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PHOTO-RELIEF, f[=o]'t[=o]-re-l[=e]f', _n._ a process of producing plates by means of photography, from which impressions can be taken in an ordinary printing-press.

PHOTOSCULPTURE, f[=o]-t[=o]-skulp't[=u]r, _n._ the art of taking likenesses in the form of statuettes or medallions by the aid of photography.

PHOTOSPHERE, f[=o]'t[=o]-sf[=e]r, _n._ the luminous envelope round the sun's globe, which is the source of light. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _sphaira_, a sphere.]

PHOTOTHERAPY, f[=o]-t[=o]-ther'a-pi, _n._ the art of healing (of lupus, &c.) by means of light, electric or other, focussed on the diseased part.

[Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _therapeuein_, to heal.]

PHOTOTYPE, f[=o]'t[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a type or plate of the same nature as an engraved plate, produced from a photograph.--_n._ PH[=O]'TOTYPY_._ [Gr.

_ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_, light, _typos_, type.]

PHOTO-XYLOGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-z[=i]-log'ra-fi, _n._ wood-engraving after an impression has been taken on the wood-block by photography. [Gr. _ph[=o]s_, _ph[=o]tos_ light, _xylon_, a log of wood, _graphein_, to write.]

PHOTOZINCOGRAPHY, f[=o]-t[=o]-zing-kog'ra-fi, _n._ the process of engraving on zinc by taking an impression by photography and etching with acids.--_n._ PHOTOZINC'OGRAPH, a picture so produced.

PHRASE, fr[=a]z, _n._ two or more words expressing a single idea by themselves, or showing the manner or style in which a person expresses himself: part of a sentence: a short pithy expression: phraseology: (_mus._) a short clause or portion of a sentence.--_v.t._ to express in words: to style.--_n._ PHRASE'-BOOK, a book containing or explaining phrases.--_adj._ PHRASE'LESS, incapable of being described.--_ns._ PHRASE'-MAN, PHRASE'-MONG'ER, a wordy speaker or writer; PHR[=A]'SEOGRAM, PHR[=A]'SEOGRAPH, a combination of shorthand characters to represent a phrase or sentence.--_adjs._ PHRASEOLOG'IC, -AL, pertaining to phraseology: consisting of phrases.--_adv._ PHRASEOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHRASEOL'OGIST, a maker or a collector of phrases; PHR[=A]SEOL'OGY, style or manner of expression or arrangement of phrases: peculiarities of diction: a collection of phrases in a language; PHR[=A]'SER, a mere maker or repeater of phrases.--_adj._ PHR[=A]'SICAL.--_n._ PHR[=A]'SING, the wording of a speech or passage: (_mus._) the grouping and accentuation of the sounds in a melody. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _phrasis_--_phrazein_, to speak.]

PHRATRY, fr[=a]'tri, _n._ a clan: a brotherhood--also PHR[=A]'TRIA.--_adj._ PHR[=A]'TRIC. [Gr. _phrat[=e]r_, a brother.]

PHREN, _fren_, _n._ the thinking principle, mind: the diaphragm:--_pl._ PHRENES.--_ns._ PHR[=E]NAL'GIA, psychalgia; PHREN[=E]'SIS, delirium, frenzy.--_adjs._ PHRENET'IC, -AL (also FRENET'IC, -AL), having a disordered mind: frenzied: mad; PHRENIAT'RIC, pertaining to the cure of mental diseases; PHREN'IC, belonging to the diaphragm.--_ns._ PHREN'ICS, mental philosophy; PHREN'ISM, thought force.--_adj._ PHRENIT'IC, affected with phrenitis.--_ns._ PHREN[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the brain; PHRENOG'RAPHY, descriptive psychology; PHRENOPATH'IA, mental disease.--_adj._ PHRENOPATH'IC.--_n._ PHRENOPL[=E]'GIA, sudden loss of mental power. [Gr.

_phr[=e]n_, the mind.]

