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VOLAR, v[=o]'lar, _adj._ pertaining to the palm, palmar.--_n._ V[=O]'LA, the hollow of the hand or foot:--_pl._ V[=O]'Lae. [L.]

VOLCANO, vol-k[=a]'no, _n._ a more or less conical hill or mountain, usually truncated, and communicating with the interior of the earth by a pipe or funnel, through which issue hot vapours and gases, and frequently loose fragmentary materials and streams of molten rock: a form of firework.--_adj._ VOLCAN'IC, pertaining to, produced, or affected by a volcano.--_adv._ VOLCAN'ICALLY.--_n._ VOLCANIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ VOL'CANISE, to subject to the action of volcanic heat.--_ns._ VOL'CANISM, VOLCANIC'ITY, phenomena connected with volcanoes; VOL'CANIST, a student of volcanic phenomena; VOLCAN'ITY, state of being volcanic; VOLC[=A]'NOISM (_rare_), violent eruptiveness.--_adj._ VOLCANOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ VOLCANOL'OGY.--VOLCANIC ROCKS, those formed by volcanic agency. [It.

_volcano_--L. _Volcanus_, _Vulcanus_, god of fire.]

VOLE, v[=o]l, _n._ in card-playing, the winning of all the tricks in one deal.--_v.i._ to win such. [Fr.,--L. _vol[=a]re_, to fly.]

VOLE, v[=o]l, _n._ a genus of rodent quadrupeds of the subfamily _Arvicolinae_, which also includes the lemmings, the musk-rats, &c., the Field-vole, the Water-vole, popularly called the water-rat, and the Bank-vole.


VOLET, vol'[=a], _n._ a veil: one of the wings of a triptych picture. [O.

Fr., 'a shutter'--L. _vol[=a]re_, to fly.]

VOLITANT, vol'i-tant, _adj._ having the power of flight.--_n._ VOLIT[=A]'TION, act of flying.

VOLITION, v[=o]-lish'un, _n._ act of willing or choosing: the exercise of the will: the power of determining.--_adjs._ VOLI'TIENT (_rare_), willing; VOLI'TIONAL, VOLI'TIONARY.--_adv._ VOLI'TIONALLY.--_adjs._ VOLI'TIONLESS; VOL'ITIVE, having power to will: expressing a wish. [Low L. _volitio_--L.

_volo_, _velle_, to will, be willing.]

VOLKSLIED, f[=o]lks'l[=e]t, _n._ a folk-song. [Ger.]

VOLKSRAAD, f[=o]lks'rat, _n._ the name of the legislative assembly of the Orange Free State before its final annexation by England in 1900.

VOLLEY, vol'i, _n._ a flight of shot: the discharge of many small-arms at once: an outburst of many at once: in tennis and lawn-tennis, a hard return of the ball before it reaches the ground--_half-volley_ is a return by striking the ball just as it touches or rises from the ground:--_pl._ VOLL'EYS.--_v.t._ to discharge in a volley.--_v.i._ to fly together, as missiles: to sound together: in lawn-tennis, to use the stroke so called.

[Fr. _volee_, a flight--_voler_--L. _vol[=a]re_, to fly.]

VOLSUNGS, vol'sungz, a famous heroic race in old German legend, its founder _Volsung_ or Wolsung, the grandson of Odin, and its brightest ornament Volsung's son, Siegmund.

VOLT, v[=o]lt, _n._ a turn or bound: a sudden movement or leap to avoid a thrust: a gait of two treads made by a horse going sideways round a centre.--_n._ VOL'TAGE. [Fr. _volte_--It. _volta_--L. _volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to turn.]

VOLT, v[=o]lt, _n._ the unit of electro-motive force now in universal use among electricians, defined legally in terms of the ohm and ampere.--_adj._ VOL'TA-ELEC'TRIC, of or pertaining to galvanism.--_n._ VOL'TA-ELECTROM'ETER, an instrument for measuring electric currents.--_adj._ VOL'TA-ELECTROM[=O]'TIVE.--_n._ V[=O]L'TAGE, electro-motive force reckoned in volts.--_adj._ VOLT[=A]'IC, pertaining to Alessandro _Volta_, an Italian scientist (1745-1826), who mainly developed the theory of current electricity along purely physical lines, discovered the electric decomposition of water, and invented a new electric battery, the electrophorus, and the electroscope.--_ns._ VOL'TAISM, that branch of electric science which treats of the production of an electric current from the chemical interaction of two immersed dissimilar metals (same as GALVANISM); VOLTAM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the decomposition produced by an electric current; V[=O]LT'-AM'PERE, the rate of activity in an electric circuit when the electro-motive force is one volt and the current one ampere; VOLT'ATYPE, an electrotype; V[=O]LT'METER, an instrument for measuring voltage.--VOLTAIC PILE, a galvanic battery.

