YAW, yaw, _v.i._ to move unsteadily: (_naut._) to deviate temporarily or to turn out of the line of her course, as a ship.--_n._ a deviation from the course. [Scand., cf. Norw. _gaga_, to bend back, Ice. _gagr_, bent back.]
YAWL, yawl, _v.i._ to howl. [Cf. _Gowl_.]
YAWL, yawl, _n._ a ship's small boat, generally with four or six oars: a small fishing-boat: a small sailing-boat with jigger and curtailed mainboom. [Dut. _jol_. Cf. _Jollyboat_.]
YAWN, yawn, _v.i._ to open the jaws involuntarily from drowsiness: to gape: to gape with astonishment.--_n._ the opening of the mouth from drowsiness.--_adj._ YAWN'ING, gaping: opening wide: drowsy.--_n._ act of opening wide or gaping: a modification of the ordinary movements of respiration, in which the inspiration is deeper than usual, accompanied by a kind of spasmodic contraction of the muscles which depress the lower jaw, and by a great elevation of the ribs and to some degree of the shoulder-blades.--_adv._ YAWN'INGLY. [A.S. _ganian_, to yawn--_ginan_, pa.t. _gan_, to gape widely; Ice. _gina_, to gape, Gr. _chainein_, to gape.]
YAWS, yaws, _n._ a tropical epidemic and contagious disease of the skin--also _Framboesia_, _Button scurvy_, _Verruga Peruviana_, _Buba_ or _Boba_, _Patta_, _Tetia_, &c.--_adj._ YAW'EY, pertaining to the yaws.
[African _yaw_, a raspberry.]
Y-CLAD, i-klad', an obsolete form of _clad_, _pa.p._ of _clothe_.
YCLEPT, or YCLEPED, i-klept', _pa.p._ (_obs._) called. [_Clepe_.]
YE, y[=e], _pron._ the nom. pl. of the 2d person--in old English _ye_ was always used as a nominative, and _you_ as a dative or accusative, as in the English Bible. [M. E. _ye_, _[gh]e_, nom.; _your_, _[gh]our_, gen.; _you_, _[gh]ou_, _yow_, dat. and accus. pl. A.S. _ge_, nom. ye; _eower_, gen. of you; _eow_, to you, you, dat. and accus.]
YEA, y[=a], _adv._ yes: verily.--_adj._ (_B._) true.--_n._ an affirmative vote. [A.S. _gea_; Dut. and Ger. _ja_, Ice. _ja_. Cf. _Yes_.]
YEAD, YEDE, y[=e]d, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to go: to march:--_pr.p._ yead'ing; _pa.p._ y[=o]de. [A.S. _eode_, went, pa.t. of _gan_, to go.]
YEAN, y[=e]n, _v.t._ to bring forth young.--_n._ YEAN'LING (_Shak._), the young of a sheep: a lamb. [A.S. _eanian_, to bring forth--_eacen_, pregnant.]
YEAR, y[=e]r, _n._ a period of time determined by the revolution of the earth in its orbit, and embracing the four seasons, popularly a period beginning with 1st January and ending with 31st December, consisting of 365 days (excepting every fourth year, called 'bissextile' or 'leap-year,' in which one day is added to February, making the number 366)--the CALENDAR, CIVIL, or LEGAL YEAR: a space of twelve calendar months: (_pl._) period of life, esp. age or old age.--_ns._ YEAR'-BOOK, a book published annually, containing reports of judicial cases, or of discoveries, events, &c.; YEAR'LING, an animal a year old.--_adj._ a year old.--_adjs._ YEAR'LONG, lasting a year; YEAR'LY, happening every year: lasting a year.--_adv._ once a year: from year to year.--YEAR OF GRACE, or OF OUR LORD, date of the Christian era.--ANOMALISTIC YEAR (see ANOMALY); ASTRONOMICAL YEAR, the interval between one vernal equinox and the next, or one complete mean apparent circuit of the ecliptic by the sun, or mean motion through 360 of longitude--365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 49.7 seconds--called also the EQUINOCTIAL, SOLAR, or TROPICAL YEAR; CANICULAR YEAR--the ancient Egyptian--counted from one heliacal rising of Sirius to the next--(the _Canicular Cycle_ was the cycle of 1461 years of 365 days each, or 1460 Julian years, also called the _Sothiac period_); ECCLESIASTICAL YEAR, the year as arranged in the ecclesiastical calendar, with saints' days, festivals, &c.; EMBOLISMIC YEAR, a year of thirteen lunar months or 384 days, occurring in a lunisolar calendar like that of the Jews; HEBREW YEAR, a lunisolar year, of 12 or 13 months of 29 or 30 days--in every cycle of nineteen years the 3d, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th having thirteen months instead of twelve; JULIAN YEAR, a period of 365 days, thus causing an annual error of about 11 minutes--corrected by dropping 10 days in 1582 under Pope Gregory XIII.--not adopted in England till 3d September 1752, which became September 14 (see STYLE); LEGAL YEAR, the year by which dates were reckoned, which till 1752 began in England on 25th March, that date being originally chosen by Dionysius Exiguus as being the Annunciation--exactly nine months before Christmas. In Scotland the year began on 1st January since 1600.--The most common New Year's Days were these four--(a) 25th December; (b) 25th March; (c) Easter; (d) 1st January.
