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WELWITSCHIA, wel-wich'i-a, _n._ a genus of African Gymnosperms belonging to the _Gnetaceae_, and containing only one species, its flower consisting of a panicle of brilliant overlapping scarlet scales. [Friedrich _Welwitsch_ (1806-72), an Austrian traveller.]

WEN, wen, _n._ a sebaceous cyst, most commonly on the scalp, consisting of obstructed sebaceous glands, which enlarge by the internal pressure of their accumulated secretions.--_adjs._ WEN'NISH, WEN'NY, wen-like. [A.S.

_wen_, a swelling, a wart; Dut. _wen_.]

WENCH, wensh, _n._ a maid, damsel: a working-girl, a maid-servant: a lewd woman, a mistress, a whore.--_v.i._ to frequent the company of whores.--_n._ WENCH'ER, one who indulges in lewdness. [Perh. from the sing.

of A.S. _winclo_, children, prob. _wencel_, weak, _wancol_, unstable.]

WEND, wend, _v.i._ to go: to wind or turn. [A.S. _wendan_, the causative of _windan_, to turn round.]

WEND, wend, _n._ the name given by the Germans to a branch of the Slavs which, as early as the 6th century, occupied the north and east of Germany from the Elbe along the coast of the Baltic to the Vistula, and as far south as Bohemia: one of the Slavic population of Lusatia who still speak the Wendish tongue.--_adjs._ WEN'DIC, WEN'DISH. [Prob. ultimately cog. with _wander_.]

WENLOCK, wen'lok, _adj._ (_geol._) denoting a group or series of rocks of the Upper Silurian period, consisting of limestone and shale, and largely developed in the neighbourhood of _Wenlock_ in Shropshire.

WENT, went, properly _pa.t._ of _wend_, but now used as _pa.t._ of _go_.--_n._ (_Spens._) a turning: a path.

WENTLE-TRAP, wen'tl-trap, _n._ a genus of gasteropodous molluscs, having a spiral shell with many deep whorls, crossed by elevated ribs, and the aperture round and narrow. [Ger. _wendel-treppe_, a winding staircase.]

WEPT, wept, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _weep_.

WERE, wer, _v.i._ the _pl._ of _was_, used as _pa.t._ of _be_. [A.S.

_w['ae]re_; Ger. _war_, Ice. _vera_, to be. Cf. _Was_.]

WEREWOLF, WERWOLF, w[=e]r'woolf, _n._ a person supposed to be able by natural gift or magic art to change himself for a time into a wolf.--_adjs._ WERE'WOLFISH, WER'WOLFISH.--_n._ WERE'WOLFISM, lycanthropy.

[A.S. _werwulf_--_wer_, man (Goth. _vair_, L. _vir_), _wulf_, a wolf. The modern Ger. _Wahrwolf_ is the Mid. High Ger. _Werwolf_, Latinised as _garulphus_ or _gerulphus_, whence the O. Fr. _garoul_, the modern French name being pleonastically _loup-garou_.]

WEREGILD, WERGILD, w[=e]r'gild, _n._ a composition by which, by the custom of Anglo-Saxons, Franks, and other Teutonic peoples, homicide and other heinous crimes against the person were expiated. [A.S. _wergield_, from _wer_, man, _gield_--_gieldan_, to pay.]

WERNERIAN, w[.e]r-n[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining or according to the opinions or system of A. G. _Werner_, a German mineralogist and geologist (1750-1817), who classified minerals according to their external characters, and advocated that all geological phenomena are due to the action of water.--_n._ an upholder of this theory.--_n._ WER'NERITE, a variety of scapolite.

WERSH, wersh, _adj._ (_Scot._) tasteless, unsalted. [_Wearish_.]

WERT, wert, the 2d pers. sing. of _were_, used as the _pa.t._ subjunctive of _be_.

WERTHERIAN, ver-t[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to or resembling the character of _Werther_ in Goethe's romance, 'The Sorrows of Young Werther.'--_n._ WER'THERISM, sentimentality like that of WERTHER.

WESAND, w[=e]'zand, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as WEASAND.

WESLEYAN, wes'le-an, _adj._ pertaining to Wesleyanism.--_n._ one who adopts Wesleyanism.--_n._ WES'LEYANISM, the system of doctrine and church polity of the Wesleyan Methodists: Arminian Methodism. [Named from John _Wesley_ (1703-91).]

