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WRECK, rek, _n._ (_Spens._) same as WREAK.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to wreak.

WREN, ren, _n._ a genus (_Troglodytes_) and family (_Troglodytidae_) of birds, having a slender, slightly curved and pointed bill, the wings very short and rounded, the tail short and carried erect, the legs slender and rather long.--_ns._ WREN'NING, the stoning of a wren to death on St Stephen's Day, December 26th--WRENNING DAY--once practised in the North Country; WREN'-TIT, a Californian bird (_Chamaea fasciata_), of dubious relations, at once resembling the wren and the titmouse. [A.S. _wrenna_, _wr['ae]nna_--_wr['ae]ne_, lascivious.]

WRENCH, rensh, _v.t._ to wring or pull with a twist: to force by violence: to sprain.--_v.i._ to undergo a violent wrenching.--_n._ a violent twist: a sprain: an instrument for turning bolts, &c.: in coursing, bringing the hare round at less than a right angle--half a point in the recognised code of points for judging. [A.S. _wrencan_ (Ger. _renken_)--_wrenc_, fraud; root of _wring_.]

WREST, rest, v.t, to twist from by force: to twist from truth or from its natural meaning.--_n._ violent pulling and twisting: distortion: an instrument, like a wrench, for tuning the piano, &c.--_n._ WREST'ER. [A.S.

_wr['ae]stan_--_wr['ae]st_, firm, from _wrath_, pa.t. of _writhan_, to writhe; Dan. _vriste_.]

WRESTLE, res'l, _v.i._ to contend by grappling and trying to throw the other down: to struggle: to apply one's self keenly to: (_Scot._) to pray earnestly.--_v.t._ to contend with in wrestling.--_n._ a bout at wrestling: a struggle between two to throw each other down.--_ns._ WREST'LER; WREST'LING, the sport or exercise of two persons struggling to throw each other to the ground in an athletic contest governed by certain fixed rules--_catch-hold_, _ground-wrestling_, _catch-as-catch-can_, _back-hold_, &c. [A.S. _wr['ae]stlian_; a freq. of _wr['ae]stan_, to wrest.]

WRETCH, rech, _n._ a most miserable person: one sunk in vice: a worthless person: body, creature (in pity, sometimes admiration).--_adj._ WRETCH'ED, very miserable: distressingly bad: despicable: worthless.--_adv._ WRETCH'EDLY.--_n._ WRETCH'EDNESS. [A.S. _wrecca_, an outcast--_wraec_, pa.t.

of _wrecan_, to drive.]

WRETHE, r[=e]th, _v.t._ and _v.i._ (_Spens._). Same as WREATHE.

WRICK, rik, _v.t._ (_prov._) to twist, turn. [Low Ger. _wrikken_, to turn.]

WRIGGLE, rig'l, _v.i._ to twist to and fro: to move sinuously: to use crooked means.--_v.t._ to cause to wriggle.--_n._ the motion of wriggling.--_ns._ WRIGG'LER, one who wriggles: one who uses trickery; WRIGG'LING;. [A freq. of obs. _wrig_, to move about, itself a variant of _wrick_, M. E. _wrikken_, to twist; cf. Dut. _wriggelen_, to wriggle.]

WRIGHT, r[=i]t, _n._ a maker (chiefly used in compounds, as ship-_wright_, &c.). [A.S. _wyrhta_--_wyrht_, a work--_wyrcan_, to work.]

WRING, ring, _v.t._ to twist: to force, or force out, by twisting: to force or compress: to pain: to extort: to bend out of its position.--_v.i._ to writhe: to twist:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ wrung, (_B._) wringed.--_ns._ WRING'-BOLT, a bolt with a ring or eye, used to secure a ship's planks against the frame till they are permanently fixed in place; WRING'ER, one who wrings: a machine for forcing water from wet clothes--also WRING'ING-MACHINE'.--_adj._ WRING'ING-WET, so wet that water can be wrung WRING'-STAVES, strong pieces of wood used in applying wring-bolts.--WRING FROM, to extort; WRING OFF, to force off by wringing; WRING OUT, to squeeze out by twisting; WRING THE HANDS, to manifest grief by convulsive clasping of the hands. [A.S. _wringan_, to twist; Dut.

