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WORE, w[=o]r, _pa.t._ of _wear_.

WORK, wurk, _n._ effort directed to an end: employment: the result of work: that on which one works: anything made or done: embroidery: deed: effect: a literary composition: a book: management: an establishment for any manufacture, a factory (gener. in _pl._): (_physics_) the product of a force by the component displacement of its point and application in the direction of the force: (_pl._), (_fort._) walls, trenches, &c.: (_theol._) acts performed in obedience to the Divine law: a manufactory, workshop, place of work (esp. in _pl._): mechanism--e.g. of a watch.--_v.i._ to make efforts to attain anything: to perform: to be in action: to be occupied in business or labour: to produce effects, to make progress with difficulty, to strain or labour: to ferment: to be agitated, to seethe: to embroider.--_v.t._ to make by labour: to bring into any state by action: to effect: to carry on operations in: to put in motion: to purge: to influence: to manage: to solve: to achieve: to cause to ferment: to provoke, agitate: to keep employed: to embroider:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ worked or wrought (rawt).--_ns._ WORKABIL'ITY, WORK'ABLENESS.--_adjs._ WORK'ABLE, that may be worked; WORK'ADAY, work-day, toiling, plodding.--_ns._ WORK'-BAG, -BAS'KET, a bag, basket, for holding materials for work, esp. needlework; WORK'-BOX, a lady's box for holding materials for work; WORK'-DAY, a day for work: a week-day.--_adj._ pertaining to a work-day.--_ns._ WORK'ER, a toiler, performer: among insects, the neuter or undeveloped female; WORK'-FELL'OW, one who is engaged in the same work with WORK'FOLK, WORK'FOLKS, persons engaged in manual labour.--_adj._ WORK'FUL, industrious.--_ns._ WORK'GIRL, a girl or young woman employed in some manual labour; WORK'HOUSE, a house where any work or manufacture is carried on: a house of shelter for the poor, who are made to work; WORK'ING, action, operation: fermentation: (_pl._) the parts of a mine, &c., where actual operations are in hand.--_adj._ active: labouring: connected with labour.--_ns._ WORK'ING-BEAM, the oscillating lever of a steam-engine connecting the piston-rod and the crank-shaft, a walking-beam; WORK'ING-CLASS, manual labourers (often in _pl._); WOR'KING-DAY, a day on which work is done, as distinguished from the Sabbath and holidays: the period of actual work each day.--_adj._ laborious: plodding.--_ns._ WORK'ING-DRAW'ING, a drawing of the details of a building by which the builders are guided in their work; WORK'ING-HOUSE (_Shak._), workshop; WORK'ING-PAR'TY, a group of persons who do some work in common, or who meet periodically for such a purpose; WORK'MAN, WORK'ING-MAN, a man who works or labours, esp. manually: a skilful artificer.--_adjs._ WORK'MAN-LIKE, like a workman: becoming a skilful workman: well performed; WORK'MANLY, becoming a skilful workman.--_adv._ in a manner becoming a skilful workman.--_ns._ WORK'MANSHIP, the skill of a workman: manner of making: work done; WORK'-MAS'TER, a skilled or directing workman, esp. in some great WORK'-PEO'PLE, people engaged in labour.--_ns._ WORK'ROOM, a room for working in; WORK'SHOP, a shop where work is done.--_adj._ WORK'SOME, industrious.--_ns._ WORK'-T[=A]'BLE, a small table used by ladies at their needlework; WORK'-WOMAN, a woman who makes her living by some manual labour.--WORK OF ART, a production in one of the fine arts; WORK DOUBLE TIDES, to work through continuous tides, night and day; WORK IN, to intermix, to make to penetrate; WORK INTO, to make way gradually into: to change, alter; WORK OFF, to separate and throw off, to get rid of, circulate: to produce as by work, esp. to print; WORK ON, or UPON, to act or operate upon, to influence; WORK ONE'S PASSAGE, to give one's work on board in place of passage-money; WORK OUT, to effect by continued labour: to expiate: to exhaust: to solve or study anything fully out; WORK UP, to excite, rouse: to create by slow degrees, to expand, elaborate: to use up, as material: (_naut._) to set at an irksome or needless task; WORK WITH, to strive to influence by appeals, &c.--BOARD OF WORKS, the body which has the management and control of public works and buildings, of which the expenses are defrayed from the crown revenues or parliamentary grants; HAVE ONE'S WORK CUT OUT, to have one's work prescribed: to have a difficult task before one; MAKE SHORT WORK OF (see SHORT); OUT OF WORK, out of working order: without employment; SET TO WORK, to employ in some work: to engage in some work; SEVEN WORKS OF CORPORAL MERCY, to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, visit prisoners, visit the sick, harbour strangers, bury the dead--OF SPIRITUAL MERCY, to convert sinners, instruct the ignorant, counsel the doubtful, console the afflicted, bear wrongs patiently, forgive injuries, pray for the living and the dead. [A.S. _weorc_; Ice. _verk_, Ger. _werk_; further conn. with Gr. _ergon_.]

