WILLOW, wil'[=o], _n._ any tree or shrub of the genus Salix, having slender, pliant branches: the wood of the willow: a cricket-bat.--_v.t._ to beat with willow rods, as in cleaning cotton, &c.--_adj._ WILL'OWED, abounding with, or containing, willows.--_n._ WILL'OW-HERB, a perennial herb (_Epilobium_) of the evening primrose family--also _Rose-bay_, _Bay-willow_, _French_ or _Persian willow_.--_adj._ WILL'OWISH, like a willow, slender and supple.--_ns._ WILL'OW-MACHINE', a machine for extracting dirt from hemp, cotton, &c.--also WILL'OW; WILL'OW-MOTH, a common British night-moth; WILL'OW-WAR'BLER, -WREN, a small European sylviine bird; WILL'OW-WEED, one of various species of _Polygonum_ or knot-weed: the purple loose-strife.--_adj._ WILL'OWY, abounding in willows: flexible, graceful.--_n._ WEEP'ING-WILL'OW, a very ornamental species, a native of the East, much planted in Britain on account of its beautiful pendent twigs.--BEDFORD WILLOW, a species whose bark is especially rich in salicin and in tannin; WHITE, or HUNTINGDON, WILLOW, the largest of British species, reaching a height of eighty feet. [A.S. _welig_; Low Ger. _wilge_, Dut. _wilg_.]
WILL-WORSHIP, wil'-wur'ship, _n._ (_B._) worship that is self-invented, superstitious observance without divine authority.
WILLY, wil'i, _n._ (_prov._) a willow basket.
WILLY-NILLY, wil'i-nil'i, _adv._ willing or unwilling.--_adj._ vacillating.
[_Will_ and _nill_.]
WILT, wilt, _v.i._ to droop, lose energy.--_v.t._ to render limp or pithless. [Cf. _Welk_; cf. Ger. _welk_, withered.]
WILT, wilt, 2d pers. sing. of _will_.
WILY, w[=i]'li, _adj._ full of wiles or tricks: using craft or stratagem: artful: sly.--_adv._ W[=I]'LILY.--_n._ W[=I]'LINESS, cunning.
WIMBLE, wim'bl, _n._ an instrument for boring holes, turned by a handle.--_v.t._ to bore through with such. [Scand., Dan. _vimmel_, auger; conn. with Old Dut. _weme_, a wimble, and _wemelen_, to whirl.]
WIMBLE, wim'bl, _adj._ (_Spens._) active, nimble. [Sw. _vimmel_, giddy--_vima_, to be giddy; allied to _whim_.]
WIMPLE, wim'pl, _n._ a hood or veil folded round the neck and face (still a part of a nun's dress): a flag.--_v.t._ to hide with a wimple: (_Shak._) to hoodwink: to lay in folds.--_v.i._ to ripple: (_Spens._) to lie in folds.
[A.S. _wimpel_, a neck-covering; cf. Ger. _wimpel_, a pennon, Fr. _guimpe_, a nun's veil, Eng. _gimp_, a thin cloth for trimming.]
WIN, win, _v.t._ to get by labour: to gain in contest: to allure to kindness, to gain: to achieve, effect: to attain: to induce: in mining, to sink down to a bed of coal: to obtain the favour of.--_v.i._ to gain the victory: to gain favour: (_prov._) to make one's way, to succeed in getting:--_pr.p._ win'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ won (wun).--_n._ a victory, success.--_ns._ WIN'NER; WIN'NING, the act of one who wins: that which is won (usually in _pl._): a shaft or pit to open a bed of coal.--_adj._ influencing: attractive.--_adv._ WIN'NINGLY.--_ns._ WIN'NINGNESS; WIN'NING-POST, the goal of a race-course.--WIN BY A HEAD, to win very narrowly; WIN IN A CANTER, to win easily, as it were at an easy gallop; WIN ON, UPON, to gain upon, to obtain favour with; WIN, or GAIN, ONE'S SPURS, to earn one's knighthood by valour on the field, hence to gain recognition or reputation by merit of any kind. [A.S. _winnan_, to suffer, to struggle; Ice. _vinna_, to accomplish, Ger. _gewinnen_, to win.]