WEST, west, _n._ the quarter where the sun sets: one of the four chief points of the compass: the direction faced when one stands with his back to the high altar of a church: the countries to the west of Europe.--_adj._ situated towards or coming from the west: opposite the high altar of a church.--_adv._ towards the west.--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to move towards the west.--_adv._ WEST'-ABOUT', towards the west.--_v.i._ WES'TER (_obs._), to turn westward.--_adjs._ WES'TERING (_Milt._), passing to the west; WES'TERLY, lying or moving towards west: from the west.--_adv._ towards the west.--_adj._ WES'TERN, situated in the west: belonging to the west: moving towards, or coming from, the west.--_n._ an inhabitant of a western region or country.--_ns._ WES'TERNER, a person belonging to the west; WES'TERNISM, an idiom or other characteristic of western people.--_adj._ WES'TERNMOST, furthest to the west.--_n._ WES'TING, space or distance westward: departure westward: time of setting or reaching the west.--_adv._ WEST'LING, towards the west.--_adj._ WEST'MOST, most westerly.--_adj._ and _adv._ WEST'WARD, towards the west.--_advs._ WEST'WARDLY, WEST'WARDS, towards the west.--WESTERN CHURCH, the Latin Church, as distinguished from the Eastern or Greek Church; WESTERN EMPIRE, the western division of the later Roman Empire; WESTERN STATES, the states of the American Union lying west of the Alleghanies.--WESTWARD HO! to the west! an old cry of London watermen plying westwards. [A.S. _west_ (Fr. _ouest_, Ice. _vestr_); prob. conn.

with Ice. _vist_, abode, L. _vesper_, Gr. _hespera_.]

WESTPHALIAN, west-f[=a]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Westphalia_, a duchy, a kingdom, and now a province of Prussia.--_n._ a native of Westphalia.

WET, wet, _adj._ containing water: having water on the surface: rainy: (_slang_) given to drinking, tipsy: (_U.S._) allowing the sale of intoxicating liquors, as opposed to prohibition.--_n._ water or wetness: moisture: act of wetting, a dram, a debauch.--_v.t._ to make wet: to soak with water: to sprinkle: (_slang_) to celebrate by drinking:--_pr.p._ wet'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ wet, (rarely) wet'ted.--_ns._ WET'-CUP'PING, the simultaneous application of a cupping-glass and the making an incision on the skin; WET'-DOCK, a dock or basin for floating vessels at all states of the tide; WET'NESS; WET'-NURSE, a nurse who suckles a child for its mother.--_adj._ WET'-SHOD, having shoes or feet wet.--_n._ WET'TING-MACHINE', a machine used to damp paper for printing.--_adj._ WET'TISH, somewhat wet.--WET BOB (_slang_), a boy at school who goes in for rowing in preference to cricket or football; WET BULB THERMOMETER (see PSYCHROMETER); WET GOODS, liquors; WET METER, a gas-meter in which the gas to be measured passes through water; WET PLATE (_phot._), a plate coated with collodion and sensitised with a salt of silver.--A WET BLANKET, a damper, kill-joy. [A.S. _w['ae]t_; Ice. _vatr_; from root of water.]

WETHER, weth'[.e]r, _n._ a castrated ram. [A.S. _wither_; Ger. _widder_.]

WEY, w[=a], _n._ a measure or weight differing with different articles=182 lb. wool, 40 bushels salt or corn, 48 bushels oats, &c. [_Weigh_.]

WHACK, hwak, _v.t._ to thwack: (_slang_) to parcel out, share.--_v.i._ to keep on striking: (_slang_) to settle accounts.--_n._ a blow: a stroke, share.--_n._ WHACK'ER (_slang_), something big.--_adj._ WHACK'ING, very large, astounding. [_Thwack_.]

WHAISLE, WHAIZLE, hw[=a]'zl, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to wheeze. [A form of _wheeze_.]

WHALE, hw[=a]l, _n._ the common name of a cetaceous mammal, the largest of sea-animals, including the _toothed_ whales, such as Sperm Whale and Dolphin, and the _whalebone_ whales, such as Right Whale and Rorqual, in which the teeth are only embryonic.--_v.i._ to take whales.--_ns._ WHALE'-BACK, a boat whose maindecks are covered in and rounded, for rough seas; WHALE'-BOAT, a long, narrow boat used in the pursuit of whales; WHALE'BONE, a light flexible substance consisting of the baleen plates of the Arctic and allied whales.--_adj._ made of whalebone.--_ns._ WHALE'-CALF, a young whale--also CALF WHALE; WHALE'-FISH'ER, one engaged in whale-fishery or the hunting of whales; WHALE'-FISH'ERY; WHALE'-FISH'ING; WHALE'-LINE, strong rope used for harpoon-lines in the whale-fishery; WHALE'-LOUSE, a genus of Crustacea, parasitic on the skin of Cetaceans; WHALE'-MAN, WH[=A]L'ER, a person employed in whale-fishing; WHALE'-OIL, oil obtained from the blubber of a whale; WH[=A]L'ER, WHALE'SHIP, a ship employed in the whale-fishing; WH[=A]L'ERY, whaling.--_adj._ WH[=A]L'ING, connected with whale-catching.--_n._ the business of catching whales.--_ns._ WH[=A]L'ING-GUN, a contrivance for killing whales by means of a projectile; WH[=A]L'ING-MAS'TER, the captain of a whaler; WH[=A]L'ING-PORT, a port where whalers are registered.--WHALE'S BONE, ivory.--BULL WHALE, an adult male whale. [A.S. _hwael_ (Ice. _hvalr_, Ger.