VOLTA, v[=o]l'ta, _n._ an old dance: (_mus._) turn, time:--_pl._ VOL'TE (-te). [It.]

VOLTAIRIAN, vol-t[=a]r'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Voltaire_, a famous French poet, dramatist, historian, and sceptic (1694-1778).--_n._ one who advocates the views and principles of VOLTAIRE.--_ns._ VOLTAIR'IANISM, the spirit of Voltaire--i.e. a sceptical, incredulous, and sarcastic attitude, especially towards Christianity; VOLTAIR'ISM, incredulity, scepticism.

VOLTIGEUR, vol-ti-zh[.e]r', _n._ a vaulter or tumbler: formerly in the French army, one of a light-armed company of picked men placed on the left of a battalion: under the Second Empire, a member of several special infantry regiments. [Fr.]

VOLUBLE, vol'[=u]-bl, _adj._ easy to roll or move: flowing smoothly: fluent in speech.--_adj._ VOL'UBILE (_Milt._), rolling: revolving.--_ns._ VOLUBIL'ITY, VOL'UBLENESS, state or quality of being voluble: fluency of speech.--_adv._ VOL'UBLY. [L. _volubilis_--_volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

VOLUCRINE, vol'[=u]-krin, _adj._ pertaining to birds, bird-like. [L.

_volucris_, a bird--_vol[=a]re_, to fly.]

VOLUME, vol'[=u]m, _n._ a roll or scroll, which was the form of ancient books: a book, whether complete in itself or part of a work: a rounded mass, convolution: cubical content: a quantity: dimensions: fullness of voice.--_v.i._ to swell.--_adj._ VOL'UMED, having the form of a volume or roll: of volume or bulk.--_ns._ VOLUMENOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the volume of a solid body by the quantity of fluid it displaces; VOL'UM[=E]TER, an instrument for measuring the volumes of gases.--_adjs._ VOLUMET'RIC, -AL.--_adv._ VOLUMET'RICALLY.--_adjs._ VOL[=U]'MINAL, pertaining to cubical content; VOL[=U]'MINOUS, consisting of many volumes or books, or of many coils: of great bulk: having written much, as an author: in many volumes, capable of filling many volumes.--_adv._ VOL[=U]'MINOUSLY.--_ns._ VOL[=U]'MINOUSNESS, VOLUMINOS'ITY; VOL'[=U]MIST (_rare_), an author.--VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS, the analysis of a compound by determining the quantity of a standard solution required to satisfy a reaction in a known quantity of the compound.--SPEAK, TELL, VOLUMES, to mean much, to be very significant. [Fr.,--L. _volumen_, a roll--_volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

VOLUNTARY, vol'un-ta-ri, _adj._ willing: acting by choice: free: proceeding from the will: subject to the will: done by design or without compulsion: of or pertaining to voluntaryism.--_n._ one who does anything of his own free-will: a piece of music played at will: an upholder of voluntaryism.--_adv._ VOL'UNTARILY.--_ns._ VOL'UNTARINESS; VOL'UNTARYISM, the system of maintaining the Church by voluntary offerings, instead of by the aid of the State, as alone consistent with true religious liberty, involving freedom from State support, patronage, or control; VOL'UNTARYIST.--_adj._ VOL'UNT[=A]TIVE, voluntary.--VOLUNTARY SCHOOL, in England, one of a number of elementary schools supported by voluntary subscriptions, and in many cases controlled by religious bodies. [L.

_voluntarius_--_voluntas_, choice--_volo_, _velle_, to will.]

VOLUNTEER, vol-un-t[=e]r', _n._ one who enters any service, esp. military, voluntarily or of his own free choice: a soldier belonging to any body other than the regular army.--_adj._ entering into service voluntarily.--_v.t._ to offer voluntarily.--_v.i._ to enter into any service of one's own free-will or without being asked. [Fr.

_volontaire_--L. _voluntarius_.]