WORLD, wurld, _n._ the earth and its inhabitants: the system of things: present state of existence: any planet or heavenly body: public life or society: an organic whole: business: the public: a secular life: course of life: a very large extent of country, as the 'New World:' very much or a great deal, as 'a world of good:' time, as in the phrase 'world without end'=eternally: possibility, as in 'nothing in the world:' (_B._) the ungodly.--_adjs._ WORL'DED, containing worlds; WORLD'-HAR'DENED, hardened by the love of worldly things.--_ns._ WORLD'-LANG'UAGE, a universal language; WORLD'LINESS; WORLD'LING, one who is devoted to worldly or temporal possessions.--_adjs._ WORLD'LY, pertaining to the world, esp. as distinguished from the world to come: devoted to this life and its enjoyments: bent on gain--also _adv._; WORLD'LY-MIND'ED, having the mind set on the present world.--_n._ WORLD'LY-MIND'EDNESS.--_adjs._ WORLD'LY-WISE, wise in this world's affairs; WORLD'-OLD, exceedingly ancient; WORLD'-WEA'RIED, -WEA'RY, tired of the world; WORLD'WIDE, wide or extensive as the world.--ALL THE WORLD, everybody: everything; ALL THE WORLD AND HIS WIFE (_coll._), everybody: also, an ill-assorted mass; A WORLD, a great deal; CARRY THE WORLD BEFORE ONE, to pass to success through every obstacle; FOR ALL THE WORLD, precisely, entirely; GO TO THE WORLD (_Shak._), to get married; IN THE WORLD, an intensive phrase, usually following an interrogative pronoun or adverb.--THE NEW WORLD, the western hemisphere, the Americas; THE OLD WORLD, the eastern hemisphere, comprising Europe, Africa, and Asia; THE OTHER WORLD, the non-material sphere, the spiritual world; THE WHOLE WORLD, the sum of what is contained in the world; THE WORLD'S END, the most distant point possible. [A.S. _woruld_, _world_, _weorold_, (lit.) 'a generation of men,' from _wer_, a man, and _yldo_, sig. an age; Ice. _verold_, Old High Ger. _weralt_ (Ger. _welt_).]

WORM, wurm, _n._ a term destitute of scientific precision, but often applied to any one of the members of numerous classes of invertebrate animals which are more or less earthworm-like in appearance, the earthworm, a grub, a maggot: anything spiral: the thread of a screw: the lytta or vermiform cartilage of a dog's tongue: the instrument used to withdraw the charge of a gun: a spiral pipe surrounded by cold water into which steam or vapours pass for condensation in distilling: anything that corrupts, gnaws, or torments: remorse: a debased being, a groveller: (_pl._) any intestinal disease arising from the presence of parasitic worms.--_v.i._ to move like a worm, to squirm: to work slowly or secretly.--_v.t._ to effect by slow and secret means: to elicit by underhand means: to remove the lytta or vermiform cartilage of a dog's tongue.--_n._ WORM'-CAST, the earth voided by the earthworm.--_adjs._ WORM'-EAT'EN, eaten by worms: old: worn-out; WORM'-EAT'ING, living habitually on worms; WORMED, bored by worms: injured by worms.--_ns._ WORM'-FENCE, a zigzag fence formed of stakes; WORM'-F[=E]'VER, a feverish condition in children ascribed to intestinal worms; WORM'-GEAR, a gear-wheel having teeth shaped so as to mesh with a worm or shaft on which a spiral is turned, an endless screw; WORM'-GEAR'ING; WORM'-GRASS, pink-root: a kind of stonecrop; WORM'-HOLE, the hole made by a worm.--_adj._ WORM'-HOLED, perforated by worm-holes.--_ns._ WORM'-POW'DER, a vermifuge; WORM'-SEED, santonica: the treacle mustard; WORM'-WHEEL, a wheel gearing with an endless screw or worm, receiving or imparting motion.--_adj._ WOR'MY, like a worm: grovelling: containing a worm: abounding with worms: gloomy, dismal, like the grave. [A.S. _wyrm_, dragon, snake, creeping animal; cog. with Goth.