WIN, win, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to dry by exposure to the wind. [_Wind_.]
WINCE, wins, _v.i._ to shrink or start back: to be affected acutely, as by a sarcasm: to be restive, as a horse uneasy at its rider.--_n._ WIN'CER, one who winces. [O. Fr. _guinchir_, _ganchir_, to wince--Old High Ger.
_wenkan_ (Ger. _wanken_), to wince. Allied to Eng. _wink_, and Ger.
_winken_, to nod.]
WINCEY, WINSEY, win'si, _n._ a cloth, plain or twilled, usually with a cotton warp and woollen filling--same as linsey-woolsey (q.v.).
WINCH, winsh, _n._ the crank of a wheel or axle: a kind of hoisting machine: a dyer's reel suspended horizontally by the ends of its axis over the vat, so as to allow the cloth to descend into either compartment of the bath according as it is turned on the right or left.--Also WINCE. [A.S.
_wince_, prob. orig. 'a bent handle,' and so akin to Eng. _wink_.]
WIND, wind (_poet._ w[=i]nd), _n._ air in motion: breath: flatulence: anything insignificant: the wind instruments in an orchestra: air impregnated with scent: a hint or suggestion of something secret, publicity: (_slang_) a part of the body near the stomach: a disease of sheep in which the inflamed intestines are distended by gases.--_v.t._ (w[=i]nd) to sound or signal by blowing: to scent: (wind) to expose to the wind: to drive hard, so as to put out of breath: to allow to recover wind:--_pr.p._ w[=i]nd'ing and wind'ing; _pa.p._ wind'ed and wound.--_ns._ WIND'AGE, the difference between the size of the bore of a gun and that of the ball or shell: the influence of the wind in deflecting a missile; WIND'BAG, a person of mere words.--_adjs._ WIND'-BOUND, hindered from sailing by a contrary wind; WIND'-BR[=O]'KEN, affected with convulsive breathing--of a horse; WIND'-CHANG'ING, fickle.--_ns._ WIND'-CHART, a chart showing the direction of the wind; WIND'-CHEST, the box or reservoir that supplies compressed air to the pipes or reeds of an organ; WIND'-DROP'SY, tympanites; WIND'-EGG, an addle-egg, one soft-shelled or imperfectly formed; W[=I]ND'ER, one who sounds a horn: one who, or that which, winds or rolls; WIND'FALL, fruit blown off a tree by the wind: any unexpected money or other advantage.--_adj._ WINDFALL'EN, blown down by wind.--_ns._ WIND'-FLOW'ER, the wood-anemone; WIND'-FUR'NACE, any form of furnace using the natural draught of a chimney without aid of a bellows; WIND'-GALL, a puffy swelling about the fetlock joints of a horse; WIND'-GAUGE, an instrument for gauging or measuring the velocity of the wind: an appliance fixed to a gun by means of which the force of the wind is ascertained so that allowance may be made for it in sighting; WIND'-GUN, air-gun; WIND'-H[=O]'VER, the kestrel.--_adv._ WIND'ILY.--_ns._ WIND'INESS; WIND'-IN'STRUMENT, a musical instrument sounded by means of wind or by the breath.--_adj._ WIND'LESS, without wind.--_ns._ WIND'MILL, a mill for performing any class of work in which fixed machinery can be employed, and in which the motive-power is the force of the wind acting on a set of sails; WIND'PIPE, the passage for the breath between the mouth and lungs, the trachea.--_adj._ WIND'-RODE (_naut._), riding at anchor with head to the wind.