VOLUPTUARY, v[=o]-lup't[=u]-a-ri, _n._ a voluptuous person, or one excessively given to bodily enjoyments or luxury: a sensualist.--_adj._ promoting sensual pleasure. [L. _voluptuarius_--_voluptas_, pleasure.]

VOLUPTUOUS, v[=o]-lup't[=u]-us, _adj._ full of pleasure: given to excess of pleasure, esp. sensual: contributing to sensual pleasure.--_adv._ VOLUP'TUOUSLY.--_n._ VOLUP'TUOUSNESS. [L. _voluptuosus_--_voluptas_, pleasure.]

VOLUSPA, vol-us-pa', _n._ one of the poems of the Elder Edda: a sibyl or prophetess--a wrong use, though found in Scott's _Pirate_. [Ice. _Voluspa_, the song of the sibyl, _volu_, gen. of _volva_, a prophetess, _spa_, prophecy.]

VOLUTE, v[=o]-l[=u]t', _n._ a spiral scroll used in the Ionic and Corinthian capitals: a kind of spiral shell, chiefly tropical: whorl of a spiral shell.--_adj._ (_bot._) rolled up in any direction.--_adj._ VOL[=U]'TED, having a volute.--_n._ VOL[=U]'TION, a convolution: a whorl.--_adj._ VOL'[=U]TOID, like a volute. [Fr.,--L. _volv[)e]re_, _volutum_, to roll.]

VOLVE, volv, _v.t._ (_obs._) to turn over, ponder. [L. _volv[)e]re_, to turn.]

VOLVOX, vol'voks, _n._ a genus of simple organisms found in ponds, canals, &c., being fresh-water algae, consisting of green flagellate cells, united by protoplasmic bridges in a hollow spherical colony. [Formed from L.

_volv[)e]re_, to roll.]

VOLVULUS, vol'v[=u]-lus; _n._ occlusion of the intestine through twisting.

VOMER, v[=o]'m[.e]r, _n._ the thin flat bone forming part of the middle partition of the nose, separating the nostrils. [L., 'a ploughshare.']

VOMIT, vom'it, _v.i._ to throw up the contents of the stomach by the mouth, to spew.--_v.t._ to throw out with violence.--_n._ matter ejected from the stomach: something that excites vomiting.--_adj._ VOM'IC, purulent.--_n._ VOM'ICA, a cavity in the lung containing pus; VOM'ITING, act of one who vomits: matter vomited.--_adjs._ VOM'ITIVE, VOM'ITORY, causing to vomit.--_n._ a vomit or emetic.--_ns._ VOM'ITO, the worst form of yellow fever, usually attended with the black vomit; VOM'ITORY, a door of a large building by which the crowd is let out; VOMITURI'TION, violent retching.

[L. _vom[)e]re_, _-[)i]tum_, to throw up; Gr. _emein_.]

VOODOO, VOUDOU, v[=oo]-d[=oo], _n._ the name given in the southern United States to any practiser of witchcraft, or of any charm, incantation, &c., especially when tinctured with African rites or superstitions: the supreme evil spirit of the voodoos.--_adj._ pertaining to the rites or practices of the voodoo.--_v.t._ to affect by voodoo charms.--_n._ VOODOO'ISM, voodoo superstitions. [Creole Fr. _vaudoux_, a negro sorcerer, prob. a form of Fr.

_Vaudois_, a Waldensian--a heretic being capable of any kind of wickedness.]

VORACIOUS, v[=o]-r[=a]'shus, _adj._ eager to devour: greedy: very hungry.--_adv._ VOR[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ VORAC'ITY, VOR[=A]'CIOUSNESS, quality of being voracious. [L. _vorax_, _voracis_--_vor[=a]re_, to devour.]

VORAGINOUS, v[=o]-raj'i-nus, _adj._ pertaining to a whirlpool.--_n._ VOR[=A]'GO (-g[=o]), a gulf. [L. _vorago_.]

VORANT, v[=o]'rant, _adj._ (_her._) devouring. [L. _vorans_, pr.p. of _vorare_, to devour.]