PHRENOLOGY, fr[=e]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the theory that the various faculties and powers of the mind are connected with certain parts of the brain, and can be known by an examination of the outer surface of the skull: the science by which character can be read by examining the skull.--_adjs._ PHRENOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHRENOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._ PHRENOL'OGIST, one who believes or is versed in phrenology. [Gr. _phr[=e]n_, _phrenos_, mind, _logos_, science.]

PHRONESIS, fr[=o]'-n[=e]'sis, _n._ practical wisdom. [Gr.,--_phr[=e]n_, mind.]

PHRYGIAN, frij'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Phrygia_ in Asia Minor, or to the Phrygians.--_n._ a native of Phrygia: a Montanist.--PHRYGIAN CAP, a conical cap with the top turned forward.

PHTHALEIN, thal'e-in, _n._ one of a very important class of dye-yielding materials formed by the union of phenols with the anhydride of phthalic acid.--_adj._ PHTHAL'IC, pertaining to naphthalene.--_n._ PHTHAL'IN, a colourless crystalline compound obtained by reducing phthalein.

PHTHIRIASIS, thi-r[=i]'a-sis, _n._ the lousy disease--_morbus pediculosus._ [L.,--Gr.]

PHTHISIS, th[=i]'sis, _n._ consumption or wasting away of the lungs.--_adjs._ PHTHIS'IC, -AL (tiz'ik, -al), pertaining to or having phthisis.--_n._ PHTHISIOLOGY (tiz-i-ol'[=o]-ji), the sum of scientific knowledge about phthisis. [L.,--Gr. _phthiein_, to waste away.]

PHYCOLOGY, f[=i]-kol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the knowledge of algae or sea-weeds.--_n._ PHYCOG'RAPHY, systematic description of algae.--_adj._ PHYCOLOG'IC.--_n._ PHYCOL'OGIST.


PHYLACTERY, fi-lak'te-ri, _n._ a charm or amulet: among the Jews, a slip of parchment inscribed with certain passages of Scripture, worn on the left arm or forehead: among the early Christians, a case in which relics were preserved.--_adjs._ PHYLACTER'IC, -AL. [L.,--Gr. _phylakt[=e]rion_, _phylakt[=e]r_, a guard--_phylassein_, to guard.]

PHYLARCH, f[=i]'lark, _n._ in ancient Greece, the chief of a tribe: in Athens, the commander of the cavalry of a tribe.--_ns._ PHY'LARCHY, the office of a phylarch; PHYLE (f[=i]'l[=e]), a tribe or clan in ancient Greece.--_adj._ PHYLET'IC, pertaining to a race or tribe: pertaining to a phylum of the animal kingdom.--_n._ PHYLUM (f[=i]'lum), any primary division or sub-kingdom of the animal or vegetable kingdom:--_pl._ PHY'LA.

PHYLLITE, fil'[=i]t, _n._ clay-slate or argillaceous schist.--_adj._ PHYLLIT'IC. [Gr.,--_phyllon_, a leaf.]

PHYLLIUM, fil'i-um, _n._ a genus of orthopterous insects of family _Phasmidae_--leaf-insects or walking-leaves.

PHYLLODIUM, fi-l[=o]'di-um, _n._ a petiole which usurps the function of a leaf-blade.--_adj._ PHYLLODIN'EOUS.

PHYLLOID, fil'oid, _adj._ leaf-like--also PHYLLOI'DEOUS.--_ns._ PHYL'LOMANCY, divination by leaves; PHYLLOM[=A]'NIA, abnormal production of leaves; PHYL'LOME, foliage.--_adj._ PHYLLOM'IC.--_n._ PHYL'LOMORPHY, the reversion of floral organs, as sepals and bracts, to leaves--better PHYL'LODY.

PHYLLOPHAGOUS, fi-lof'a-gus, _adj._ feeding on leaves.--_n._ a member of the PHYLLOPH'AGA, a tribe of hymenopterous insects--the saw-flies: a group of lamellicorn beetles which are leaf-eaters--the chafers.

PHYLLOPHOROUS, fi-lof'[=o]-rus, _adj._ producing leaves: (_zool._) having leaf-like organs.