_waurms_, a serpent, Ice. _ormr_, Ger. _wurm_; also with L. _vermis_.]

WORMIAN, wurm'i-an, _adj._ associated with the name of the Danish anatomist Olaus _Worm_ (1588-1654), applied esp. to the supernumerary bones developed in the sutures of the skull.

WORMWOOD, wurm'wood, _n._ the bitter plant _Artemisia absinthium_: bitterness. [A.S. _wermod_ (Ger. _wermuth_), wormwood; perh. lit.

'keep-mind,' in allusion to its medicinal (anthelmintic and tonic) properties--_werian_, to protect (Ger. _wehren_), _mod_, mind.]

WORN, w[=o]rn, _pa.p._ of _wear_.

WORN-OUT, w[=o]rn'-owt, _adj._ much injured or rendered useless by wear: wearied: past, gone.

WORRICOW, wur'i-kow, _n._ (_Scot._) a hobgoblin: the devil: anything frightful or even only grotesque.

WORRY, wur'i, _v.t._ to tear with the teeth: to harass: to tease: (_Scot._) to choke.--_v.i._ to trouble one's self: to be unduly anxious: to fret:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ worr'ied.--_n._ act of worrying: trouble, perplexity, vexation.--_ns._ WORR'IER, one who worries himself or others; WORR'IMENT (_coll._), anxiety.--_adj._ WORR'ISOME, causing trouble.--v.

WORR'IT (_slang_), to worry.--_n._ (_slang_) annoyance.--_adj._ WORR'YING, harassing.--_adv._ WORR'YINGLY.--WORRY DOWN, to swallow with a strong effort. [A.S. _wyrgan_, found in compound _awyrgan_, to harm; cf. Dut.

_worgen_, Ger. _wurgen_, to choke; A.S. _wearg_, _werg_, a wolf.]

WORSE, wurs, _adj._ (used as _comp._ of _bad_) bad or evil in a greater degree: more sick.--_adv._ bad in a higher degree: less: (_Shak._) with more severity.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to worst.--_v.i._ WOR'SEN, to grow worse.--_v.t._ to make worse.--_adv._ WOR'SER, a redundant comparative of _worse_.--THE WORSE, defeat, disadvantage. [A.S. _wyrsa_, from _wiers-sa_ from _wirsiza_ (Goth. _wairsiza_), formed with comp. suffix _-iz_ from a Teut. root _wers_, found in Ger. _ver-wirren_, to confuse.]

WORSHIP, wur'ship, _n._ religious service: fervent esteem: adoration paid to God: a title of honour in addressing certain magistrates, &c.: submissive respect.--_v.t._ to respect highly: to treat with civil reverence: to pay divine honours to: to adore or idolise.--_v.i._ to perform acts of adoration: to perform religious service:--_pr.p._ wor'shipping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ wor'shipped.--_adjs._ WOR'SHIPABLE, WOR'SHIPFUL, worthy of worship or honour, used as a term of respect.--_adv._ WOR'SHIPFULLY.--_n._ WOR'SHIPFULNESS.--_adj._ WOR'SHIPLESS, destitute of worship or worshippers.--_n._ WOR'SHIPPER.--HOUSE, or PLACE, OF WORSHIP, a church or chapel. [A.S.

_weorthscipe_--_weorth_, WURTH, worth, affix _-scipe_, _-ship_.]

WORST, wurst, _adj._ bad or evil in the highest degree.--_adv._ to a very bad or very evil degree.--_n._ the highest degree of badness: the most evil state.--_v.t._ to get the advantage over in a contest: to defeat.--_v.i._ (_obs._) to grow worse. [A.S. _wyrst_, _wyrrest_, _wyrresta_, from the same source as _worse_.]

WORSTED, woost'ed, or woorst'ed, _n._ twisted thread or yarn spun out of long, combed wool: woollen yarn for ornamental needlework.--_adj._ made of worsted yarn.--_n._ WORST'ED-WORK, needlework done with worsted. [From _Worstead_, a village near Norwich in England.]