VORTEX, vor'teks, _n._ a whirling motion of a fluid forming a cavity in the centre: a whirlpool: an eddy having a rotational motion of the smallest visible portion in the centre:--_pl._ VOR'TICES, VOR'TEXES.--_ns._ VOR'TEX-RING (_phys._), a vortical molecular filament or column forming a ring composed of a number of small rotating circles, placed side by side--e.g. the smoke-rings emitted by a skilful cigarette-smoker; VOR'TEX-TH[=E]'ORY, the theory that matter is ultimately composed of vortices in a fluid--a conception due to Lord Kelvin.--_adj._ VOR'TICAL, whirling.--_adv._ VOR'TICALLY.--_adjs._ VOR'TICOSE, VORTIC'[=U]LAR, VORTIGINAL (-ij'-), VORTIGINOUS (-ij'-). [L. _vortex_, _vertex_--_vort[)e]re_, _vert[)e]re_, to turn.]

VORTICELLA, vor-ti-sel'a, _n._ a genus of ciliated Infusorians belonging to the order _Peritricha_, in which the cilia are restricted to a fringe round the mouth. [From L. _vortex_, a whirl.]

VOTARY, v[=o]'ta-ri, _adj._ bound or consecrated by a vow.--_n._ one devoted as by a vow to some service, worship, or way of life:--_fem._ V[=O]'TARESS.--_n._ V[=O]'TARIST, a votary. [Low L. _votarius_--L. _votum_, to vow.]

VOTE, v[=o]t, _n._ expression of a wish or opinion, as to a matter in which one has interest: that by which a choice is expressed, as a ballot: decision by a majority: something granted by the will of the majority.--_v.i._ to express the choice by a vote.--_v.t._ to choose by a vote: to grant by a vote: (_coll._) to declare by general consent.--_adjs._ V[=O]'TABLE, capable of voting; VOTE'LESS.--_ns._ V[=O]'TER; V[=O]'TING-P[=A]'PER, a balloting-paper, used in the election of members to Parliament.--VOTE DOWN, to put an end to by a vote, or otherwise; VOTE STRAIGHT, to give one's vote honestly.--CUMULATIVE VOTING, that system of voting in which the voter has a right to as many votes as there are members to be elected, and may give all his votes or as many as he pleases to one candidate.--SPLIT ONE'S VOTES, to divide one's votes judiciously among several candidates so as to strengthen those one favours. [L. _votum_, a wish--_vov[=e]re_, _votum_, to vow.]

VOTIVE, v[=o]'tiv, _adj._ given by vow: vowed.--_adv._ V[=O]'TIVELY.--VOTIVE OFFERING, a tablet, picture, &c. dedicated in fulfilment of a vow. [L. _votivus_--_votum_, a vow.]

VOUCH, vowch, _v.t._ to call upon to witness: to maintain by repeated affirmations: to warrant: to attest: to produce vouchers for: (_Milt._) to second, support.--_v.i._ to bear witness: to give testimony.--_n._ confirmation, attestation.--_ns._ VOUCHEE', the person vouched or summoned in a writ of right; VOUCH'ER, one who vouches or gives witness: a paper which vouches or confirms the truth of anything, as accounts: a mechanical contrivance used in shops for automatically registering the amount of money drawn; VOUCH'MENT, a solemn declaration. [O. Fr. _voucher_, _vocher_, to call to defend--L. _voc[=a]re_, to call.]

VOUCHSAFE, vowch-s[=a]f, _v.t._ to vouch or warrant safe: to sanction or allow without danger: to condescend to grant.--_v.i._ to condescend.--_n._ VOUCHSAFE'MENT.

VOULGE, v[=oo]zh, _n._ a weapon carried by foot-soldiers in the 14th century, having a blade fixed on a long staff. [Fr.]

VOUSSOIR, v[=oo]-swar', _n._ one of the wedge-like stones which form part of an arch.--_v.t._ to form with such. [Fr., through Low L., from L.

_volutus_--_volv[)e]re_, to roll.]

VOW, vow, _n._ a voluntary promise made to God, and, as such, carrying with it the most stringent obligation to its fulfilment: a solemn or formal promise of fidelity or affection: (_Shak._) a positive assertion.--_v.t._ to give by solemn promise: to devote: to threaten, to maintain solemnly.--_v.i._ to make vows.--_n._ VOW'-FELL'OW (_Shak._), one bound by the same vow.--BAPTISMAL VOWS, the promises made at baptism by the person baptised, or by the sponsors or parents in his name; MONASTIC VOWS (see MONASTERY); SOLEMN, as opposed to SIMPLE VOWS, such vows as the Church takes under her special charge, or is said in a solemn manner to accept, as those of poverty, obedience, and chastity, involving complete and irrevocable surrender. [O. Fr. _vou_ (Fr. _voeu_)--L. _votum_--_vov[=e]re_, to vow.]

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