--_ns._ WIND'ROSE, a graphic representation of the relative frequency of winds from different directions drawn with reference to a centre; WIND'ROW, a row of hay raked together to be made into cocks, a row of peats, &c., set up for drying; WIND'-SAIL (_naut._), a wide funnel of canvas used to convey a stream of air below deck.--_adj._ WIND'-SH[=A]'KEN, agitated by the wind.--_ns._ WIND'SIDE, the side next the wind; WIND'-SUCK'ER, the kestrel: a critic ready to fasten on any weak spot, however small or unimportant.--_adjs._ WIND'-SWIFT, swift as the wind; WIND'-TIGHT, air-tight.--_adv._ WIND'WARD, toward where the wind blows from.--_adj._ toward the wind.--_n._ the point from which the wind blows.--_adj._ WIND'Y.--A CAPFUL OF WIND, a slight breeze; BEFORE THE WIND, carried along by the wind; BETWEEN WIND AND WATER, that part of a ship's side which is now in, now out of, the water owing to the fluctuation of the waves: any vulnerable point; BROKEN WIND, a form of paroxysmal dyspnoea; CAST, or LAY, AN ANCHOR TO WINDWARD, to make prudent provision for the future; DOWN THE WIND, moving with the wind; FIGHT WINDMILLS, to struggle with imaginary opposition, as Don Quixote tilted at the windmill; GET ONE'S WIND, to recover one's breath; GET THE WIND OF, to get on the windward side of; GET TO WINDWARD OF, to secure an advantage over; GET WIND OF, to learn about, to be informed of; HAVE THE WIND OF, to be on the trail of; HOW THE WIND BLOWS, or LIES, the state of the wind: the position of affairs; IN THE WIND, astir, afoot; IN THE WIND'S EYE, IN THE TEETH OF THE WIND, right against the wind; SAIL CLOSE TO THE WIND, to keep the boat's head near enough to wind as to fill but not shake the sails: to be almost indecent; SECOND WIND, new powers of respiration succeeding to the first breathlessness; SOW THE WIND AND REAP THE WHIRLWIND, to act wrongly and receive a crushing retribution. [A.S. _wind_; Ice. _vindr_, Ger. _wind_, L.
_ventus_, Gr. _a[=e]t[=e]s_, Sans. _v[=a]ta_, wind.]
WIND, w[=i]nd, _v.t._ to turn: to twist: to coil: to haul or hoist, as by a winch: to encircle: to change: (_Spens._) to weave.--_v.i._ to turn completely or often: to turn round something: to twist: to move spirally: to meander: to beat about the bush:--_pr.p._ w[=i]nd'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ wound.--_n._ W[=I]ND'ER, one who winds: an instrument for winding: a twisting plant.--_adj._ W[=I]ND'ING, curving, full of bends: twisted.--_n._ a turning: a twist.--_n._ W[=I]ND'ING-EN'GINE, a machine for hoisting.--_adv._ W[=I]ND'INGLY.--_ns._ W[=I]ND'ING-MACHINE', a twisting or warping machine; W[=I]ND'ING-SHEET, a sheet enwrapping a corpse: the dripping grease which clings to the side of a candle; W[=I]ND'-UP, the close.--WIND A SHIP, to turn her about end for end; WIND UP, to come to a conclusion: to tighten, to excite very much: to give new life to: to adjust for final settlement: (_Shak._) to restore to harmony. [A.S. _windan_; Ger.
_winden_, Ice. _vinda_, Goth. _windan_. Cf. _Wend_, _Wander_.]
WINDLASS, wind'las, _n._ a modification of the wheel and axle, used for raising weights, consisting of a revolving cylinder.--_v.i._ to use a windlass.--_v.t._ to hoist by means of such. [Skeat explains as a corruption, due to confusion with the succeeding word, of M. E. _windas_, a windlass--Ice. _vindass_--_vinda_, to wind; Dut. _windas_.]