_walfisch_); orig. unknown.]

WHALE, hw[=a]l, _v.t._ (_slang_) to thrash. [Form of _wale_.]

WHALLY, hw[=a]l'i, _adj._ wall-eyed.--_n._ WHALL, wall-eye.

WHANG, hwang, _n._ a leathern thong. [Form of _thwang_, _thong_.]

WHANG, hwang, _v.t._ to flog: (_Scot._) to cut in great slices.--_n._ a blow, bang: a large slice. [Prob. a variant of _whack_.]

WHANGAM, hwang'gam, _n._ a feigned name of some animal, invented by Goldsmith.

WHARF, hworf, _n._ a bank of timber or stone on the shore of a harbour or river for lading and unlading vessels: (_Shak._) the bank of a river:--_pl._ WHARFS, WHARVES.--_v.t._ to secure by a wharf: to place on a wharf.--_ns._ WHARF'AGE, the dues paid for using a wharf: accommodation at a wharf; WHARF'ING, material for making a wharf: wharfs; WHARFINGER (hworf'in-j[.e]r), one who has the care of, or owns, a wharf; WHARF'-RAT, the common brown rat: a fellow who loafs about a wharf in the hope of picking up a chance job. [A.S. _hwerf_, a dam; prob. conn. with _hweorfan_ (Ice. _hverfa_), to turn.]

WHAT, hwot, _interrog. pron._ applied both to persons and things--also used elliptically and as an interjection: (_Shak._) used to express a summons, or as a mere expletive.--_interrog. adj._ of what sort, how much, how great--also used in an intensive manner.--_rel. pron._ that which, such ...

as: (_Shak._) any, who, which.--_indef. pron._ something: (_Spens._) a portion, bit.--_adv._ (_obs._) why? to what degree?--_conj._ so much as: that, as in _but what_, that ... not.--_ns._ WHAT'ABOUTS, the things one is occupied about; WHAT'-D'YE-CALL (-IT, -'EM), a word substituted for the name of a thing (or person) because of forgetfulness, or in contempt.--_adjs._ WHAT'EN, WHAT'TEN (_Scot._), what kind of.--_prons._ WHATEV'ER, WHATE'ER', anything which: (_coll._) what?--_adj._ any or all that, no matter what.--_adjs._ WHAT'-LIKE (_coll._), of what kind; WHAT'NA (_Scot._), same as WHATEN.--_pron._ WHAT'NOT, whatever or whoever.--_adj._ WHAT'SO, of whatever kind.--_pron._ whosoever.--_adjs._ WHATSOEV'ER, WHATSOE'ER', of whatever kind; WHATSOMEV'ER (_coll._), whatsoever.--WHAT AN IF (_Shak._), what of; WHAT ELSE, could anything else be the case? WHAT ...

FOR (_Shak._), what kind of; WHAT HO! a loud summons; WHAT IF, what would happen if? WHAT NOT, elliptical for 'what may I not say?' implying the presence or existence of many other things; WHAT OF, what comes of? what do you think of? WHAT'S WHAT, the real or genuine thing; WHAT THOUGH, what matters it though, notwithstanding; WHAT TIME, at the very time when; WHAT WITH, by reason of. [A.S. _hwaet_, neut. of _hwa_, who; Ger. _was_, L.


WHATNOT, hwot'not, _n._ a piece of furniture with shelves for books, &c., so called because used to hold anything: anything, no matter what.

WHAUP, hwawp, _n._ (_Scot._) a curlew--sometimes _Great Whaup_ as opposed to _Little Whaup_, the whimbrel.

WHEAL, hw[=e]l, _n._ a wale, weal.--_v.t._ to cause weals upon. [Prob.

conn. with A.S. _hwelan_, to pine.]

WHEAL, hw[=e]l, _n._ a Cornish name for a mine.