_wringen_, Ger. _ringen_. Cf. _Wreak_, _Wry_.]

WRINKLE, ring'kl, _n._ (_coll._) a tip, valuable hint. [Perh. from A.S.

_wrenc_, a trick. Cf. _Wrench_.]

WRINKLE, ring'kl, _n._ a small ridge on a surface caused by twisting or shrinking: unevenness.--_v.t._ to contract into wrinkles or furrows: to make rough.--_v.i._ to shrink into ridges.--_adj._ WRINK'LY, full of wrinkles: liable to be wrinkled. [M. E. _wrinkel_, conn. with A.S.

_wringan_, to twist; prob. related to Sw. _rynka_, Dan. _rynke_, a wrinkle.]

WRIST, rist, _n._ the joint by which the hand is united to the arm: a stud or pin projecting from the side of a crank.--_ns._ WRIST'BAND, the band or part of a sleeve which covers the wrist; WRIST'-DROP, inability to extend the hand, often caused by lead-poisoning; WRIST'LET, an elastic band used to confine the upper part of a glove to the wrist: a bracelet: (_slang_) a handcuff; WRIST'-PLATE, an oscillating plate bearing wrist-pins for the connection of rods or pitmans, as on the cut-off gear of an engine; WRIST'-PIN, any pin connecting a pitman to a cross-head; WRIST'-SHOT, in golf, a short stroke usually played with an iron, from the wrist, without swinging the club over the shoulder. [A.S. _wrist_--_writhan_, to twist; Ger. _rist_.]

WRIT, rit, obsolete _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _write_.

WRIT, rit, _n._ a writing: (_law_) a written document by which one is summoned or required to do something: a formal document, any writing.--HOLY WRIT, the Scriptures.--SERVE A WRIT ON, to deliver a summons to.

WRITE, r[=i]t, _v.t._ to form letters with a pen or pencil: to express in writing: to compose: to engrave: to record: to communicate by letter.--_v.i._ to perform the act of writing: to be employed as a clerk: to compose books: to send letters: to practise the art of writing: to work as an author: to compose a letter:--_pr.p._ wr[=i]'ting; _pa.t._ wr[=o]te; _pa.p._ writ'ten.--_ns._ WR[=I]'TER, one who writes: a professional scribe or clerk: an ordinary legal practitioner in Scotch country towns: an author: a petty officer in the United States navy who keeps the watch-muster and other books of the ship--usually _Ship-writer_:--_fem._ WR[=I]'TERESS (_rare_); WR[=I]'TER'S-CRAMP (see CRAMP); WR[=I]'TERSHIP, the office of a writer; WR[=I]'TING, the forming letters with a pen or pencil: that which is written: literary production; WR[=I]'TING-BOOK, a book of paper for practising penmanship; WR[=I]'TING-CASE, a portable case containing materials for writing; WR[=I]'TING-CHAM'BER, a room fitted for writing: a law office; WR[=I]'TING-DESK, a desk with a sloping top for writing upon: a portable writing-case; WR[=I]'TING-INK, ink suited for writing with; WR[=I]'TING-MAS'TER, a master who teaches the art of penmanship: the yellow-bunting; WR[=I]TING-P[=A]'PER, paper finished with a smooth surface, for writing upon; WR[=I]'TING-SCHOOL, a school for penmanship; WR[=I]'TING-T[=A]'BLE, a table fitted or used for writing upon.--_adj._ WRIT'TEN, reduced to writing--opposed to _Oral_.--WRITERS TO THE SIGNET, an ancient society of solicitors in Scotland who formerly had the exclusive right to prepare all summonses and other writs pertaining to the supreme court of justice, and still have the exclusive privilege of preparing crown writs, which include all charters, precepts, and writs from the sovereign or prince of Scotland.--WRITE DOWN, to put down in written characters: to condemn in writing; WRITE OFF, to cancel by an entry on the opposite side of the account; WRITE OUT, to transcribe: to exhaust one's mental capacity by too much writing; WRITE UP, to put a full description of in writing: to praise something in writing above its merits. [A.S.