WINDLASS, wind'las, _n._ (_Shak._) indirect, crafty action.--_v.i._ to take a round-about course. [For _wind-lace_, a winding course; from _wind_ (n.) and _lace_, a twist.]
WINDLE, win'dl, _n._ an engine for turning: a dry measure. [A.S.
_windel_--_windan_, to turn.]
WINDLESTRAW, win'dl-straw, _n._ the stalk of various grasses. [A.S.
_windel_, a woven basket, _streow_, straw.]
WINDOW, win'd[=o], _n._ an opening in the wall of a building for air and light: the frame in the opening: a cover, lid.--_v.t._ to furnish with windows: (_Shak._) to make rents in: (_Shak._) to place in a window.--_ns._ WIND'OW-BAR, a wooden or iron bar fitted into a window for security: (_Shak._) lattice-work across a woman's stomacher; WIN'DOW-BLIND, a blind or screen for a window; WIN'DOW-BOLE (same as BOLE, 3); WIN'DOW-CUR'TAIN, a curtain hung over a window, inside a room.--_adj._ WIN'DOWED, having a window or windows.--_ns._ WIN'DOW-FRAME, a frame or case which surrounds a window; WIN'DOW-GAR'DENING, the cultivation of plants indoors before a window, or in boxes fitted on the outside sill; WIN'DOW-GLASS, glass suitable for windows.--_adj._ WIN'DOWLESS, having no windows.--_ns._ WIN'DOW-PANE, a square of glass set in a window; WIN'DOW-SASH, a light frame in which panes of glass are set; WIN'DOW-SCREEN, any device for filling the opening of a window; WIN'DOW-SEAT, a seat in the recess of a window; WIN'DOW-SHADE, a sheet covering the window when pulled out; WIN'DOW-SILL, the flat piece of wood at the bottom of a window-frame.--WINDOW TAX, till 1851 a tax in Great Britain levied on windows of houses.--BLIND WINDOW, a window space blocked up with masonry.
[M. E. _windowe_--Ice. _vindauga_--_vindr_, wind, _auga_, eye.]
WINDRING, w[=i]nd'ring, _adj._ (_Shak._) winding.
WINDSOR, win'zor, _adj._ pertaining to _Windsor_, as in WIND'SOR-CHAIR, a kind of strong, plain, polished chair, made entirely of wood; WIND'SOR-SOAP, a kind of perfumed brown toilet-soap.
WINE, w[=i]n, _n._ the fermented juice of the grape: a liquor made from other fruits: (_fig._) intoxication: a wine-drinking, a wine-party.--_ns._ WINE'-BAG, a wine-skin: a tippler; WINE'-BIBB'ER, a bibber or drinker of wine: a drunkard; WINE'-BIBB'ING; WINE'-BIS'CUIT, a sweet biscuit intended to be served with wine; WINE'-CASK, a cask for holding wine; WINE'-CELL'AR, a cellar for storing wine.--_adj._ WINE'-COL'OURED, of the colour of red wine.--_ns._ WINE'-COOL'ER, a receptacle for cooling wine in bottles about to be served at table; WINE'-FAT, the vat receiving the liquor from a wine-press; WINE'-GLASS, a small glass used in drinking wine; WINE'-GLASS'FUL; WINE'-GROW'ER, one who cultivates a vineyard and makes wine; WINE'-MEAS'URE, an old English liquid measure, its gallon 5/6 of the gallon in beer-measure, containing 231 cubic inches--the standard United States gallon; WINE'-MER'CHANT, a merchant who deals in wine, esp. at wholesale; WINE'-PAR'TY, a drinking-party; WINE'-PRESS, a machine in which grapes are pressed in the manufacture of wine; WINE'-SKIN, a skin for holding wine; WINE'-STONE, crude argol; WINE'-T[=A]ST'ER, one whose business it is to sample wines; WINE'-VAULT, a vaulted wine-cellar: (_pl._) a place where wine is tasted or drunk.--ADAM'S WINE, water; RHINE, RHENISH, WINE, wine produced on the banks of the _Rhine_, esp. hock; SPIRIT OF WINE, alcohol; WHITE WINE, Chablis, Sauterne, the wines of Germany--formerly Madeira and sherry. [A.S. _win_; Goth, _wein_, Ger. _wein_; all from L.