Thus England used both the first and second from the 6th century to 1066; the fourth till 1155; then the second till the day after 31st December 1751, which was called 1st January 1752. Scotland used the second till 1599, when the day after 31st December 1599 was called 1st January 1600.
France under Charlemagne used the first, and afterwards also the third and second till 1563; LUNAR YEAR, a period of twelve lunar months or 354 days, PLATONIC YEAR, a cycle of years at the end of which the heavenly bodies are in the same place as at the Creation--also GREAT, or PERFECT, YEAR; SABBATIC, -AL, YEAR (see SABBATH); SIDEREAL YEAR, the period required by the sun to move from a given star to the same star again--affected by Nutation only, one of the most invariable quantities which nature affords us, having a mean value of 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.6 seconds.--IN YEARS, advanced in age. [A.S. _gear_, _ger_; Ger. _jahr_, Ice. _ar_, Gr.
YEARN, y[.e]rn, _v.i._ to feel earnest desire: to feel uneasiness, as from longing or pity.--_n._ YEARN'ING, earnest desire, tenderness, or pity.--_adj._ longing.--_adv._ YEARN'INGLY. [A.S. _giernan_, _giernian_, to desire--_georn_, desirous, eager; cf. Ger. _begehren_. to long for.]
YEARN, y[.e]rn, _v.i._ and _v.t._ (_Shak._) to grieve. [M. E. _ermen_--A.S.
_yrman_, to vex--_earm_, poor.]
YEARN, y[.e]rn, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to earn.
YEARN, y[.e]rn, _v.i._ to curdle, as milk--also Earn.--_n._ YEARN'ING, rennet.
YEAST, y[=e]st, _n._ the froth of malt liquors in fermentation: the vegetable growth to which fermentation is due, of value in brewing, baking, &c.: (_Shak._) spume or foam of water.--_v.i._ to ferment.--_ns._ YEAST'INESS, the state of being yeasty or frothy; YEAST'-PLANT, a small plant causing alcoholic fermentation in saccharine liquids; YEAST'-POW'DER, a baking powder.--_adj._ YEAST'Y, like yeast: frothy, foamy: unsubstantial.
[A.S. _gist_, _gyst_; Ger. _gascht_, _gischt_.]
YELD, yeld, _adj._ (_Scot._) barren, not giving milk. [A variant of _geld_.]
YELDRING, yel'dring, _n._ the same as YOWLEY.--Also YEL'DROCK.
YELK. Same as YOLK.
YELL, yel, _v.i._ to howl or cry out with a sharp noise: to scream from pain or terror.--_v.t._ to utter with a yell.--_n._ a sharp outcry.--_n._ YELL'ING.--_v.i._ YELL'OCH (_Scot._), to yell.--_n._ a yell. [A.S.
_gellan_, _gyllan_; Ger. _gellen_; conn. with A.S. _galan_, to sing.]
