z[=i]'thum, _n._ a kind of beer made by the ancient Egyptians--much commended by Diodorus. [Gr. _zythos_.]

ZYXOMMA, zik-som'a, _n._ a genus of Indian dragon-flies, of family _Libellulidae_, with large head and eyes and narrow face. [Gr. _zeuxis_, a joining, _omma_, eye.]


The best account of these is to be found in Kellner's edition of Dr Morris's _Historical Outlines of English Accidence_ (1895), and especially in Professor Skeat's _Principles of English Etymology_--First Series (2d ed. 1892), chaps. xii.-xiv.; Second Series (1891), chap. xviii. To these books the following lists are largely indebted.

A- (A.S.) represents:

(1) A.S. _an_, _on_, on, as _a_bed, _a_board, _a_foot, _a_shore, _a_sunder, now-_a-_days, twice-_a-_week, _a_live, _a_mong, _a_bout, _a-_fishing.

(2) A.S. _and-_, over against, in reply to, to, as _a_long (from A.S.

_and-lang_, i.e. over against in length); appearing also as E- in _e_lope, as AM- in _am_bassador, and as EM- in _em_bassy; the same as _un-_ in verbs. See Un- (2). [Cog. with Goth. _and-_, Ger. _ent-_, _ant-_, L.

_ante-_, Gr. _anti-_.]

(3) A.S. _a-_, an intensive prefix to verbs, out, out from, as in _a_rise (from A.S. _arisan_, to rise out of or up); or sig. 'very,' as in _a_ghast.

Cf. _a_bide, _ac_curse, _af_fright, _a_maze, _a_rise, _a_rouse, _a_go.

[Cog. with Ger. _er-_, Goth. _us-_, _ur-_.]

(4) A.S. _of_, of, from, as in _a_down (from A.S. _of dune_, 'from the height'), _a_new, _a_kin; or from _of-_, intensive, as _a_thirst.

(5) A.S. _ge-_, _y-_, as _a_ware (A.S. _ge-w['ae]re_), _a_fford.

(6) _at_, old sign of inf., as _a_do. [A Northern idiom, due to Scand.

influences, as in Ice., Sw., &c.]

A- (L. and Gr.) represents: (1) L. AB-, as in _a_vert; (2) L. AD-, as _a_chieve; (3) L. E- or EX-, as in _a_bash, _a_mend; (4) Gr. A- (for AN-), as in _a_byss. See these prefixes.

A-, AB-, ABS-, AS- (L.), away from, as _a_vert, _ab_sent, _ab_solve, _ab_stract; and also _as_soil and _av_aunt through French. Indeed, this prefix appears as A-, ADV-, AV-, V-, as in _a_vert, _adv_ance, _av_aunt, _v_anguard, &c. [L. _a_, _ab_, _abs_ (oldest form _ap_); cog. with Gr.

_apo-_, Sans. _apa_, Ger. _ab_, Eng. _off_.]

AB-. See Ad-.

AC-. See Ad-.

AD- (L.), to, at, as ADhere, ADapt. It appears as A-, AB-, AC-, AD-, AF-, AG-, AL-, AN-, AP-, AR-, AS-, AT-, as in _a_chieve, _ab_breviate, _ac_cede, _ad_mire, _af_fix, _ag_gregate, _al_lot, _an_nex, _ap_prove, _ar_rive, _as_sign, _at_tract. The words _a_chieve, _a_gree, _a_merce, _a_mount, _a_cquit, _a_cquaint, _a_vow, &c. show the same prefix, derived through the medium of Old French. [L. _ad_; cog. with Sans. _adhi_, Goth. and Eng.

_at_, Celt. _ar-_.]

AF-. See Ad-.

AFTER- (A.S.), as _after-_growth, _after-_math, _after-_wards. [A.S.


AG-. See Ad-.

AL-. See Ad-.

AL- (Ar.), the--also as A-, AR-, AS-, EL-, L-, as _a_pricot, _ar_tichoke, _as_sagai, _el_ixir, _l_ute.

ALL- (A.S.), all, as _al_mighty, _all-_wise. In Early English _al-_=quite is added (1) to past participles, as _al-_brent=quite burnt, _al-_heled=quite concealed; (2) to verbs preceded by _to_, as _al-_to-brenne=to burn up entirely. In Elizabethan and later writers _all-to_=altogether, quite--the original meaning of _to_ having been lost sight of. Cf. Milton's 'all-to ruffled,' &c. [A.S. _eall-_.]

AM-, (1) the Fr. _em_--L. _im_ for _in_, as _am_bush: see In- (2); (2) the Gr. _an-_, as in _Am_brosia: see An- (2); (3) the same as An- (1), as in _am_bassador.

AMBI-, AMB-, AM- (L.), round about, both, as _ambi_dexter, _am_bition, _am_putate. [L.; cog. with Gr. _amphi-_, Sans. _abhi_, around.]

AMPHI- (Gr.), round about, both, as _amphi_theatre, _amphi_bious. [Cog.

with L. _ambi-_, _amb-_.]

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