WHEAT, hw[=e]t, _n._ the most valuable of all the cereal grasses, the grain furnishing a white flour for bread--known as _bearded_, _beardless_, or _bald_, according to the presence or the absence of the awns or beard; as _white_, _red_, or _amber_, according to colour; and as _spring_, _summer_, _autumn_, or _winter_, according to the time of sowing.--_ns._ WHEAT'-BIRD, the chaffinch; WHEAT'-EAR, an ear of wheat; WHEAT'-EEL, a disease in wheat--also _Ear-cockle_.--_adj._ WHEAT'EN, made of wheat.--_ns._ WHEAT'-FIELD, a field of wheat; WHEAT'-FLY, name of several flies which destroy wheat--e.g. the Hessian fly; WHEAT'-MIDGE, a dipterous insect which lays its eggs in the flowers of wheat-heads, and whose reddish larvae devour the kernels; WHEAT'-MIL'DEW, the rust which gathers on wheat and oats; WHEAT'-MOTH, one of several small moths whose larvae devour stored wheat.--WHEAT-EAR STITCH, a fancy stitch in embroidery. [A.S.

_hw['ae]te_--_hwit_, white; Ger. _weizen_; allied to _white_, and named from its colour.]

WHEAT-EAR, hw[=e]t'-[=e]r, _n._ a bird of the genus Chat, a common summer visitant of Britain, abounding on downs and fallow fields. [Corr. from _White-arse_.]

WHEEDLE, hw[=e]d'l, _v.t._ to entice by soft words: to flatter.--_n._ a coaxing person.--_n._ WHEED'LER.--_adj._ WHEED'LESOME, coaxing.--_n._ WHEED'LING. [Perh. from Ger. _wedeln_, to wag the tail, as a dog--_wedel_, a fan, brush--Old High Ger. _wehan_, to blow.]

WHEEL, hw[=e]l, _n._ a circular frame turning on an axle: an old instrument of torture: a steering-wheel: (_fig._) the course of events, from the wheel, one of the attributes of Fortune, the emblem of mutability: (_coll._) a bicycle or tricycle: circular motion: principle of life or motion: (_Shak._) a refrain: (_pl._) chariot: (_slang_) a dollar.--_v.t._ to cause to whirl: to convey on wheels: to turn.--_v.i._ to turn round or on an axis: to roll forward: to change direction: to move in a circle: to change about: (_coll._) to ride a bicycle or tricycle.--_ns._ WHEEL'-AN'IMAL, -ANIMAL'CULE, a rotifer; WHEEL'-BARROW, a barrow supported on one wheel and two handles, and driven forward by one man; WHEEL'-BOAT, a boat having wheels, for use on water or on inclined planes; WHEEL'-CARR'IAGE, any kind of carriage moved on wheels; WHEEL'-CHAIR, a chair moving on wheels.--_adj._ WHEEL'-CUT, cut, or ground and polished, on a wheel--of glass.--_n._ WHEEL'-CUT'TER, a machine for cutting the teeth on watch and clock wheels.--_p.adj._ WHEELED, having wheels.--_ns._ WHEEL'ER, one who wheels: the horse nearest the wheels of a carriage: a maker of wheels; WHEEL'-HORSE, one of the horses next the wheels in a team; WHEEL'-HOUSE, a box or small house erected over the steering-wheel in ships: a paddle-box; WHEEL'ING, the act of moving or conveying on wheels: a turning or circular movement of troops; WHEEL'-LOCK, a lock for firing a gun by means of a small steel wheel; WHEEL'MAN, a steersman: a cyclist; WHEEL'-PLOUGH, a plough the depth of whose furrow is regulated by a wheel; WHEEL'-RACE, the part of a race in which the water-wheel is fixed; WHEEL'-TAX, a tax on carriages; WHEEL'-WIN'DOW, a circular window with radiating tracery; WHEEL'-WORK, a combination of wheels and their connection in machinery; WHEEL'WRIGHT, a wright who makes wheels and wheel-carriages.--_adj._ WHEEL'Y, like a wheel.--WHEEL AND AXLE, one of the mechanical powers, in its primitive form a cylindrical axle, on which a wheel, concentric with the axle, is firmly fastened, the power being applied to the wheel, and the weight attached to the axis; WHEEL OF LIFE (see ZOETROPE); WHEELS WITHIN WHEELS, a complication of circumstances.--BREAK A BUTTERFLY (FLY, &c.) UPON THE WHEEL, to inflict a punishment out of all proportion to the offence: to employ great exertions for insignificant ends. [A.S. _hweol_; Ice. _hjol_.]

WHEEN, hw[=e]n, _n._ (_Scot._) a small quantity: a quantity. [A.S.

_hw['ae]ne_--_hwon_, _adv._, a little.]

WHEEZE, hw[=e]z, _v.i._ to breathe with a hissing sound: to breathe audibly or with difficulty.--_n._ WHEEZE--also WHEEZ'ING.--_adv._ WHEEZ'ILY.--_v.i._ WHEEZ'LE, to make wheezy sounds.--_adj._ WHEEZ'Y. [A.S.

_hwesan_; Ice. _hvaesa_, to wheeze, to hiss.]

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