YELLOW, yel'[=o], _adj._ of a bright gold colour.--_n._ a bright golden colour: (_pl._) the peach-yellows (see PEACH): (_Shak._) jaundice in horses.--_v.t._ to make yellow.--_v.i._ to become yellow.--_adjs._ YELL'OW-BACKED, -BELL'IED, -BILLED, -BREAST'ED, -COV'ERED, -CROWNED, -EYED, -FOOT'ED, -FRONT'ED, -HEAD'ED, -HORNED, -LEGGED, -NECKED, -POLLED, -RINGED, -RUMPED, -SHOUL'DERED, -SPOT'TED, &c.--_ns._ YELL'OW-BIRD, one of various birds of a yellow colour--the golden oriole, summer-warbler, &c.; YELL'OW-BOY, a gold coin: a mulatto or dark quadroon:--_fem._ YELL'OW-GIRL; YELL'OW-BUNT'ING, the yellow-hammer; YELL'OW-EARTH, a yellow ochre sometimes used as a pigment; YELL'OW-F[=E]'VER, a pestilential contagious fever of a continuous and special type, presenting at least two well-defined stages, the first occupying 36 to 150 hours, marked by a rapid circulation and high temperature; the second being characterised by general depression and black vomit--also known as _Yellow Jack_, _Bronze John_, _El Vomito_, and _Vomito Prieto_ or _Vomito Amarilli_; YELL'OW-FLAG, a flag of a yellow colour, displayed by a vessel in quarantine or over a military hospital or ambulance; YELL'OW-GUM, the melaena or black jaundice of infants; YELL'OW-HAMM'ER, -AMM'ER, a song-bird, so named from its yellow colour: the common yellow-bunting.--_adj._ YELL'OWISH, somewhat yellow.--_ns._ YELL'OWISHNESS; YELL'OW-MET'AL, a brass consisting of sixty parts copper and forty parts zinc; YELL'OWNESS; YELL'OW-ROOT, an American herb whose root-stock yields berberine--also _Orange-root_, _Goldenseal_; YELL'OW-SOAP, common soap composed of tallow, resin, and soda; YELL'OW-WASH, a lotion consisting of a mixture of mercuric chloride and lime-water; YELL'OW-WEED, weld; YELL'OW-WOOD, a name given to Fustic and many other trees--e.g. satin-wood, and various kinds of podocarpus, rhus, xanthoxylum, &c.; YELL'OW-WORT, an annual of the gentian family--also YELL'OW-CEN'TAURY.--_adj._ YELL'OWY, yellowish.--_ns._ YELL'OW-YOL'DRING, -YOR'LING, or -YOW'LEY, the European yellow-hammer.--YELLOW BERRIES, Persian berries. [A.S. _geolo_; Ger. _gelb_; cog. with L. _heluus_, light bay.]
YELP, yelp, _v.i._ to utter a sharp bark.--_n._ a sharp, quick cry or bark.--_n._ YELP'ER. [A.S. _gilpan_, to boast, exult; Ice. _gialpa_, to yelp.]
YEN, yen, _n._ a Japanese gold or silver coin, used as the monetary unit since 1871, and now equivalent to about 2s. 0d. of our money.
[Jap.,--Chin. _yuen_, round, a dollar.]
YEOMAN, y[=o]'man, _n._ in early English history, a common menial attendant, but after the fifteenth century, one of a class of small freeholders, forming the next grade below gentlemen: a man of small estate, any small farmer or countryman above the grade of labourer: an officer of the royal household: a member of the yeomanry cavalry: (_Shak._) a journeyman, assistant: a gentleman in a royal or noble household, ranking between a sergeant and a groom.--_adj._ YEO'MANLY, of yeoman's rank: humble and honest.--_adv._ staunchly, bravely.--_n._ YEO'MANRY, the collective body of yeomen or smaller freeholders: a cavalry volunteer force in Great Britain, formed during the wars of the French Revolution, its organisation by counties, under the lords-lieutenant, raised and drilled locally, the men providing their own horses and uniform.--YEOMEN OF THE GUARD, a veteran company of picked soldiers, employed in conjunction with the gentlemen-at-arms on grand occasions as the sovereign's bodyguard--constituted a corps in 1485 by Henry VII., and still wearing the costume of that period; YEOMAN'S SERVICE, powerful aid, such as came from the yeomen in the English armies of early times. [M. E. _yoman_, _yemen_, doubtless from an A.S. _gaman_, not found, but seen in Old Frisian _g[=a]man_, villager--_g[=a]_, a village (Ger. _gau_, district), _man_, man.]
YERBA, yer'ba, _n._ the Paraguay tea or mate. [Sp.,--L. _herba_.]
YERK, y[.e]rk, _v.t._ to throw or thrust with a sudden, quick motion, to jerk: (_obs._) to beat, rouse, excite (_Scot._): to bind or tie with a jerk. [Akin to _jerk_.]
YES, yes, _adv._ ay: a word of affirmation or consent. [A.S. _gise_, _gese_--_gea_, yea, _s_, let it be.]