_vinum_; cog. with Gr. _oinos_.]
WING, wing, _n._ the organ of a bird, or other animal or insect, by which it flies: flight, means of flying: anything resembling a wing, any side-piece, the side of a building, &c.: one of the longer sides of crown-works or horn-works in fortification: the flank corps or division of an army on either side: the ships on either extremity of a fleet ranged in line: (_fig._) protection.--_v.t._ to furnish or transport with wings: to lend speed to: to supply with side-pieces: to bear in flight, to traverse by flying: to wound on the wing, to wound a person in arm or shoulder.--_v.i._ to soar on the wing.--_adv._ WING'-AND-WING', the condition of a ship sailing before the wind with studding sails on both sides.--_n._ WING'-CASE, the horny case or cover over the wings of some insects, as the beetle.--_adj._ WINGED, furnished with wings: swift: wounded in the wing: lofty, sublime: alate, abounding in wings.--_adv._ WING'EDLY, on or by wings.--_adjs._ WING'-FOOT'ED, having wings on the feet, aliped; WING'LESS, without wings.--_ns._ WING'LET, the bastard wing or alula of a bird: the pterygium of a weevil; WING'-SHELL, a stromb: an aviculoid bivalve, a hammer-oyster: a wing-snail; WING'-SHOOT'ING, the act or practice of shooting flying birds; WING'-SHOT, a shot at a bird on the wing: one who shoots flying birds.--_adj._ shot in the wing, or while on the wing.--_adj._ WING'Y, having wings: soaring on wings.--WINGED BULL, a common form in Assyrian sculpture, symbolic of domination.--MAKE, TAKE, WING, to depart; ON, UPON, THE WING, flying, in motion: departing; ON THE WINGS OF THE WIND, with the highest speed; UNDER ONE'S WING, under one's protection. [Ice. _vaengr_, a wing; Sw. _vinge_.]
WINK, wingk, _v.i._ to move the eyelids quickly: to give a hint by winking: to seem not to see, connive at (gener. with _at_): to flicker, twinkle, sparkle.--_v.t._ to close and open quickly.--_n._ act of winking: a hint given by winking.--_ns._ WINK'-A-PEEP, the scarlet pimpernel; WINK'ER, one who winks: a horse's blinkers: (_Shak._) an eye: the winking membrane of a bird's eye, the winking muscle: a small bellows in an organ, regulated by a spring, controlling variations of wind-pressure; WINK'ING, the act of winking.--_adv._ WINK'INGLY.--FORTY WINKS (_coll._), a short nap; LIKE WINKING (_slang_), very rapidly; TIP ONE THE WINK, to wink to one as a sign of caution, or of mutual understanding, &c. [A.S. _wincian_ (Ger.
_winken_); akin to A.S. _wancol_, wavering.]
WINNA, win'a, a Scotch form for _will not_.
WINNING, win'ing, _adj._ and _n._--_n._ WIN'NER.--_adv._ WIN'NINGLY.
WINNOCK, win'ok, _n._ (_Scot._) a window.--Also WIN'DOCK.
WINNOW, win'[=o], _v.i._ to separate the chaff from the grain by wind: to fan: to examine: to sift: to blow upon: (_Milt._) to set in motion: (_rare_) to flap, flutter.--_v.i._ to separate chaff from grain.--_n._ a fan for winnowing.--_ns._ WINN'OWER; WINN'OWING; WINN'OWING-FAN, -MACHINE', a fan, machine, for winnowing. [A.S. _windwian_, to winnow.]