WORT, wurt, _n._ a plant of the cabbage kind. [A.S. _wyrt_; Ger. _wurz_, _wurzel_, a root.]

WORT, wurt, _n._ new beer unfermented or in the act of fermentation: the sweet infusion of malt. [A.S. _wyrte_, new beer (Ice. _virtr_)--_wyrt_, root. See preceding word.]

WORTH, wurth, _n._ value: possessions: that quality which renders a thing valuable: price: moral excellence: importance.--_adj._ equal in value to: having a certain moral value: deserving of.--_adj._ WORTH'FUL.--_adv._ WORTH'ILY (_th_), in a worthy manner: justly: truly.--_n._ WORTH'INESS (_th_).--_adj._ WORTH'LESS, of no worth or value: having no value, virtue, excellence, &c.: useless.--_adv._ WORTH'LESSLY.--_n._ WORTH'LESSNESS.--_adj._ WORTHY (wur'_th_i), having worth: valuable: deserving: suited to: (_B._) deserving (either of good or bad).--_n._ a man of eminent worth: a local celebrity: (_Shak._) anything of value:--_pl._ WOR'THIES.--_v.t._ to make worthy.--WORTHIEST OF BLOOD, male, as opposed to female--of inheritance.--NINE WORTHIES, Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar; Joshua, David, Judas Maccabaeus; Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon. [A.S. _weorth_, _wurth_ (Ger. _wert_), value.]

WORTH, wurth, _v.i._ to be, happen, as in the phrase WOE WORTH=_woe be to_ (with the noun in the dative). [A.S. _weorthan_, to become; cf. Ger.


WOT, wot, WOTTETH, wot'eth, _v.t._ (_B._) _pr.t._ of obsolete _wit_, to know. [_Wit_.]

WOULD, wood, _pa.t._ of _will_.--_adj._ WOULD'-BE, aspiring, trying, or merely professing to be.--_n._ a vain pretender. [A.S. _wolde_, pa.t. of _willan_.]

WOULFE-BOTTLE, woolf'-bot'l, _n._ a form of three-necked bottle, generally arranged in a series known as _Woulfe's apparatus_, used for the purpose of purifying gases, or of dissolving them in suitable solvents--from the name of the London chemist, Peter _Woulfe_ (1727-1806).

WOUND, wownd, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _wind_.

WOUND, w[=oo]nd, _n._ any division of soft parts, including the skin, produced by external mechanical force--whether incised, punctured, contused, lacerated, or poisoned: any cut, bruise, hurt, or injury.--_v.t._ to make a wound in: to injure.--_adj._ WOUN'DABLE, capable of being wounded.--_n._ WOUN'DER.--_adv._ WOUN'DILY (_coll._), excessively.--_n._ WOUN'DING.--_adj._ WOUND'LESS, exempt from being wounded, invulnerable: harmless.--_n._ WOUND'WORT, a name applied to several plants of popular repute as vulneraries, as the kidney-vetch, &c.: a plant of genus _Stachys_, the marsh or clown's woundwort.--_adj._ WOUN'DY, causing wounds: (_coll._) excessive. [A.S. _wund_ (Ger. _wunde_, Ice. _und_)--A.S. _wund_, wounded; prob. orig. pa.p. of A.S. _winnan_, to fight, strive.]


WOVE, WOVEN, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _weave_.

WOW, wow, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to woo.

WOW, wow, _interj._ an exclamation of wonder.

WOWF, wowf, _adj._ (_Scot._) crazy.

WOW-WOW, wow'-wow, _n._ the gibbon of Sumatra.

WOX, WOXEN. (_Spens._), _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _wax_.

WRACK, RACK, rak, _n._ a term loosely given to various seaweeds, esp. to the _Fucaceae_, common on British shores, long valuable as a source of kelp, and utilised as manure: shipwreck: ruin.--_adj._ WRACK'FUL, destructive.

[Lit. 'something cast ashore,' A.S. _wraec_, exile, misery--_wrecan_, to drive, urge. _Wrack_ is a doublet of _wreck_.]

WRACK, rak, by-form of _wreck_.

WRAITH, r[=a]th, _n._ a spectre: an apparition in the exact likeness of a person seen before or soon after his death. [Cf. dial. form _warth_, an apparition; prob. orig. having the sense of 'guardian spirit'--Ice.