YESTER, yes't[.e]r, _adj._ relating to yesterday: last.--_n._ YES'TERDAY, the day last past.--_adv._ on the day last past.--_ns._ YES'TEREVE, -N, YES'TEREVENING, the evening last past; YES'TERMORN, YES'TERMORNING, the morning last past; YES'TERNIGHT, the night last past; YES'TERYEAR, last year.--_adv._ YESTREEN' (_Scot._), last evening, contracted from _yestereven_. [A.S. _geostran-_, _giestran-_ (only in compounds); Ger.
_gestern_; cf. L. _hesternus_, Gr. _chthes_.]
YET, yet, _adv._ in addition: besides: at the same time: up to the present time: hitherto: even: however.--_conj._ nevertheless: however. [A.S. _git_, _gita_; Ger. _jetz_.]
YETT, yet, _n._ (_Scot._) a gate, door--another term of _yate_, itself a dialectal form of _gate_.
YEVE, y[=e]v, _v.t._ to give:--_pa.p._ (_Spens._) YEV'EN.
YEW, [=u], _n._ a tree of genus _Taxus_--natural order _Taxaceae_, itself a suborder of _Coniferae_--widely diffused over the whole northern parts of the world, with narrow lanceolate or linear leaves (in Europe long planted in graveyards), yielding an elastic wood good for bows: its wood.--_adj._ YEW'EN (_Spens._), made of yew.--_n._ YEW'-TREE. [A.S. _iw_, _eow_, _eoh_; Ger. _eibe_, Ir. _iubhar_.]
YEX, yeks, _v.i._ (_prov._) to hiccup.--_n._ a hiccup.
YGGDRASIL, ig'dra-sil, _n._ (_Scand. myth._) the ash-tree binding together heaven, earth, and hell, and extending its branches over the whole world and above the heavens--according to Vigfusson and Powell, not a primitive Scandinavian idea, but originating after the contact with Christianity, and so a corruption of the cross [Ice. _Yggdra Syll_; cf. _Yggr_, _Uggr_, a surname of Odin, _syll_, sill. Magnusson explains as 'Odin's horse,' Ice.
YIDDISH, yid'ish, _n._ a strange compound of very corrupt Hebrew and ancient or provincial German spoken by the commoner Jews--extensively in the East End of London.--_ns._ YID, YIDD'ISHER, a Jew. [Ger. _judisch_, Jewish.]
YIELD, y[=e]ld, _v.t._ to resign: to grant: to give out: to produce: to allow.--_v.i._ to submit: to comply with: to give place.--_n._ amount yielded: product.--_adj._ YIELD'ABLE, that may be yielded: inclined to yield.--_ns._ YIELD'ABLENESS; YIELD'ER.--_adj._ YIELD'ING, inclined to give way or comply: compliant.--_adv._ YIELD'INGLY.--_n._ YIELD'INGNESS.--YIELD UP THE GHOST (see 'Give up the ghost,' under GIVE). [A.S. _gieldan_, _gildan_, to pay, _gelten_, Ice. _gjalda_.]
YILL, yil, _n._ (_Scot._) ale. [_Ale_.]
YITE, y[=i]t, _n._ (_prov._) the yellow-bunting.--Also YOIT.
Y-LEVEL, Y-MOTH. See Y.
YO, y[=o], _interj._ expressive of effort, &c.--YO-HO, in order to call attention.
YODEL, YODLE, y[=o]'dl, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to sing, changing frequently from the ordinary voice to falsetto and back again after the manner of the mountaineers of the Tyrol.--_n._ a song sung in this fashion--also J[=O]'DEL.--_ns._ Y[=O]'DELER, Y[=O]'DLER. [Ger. dial. _jodeln_.]
YOGA, y[=o]'ga, _n._ a system of Hindu philosophy showing the means of emancipation of the soul from further migrations.--_ns._ Y[=O]'GI, a Hindu ascetic who practises the _yoga_ system, consisting in the withdrawal of the senses from external objects, long continuance in unnatural postures, &c.; Y[=O]'GISM. [Hind. _yoga_--Sans. _yoga_, union.]
YOICKS, y[=o]'iks, _interj._ an old fox-hunting cry.--_v.t._ Y[=O]'ICK, to urge on by this cry.
YOJANA, y[=o]'ja-na, _n._ an Indian measure of distance, usually about five miles.--Also Y[=O]'JAN.