WINSOME, win'sum, _adj._ cheerful: pleasant: attractive.--_adv._ WIN'SOMELY.--_n._ WIN'SOMENESS. [A.S. _wyn-sum_, pleasant--_wyn_, joy (Ger.
WINTER, win't[.e]r, _n._ the cold season of the year: a year: any season of cheerlessness: the last corn of the harvest, a harvest festival.--_adj._ wintry.--_v.i._ to pass the winter.--_v.t._ to feed, or to detain, during winter.--_ns._ WIN'TER-APP'LE, an apple that keeps well in winter, or that does not ripen till winter; WIN'TER-BAR'LEY, a kind of barley which is sown in autumn.--_adj._ WIN'TER-BEAT'EN (_Spens._), beaten or injured by the cold of winter.--_ns._ WIN'TER-BERR'Y, a name given to several shrubs of the genus _Ilex_, growing in the eastern parts of North America; WIN'TER-BLOOM, the witch-hazel; WIN'TER-BOURNE, an intermittent spring in the chalk-districts; WIN'TER-CHERR'Y, one of the _Solanaceae_, a plant with edible red berries--also called in the United States _Strawberry-tomatoes_: the Balloon-vine, having large triangular, inflated fruit.--_adj._ WIN'TER-CLAD, warmly clad.--_ns._ WIN'TER-CLOV'ER, the partridge-berry; WIN'TER-CRESS, a cruciferous plant, cultivated for winter salad; WIN'TER-CROP, a crop that will endure the winter, or that yields fodder in winter-time.--_adj._ WIN'TERED, having seen many winters: exposed to winter: (_Shak._) worn in winter.--_ns._ WIN'TER-FALL'OW, a fallow made in the winter; WIN'TER-GAR'DEN, an ornamental garden for winter; WIN'TER-GREEN, a plant of genus _Pyrola_, also of _Chimaphila_: a plant of genus _Gualtheria_, whose oil is an aromatic stimulant, used chiefly in flavouring confectionery and syrups.--_v.t._ WIN'TER-GROUND (_Shak._), to protect, as a plant, from the inclemency of winter.--_ns._ WIN'TER-LODGE, -LODG'MENT, the hibernacle of a plant.--_adj._ WIN'TERLY, cheerless.--_n.pl._ WIN'TER-QUAR'TERS, the quarters of an army during winter: a winter residence.--_ns._ WIN'TER-SETT'LE, an old word for a winter dwelling; WIN'TER-TIDE, winter: WIN'TER-WHEAT, wheat sown in autumn; WIN'TRINESS.--_adjs._ WIN'TRY, WIN'TERY, resembling, or suitable to, winter: stormy. [A.S. _winter_; Ger. _winter_; of uncertain origin; not conn. with _wind_.]
WINTER, win't[.e]r, _n._ an appliance for fixing on the front of a grate, to keep warm a tea-kettle or the like.
WINTER'S-BARK, win't[.e]rs-bark, _n._ a stimulant, aromatic, and tonic bark, named from Captain _Winter_, who first brought it from the Strait of Magellan in 1579.
WINTLE, win'tl _v.i._ (_Scot._) to stagger.--_n._ a stagger.
WINY, w[=i]'ni, _adj._ having the qualities of, or resembling, wine: influenced by wine.
WINZE, winz, _n._ (_Scot._) a curse. [_Wish_.]
WINZE, winz, _n._ in mining, a small ventilating shaft between two levels.
[Prob. related to _winnow_.]
WIPE, w[=i]p, _v.t._ to clean by rubbing (with _away_, _off_, _out_): cleanse, clear away: to apply solder to with a piece of cloth or leather: (_coll._) to beat.--_n._ act of cleaning by rubbing: a blow: a scar: (_slang_) handkerchief.--_ns._ W[=I]'PER; W[=I]'PING, the act of wiping: a thrashing. [A.S. _wipian_; cf. Low Ger. _wiep_, a wisp.]