_writan_; Ice. _rita_; the original meaning being 'to scratch' (cf. the cog. Ger. _reissen_, to tear).]

WRITHE, r[=i]th, _v.t._ to turn to and fro: to twist violently: to wrest: (_obs._) to extort.--_v.i._ to twist.--_n._ (_rare_) a contortion.--_adv._ WR[=I]'THINGLY. [A.S. _writhan_, to twist; Ice. _ritha_. Cf. _Wreath_, _Wrest_, _Wrist_.]

WRITHLE, rith'l, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to wrinkle: (_Shak._) to shrivel.

WRIZZLED, riz'ld, _adj._ (_Spens._) wrinkled.

WROKE, r[=o]k, WROKEN, r[=o]k'n, obsolete _pa.p._ of _wreak_.

WRONG, rong, _adj._ not according to rule or right, deviating from what is correct or suitable: perverse: not fit or suitable: incorrect: not right or true.--_n._ whatever is not right or just: any injury done to another: an erroneous view.--_adv._ not rightly.--_v.t._ to do wrong to: to deprive of some right: to injure.--_ns._ WRONG'-DO'ER, one who does wrong: one who injures another; WRONG'-DO'ING, evil or wicked action or conduct; WRONG'ER, one who wrongs.--_adj._ WRONG'FUL, wrong: unjust: injurious.--_adv._ WRONG'FULLY.--_n._ WRONG'FULNESS.--_adj._ WRONG'-HEAD'ED, obstinately and perversely stubborn.--_adv._ WRONG'-HEAD'EDLY.--_n._ WRONG'-HEAD'EDNESS.--_adv._ WRONG'LY, in a wrong manner.--_adj._ WRONG'-MIND'ED, having erroneous views.--_n._ WRONG'NESS.--_adj._ WRONG'OUS, unjust, illegal.--_adv._ WRONG'OUSLY.--_adj._ WRONG'-TIMED, inopportune.--GO WRONG, to fail to work properly: to stray from virtue; HAVE WRONG, to be wrong: to suffer injustice; IN THE WRONG, holding an erroneous view or unjust position; PRIVATE WRONG, a violation of the civil or personal rights of an individual in his private capacity; PUT IN THE WRONG, to cause to appear in error. [A.S. _wrang_, a wrong; most prob.

Scand., Ice. _rangr_, unjust, Dan. _vrang_, wrong. Skeat explains A.S.

_wrang_ as from _wrang_, pa.t. of _wringan_, to wring, like Fr. _tort_, from L. _tortus_, twisted.]

WROTE, r[=o]t. _pa.t._ of _write_.

WROTH, r[=o]th, _adj._ wrathful. [A.S. _wrath_, angry--_wrath_, pa.t. of _writhan_, to writhe; cf. Ice. _reithr_.]

WROUGHT, rawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _work_.--_n._ WROUGHT'-[=I]'RON, malleable iron. [A.S. _worhte_, _geworht_, pa.t. and pa.p. of _wyrcan_, _wircan_, to work.]

WRUNG, rung, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _wring_.