_vorthr_, a guardian.]

WRANGLE, rang'gl, _v.i._ to make a disturbance: to dispute: to dispute noisily or peevishly.--_n._ a noisy dispute.--_ns._ WRANG'LER, one who wrangles or disputes angrily: (_Shak._) a stubborn foe: in the University of Cambridge, one of those who have attained the first class in the public mathematical honour examinations; WRANG'LERSHIP.--_adj._ WRANG'LESOME, given to wrangling.--_n._ WRANG'LING.--SENIOR WRANGLER, the student taking the first place in the class mentioned, the second being called SECOND WRANGLER, and so on in the same way. [A freq. of _wring_.]

WRAP, rap, _v.t._ to roll or fold together: to enfold: hide: to cover by winding something round (often with up):--_pr.p._ wrap'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ wrapped.--_n._ a wrapper, as a shawl, &c.--_ns._ WRAP'PAGE, act of wrapping: things used as wrappers; WRAP'PER, one who, or that which, wraps: a loose outer garment of a woman; WRAP'PING; WRAP'-RAS'CAL, a loose greatcoat worn about 1740 (a humorous term).--WRAPPED UP IN, bound up in: engrossed with: comprised in. [A form of _warp_--M. E. _wrappen_, also _wlappen_. Cf. _Lap_ (v.t. to wrap) and _Envelop_.]

WRAP. Same as RAP.

WRASSE, ras, _n._ a genus of bony fishes representative of the large family _Labridae_, and including many species on European and North African coasts.

Common British species are the _ballan-wrasse_, the _red wrasse_, and the _gibbous wrasse_. [Perh. the W. _gwrachen_.]

WRATH, rath, _n._ violent anger: holy indignation: heat.--_adj._ violently angry.--_adj._ WRATH'FUL, full of wrath: very angry: springing from, or expressing, wrath.--_adv._ WRATH'FULLY.--_n._ WRATH'FULNESS.--_adv._ WRATH'ILY.--_adjs._ WRATH'LESS; WRATH'Y, apt to wrath. [Old Northumbrian _wr['ae]o_--A.S. _wra_, adj. wroth; Ice. _reithi_.]

WRAWL, rawl, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to cry as a cat, to caterwaul. [Imit.]

WRAXLING, raks'ling, _n._ wrestling.

WREAK, r[=e]k, _v.t._ to inflict: avenge.--_n._ WREAK'ER.--_adjs._ WREAK'FUL, revengeful: angry; WREAK'LESS, unpunished. [A.S. _wrecan_, orig.

to drive, and so to punish, avenge; Ice. _reka_, to drive, pursue, Ger.

_rachen_; conn. with L. _urg[=e]re_.]

WREAK, r[=e]k, _v.i._ (_Shak._). Same as RECK.

WREATH, r[=e]th, _n._ a chaplet: a garland: anything long and circular: a defect in glass.--_v.t._ WREATHE (r[=e]_th_), to form by twisting: to form into a wreath: to twine about or encircle.--_v.i._ to be interwoven.--_adj._ WREATH'EN (_th_), wreathed.--_n._ WREATH'ER (_th_).--_adjs._ WREATH'LESS; WREATH'Y. [A.S. _wraedh_, 'a twisted band'--_writhan_, to writhe.]

WRECK, rek, _n._ destruction: destruction of a ship: ruins of a destroyed ship: remains of anything ruined: shipwrecked property.--_v.t._ to destroy or disable: to ruin.--_v.i._ to suffer wreck or ruin.--_ns._ WRECK'AGE, the act of wrecking: wrecked material; WRECK'ER, a person who purposely causes a wreck or who plunders wreckage: one who lures a ship on to the rocks for purposes of plunder: one who criminally ruins anything: a person employed by the owners in recovering disabled vessels or their cargo.--_adj._ WRECK'FUL, causing ruin.--_n._ WRECK'-MAS'TER, a person taking charge of a disabled ship and its cargo.--WRECK COMMISSIONERS, a tribunal which inquires into shipping disasters.--RECEIVERS OF WRECKS, wreck-masters.

[A.S. _wraec_, expulsion--_wrecan_, to drive, Low Ger. _wrak_, Dut. _wrak_, Ice. _reki_, a thing drifted ashore; a doublet of _wrack_.]

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