WRY, r[=i], _adj._ twisted or turned to one side: not in the right direction.--_n._ (_prov._) distortion.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to go astray.--_v.t._ to give a twist to, pervert.--_n._ WRY'BILL, a New Zealand plover with bill bent sideways.--_adv._ WRY'LY.--_adj._ WRY'-MOUTHED, having a crooked mouth, unflattering.--_n._ WRY'-NECK, a twisted or distorted neck: a small bird allied to the woodpecker, which twists round its head strangely when surprised.--_adj._ WRY'-NECKED.--_n._ WRY'NESS.--MAKE A WRY FACE, or MOUTH, to pucker up the face, or mouth, in sign of disgust or pain. [A.S. _wrigian_, to drive, bend. Ult. conn. with _wriggle_ and _writhe_.]

WULL, wul, _v.i._ (_Spens._). Same as WILL.

WUTHER, wuth'[.e]r, _v.i._ (_prov._) to roar sullenly.--_n._ a low roaring.

[Perh. traceable to A.S. _woth_, a cry.]

WUZZENT, wuz'ent, _adj._ (_Scot._) wizened.

WUZZLE, wuz'l, _v.t._ (_U.S._) to jumble.


WYCLIFITE, WYCLIFFITE, wik'lif-[=i]t, _adj._ pertaining to the English reformer and translator of the Bible, John _Wycliffe_ (1325-84).--_n._ a follower of WYCLIFFE; a Lollard.

WYKEHAMIST, wik'am-ist, _n._ a student, or former student, of Winchester College, founded by William of _Wykeham_, Bishop of Winchester (died 1404).

WYLIE-COAT, w[=i]'li-k[=o]t, _n._ (_Scot._) a flannel undervest or petticoat.

WYND, w[=i]nd, _n._ (_Scot._) a lane: narrow alley in a town. [Same as _Wind_ (2).]

WYVERN, w[=i]'vrn, _n._ (_her._) a fictitious monster allied to the dragon and the griffin, and having its two legs and feet like those of the eagle.

[O. Fr. _wivre_, a viper--L. _vipera_.]

X the twenty-fourth letter in our alphabet, having in modern English the value of _ks_, which it had in Anglo-Saxon--except at the beginning of a word, where it is pronounced like _z_. As a numeral X stands for ten, [X on its side] for a thousand, [=X] for ten thousand; X as an abbreviation represents the word Christ--Xian, Xmas; _x_ in algebra is the first of the unknown quantities; and the use of X, XX, and XXX on barrels of stout is a well-known way of indicating the quality.--X-RAYS, the name given by Rontgen of Wurzburg in 1895 to those dark or invisible rays emitted, under the influence of an electric current, from a glass-bulb highly exhausted of air through an aluminium window into a close box, and which when passed through the hand or other part of the body imprint a shadow-picture of the bones on a sensitive photographic plate--a discovery of high value in surgery, enabling a bullet, &c., embedded in the flesh to be carefully localised.

XANTHEINE, zan'the-in, _n._ the yellow colouring matter of flowers. [From Gr. _xanthos_, yellow.]

XANTHIAN, zan'thi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Xanthus_, the capital of ancient Lycia, in Asia Minor.

XANTHIN, zan'thin, _n._ a name given to the yellow colouring matter of various flowers, to a principle in madder, and to a deposit of urine.--_n._ XAN'THATE, a salt of xanthic acid.--_adj._ XAN'THIC. [Gr. _xanthos_, yellow.]

XANTHIUM, zan'thi-um, _n._ a weedy plant of the aster family.--Also _Cockle-bur_, _Clot-bur_.

XANTHOCHROI, zan-thok'roi, one of the five groups of men, according to Huxley and other ethnologists, comprising the fair whites.--_n._ XANTHOCHROI'A, a yellow discolouration of the skin.--_adjs._ XANTHOCHR[=O]'IC, XANTHOCH'R[=O]OUS. [Formed through L. from Gr. _xanthos_, yellow, _chroa_, skin.]

XANTHOMA, zan-th[=o]'ma, _n._ a skin disease consisting of a growth of flat or tuberculated yellowish patches, often on the eyelids.--_adj._ XANTHOMA'ATOUS. [Gr. _xanthos_, yellow.]

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