PHYLLOPOD, fil'[=o]-pod, _adj._ having foliaceous feet--also PHYLLOP'ODOUS.--_n._ a crustacean of the order _Phyllopoda_.--_adj._ PHYLLOPOD'IFORM.

PHYLLORHINE, fil'[=o]-rin, _adj._ having a nose-leaf.

PHYLLOSTOMATOUS, fil-[=o]-stom'a-tus, _adj._ leaf-nosed, as a bat.--_n._ PHYLL'OSTOME, a leaf-nosed bat.--_adj._ PHYLLOS'TOMINE, leaf-nosed.

PHYLLOTAXIS, fil-[=o]-tak'sis, _n._ the disposition of leaves on the stem.--Also PHYLL'OTAXY. [Gr. _phyllon_, a leaf, _taxis_, arrangement.]

PHYLLOXERA, fil-ok-s[=e]'ra, _n._ a genus of insects, belonging to a family nearly related to aphides and coccus insects, very destructive to vines.

[Gr. _phyllon_, a leaf, _x[=e]ros_, dry.]

PHYLOGENY, f[=i]-loj'e-ni, _n._ a biological term applied to the evolution or genealogical history of a race or tribe--also PHYLOGEN'ESIS.--_adv._ PHYLOGENET'ICALLY.--_adjs._ PHYLOGEN'IC, PHYLOGENET'IC. [Gr. _phylon_, race, _genesis_, origin.]

PHYSALIA, f[=i]-s[=a]'li-a, _n._ a genus of large oceanic hydrozoans--_Portuguese man-of-war_. [Gr. _physallis_, a plant, bladder--_physa_, bellows.]

PHYSALITE, fis'a-l[=i]t, _n._ a coarse topaz.

PHYSETER, fi-s[=e]'t[.e]r, _n._ a sperm-whale.

PHYSIC, fiz'ik, _n._ the science of medicine: the art of healing: a medicine: (_orig._) natural philosophy, physics.--_v.t._ to give medicine to:--_pr.p._ phys'icking; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ phys'icked.--_ns._ PHYSICIAN (fi-zish'an), one skilled in the use of physic or the art of healing: one who prescribes remedies for diseases: a doctor.--_ns._ PHYSIC'IANCY, post or office of physician; PHYSIC'IANSHIP; PHYS'IC-NUT, _Barbadoes_ or _Purging nut_, the seeds of _Jatropha curcas_.--PHYSIC GARDEN, a botanical garden. [O. Fr.,--Gr. _physik[=e]_, natural--Gr. _physis_, nature.]

PHYSICAL, fiz'ik-al, _adj._ pertaining to nature or to natural objects: pertaining to material things: of or pertaining to natural philosophy: known to the senses: pertaining to the body.--_n._ PHYS'ICALIST, one who thinks that human thought and action are determined by the physical organisation.--_adv._ PHYS'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHYS'ICISM (-sizm), belief in the material or physical as opposed to the spiritual; PHYS'ICIST (-sist), a student of nature: one versed in physics: a natural philosopher: one who believes that life is merely a form of physical energy.--PHYSICAL ASTRONOMY, an account of the causes of the motions of the heavenly bodies; PHYSICAL EDUCATION, training of the bodily powers by exercise; PHYSICAL EXAMINATION, an examination of the bodily state of a person; PHYSICAL FORCE, force applied outwardly to the body, as distinguished from persuasion, &c.; PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, an account of the state of the earth in its natural condition--its mountain-chains, ocean-currents, distribution of plants and animals, conditions of climate, &c.; PHYSICAL TRUTH, the agreement of thought with what exists in nature; PHYSICAL WORLD, the world of matter. [Gr. _physikos_--_physis_, nature.]

PHYSICS, fiz'iks, used as _sing._ (_orig._) equivalent to PHYSICAL SCIENCE--i.e. the science of the order of nature: usually sig. (as distinguished from chemistry) the study of matter and the general properties of matter as affected by energy or force--also called _Natural philosophy_.--_ns._ PHYSICOLOG'IC, logic illustrated by physics; PHYS'ICO-THEOL'OGY, theology illustrated by natural philosophy. [L.

_physica_--Gr. _physik[=e]_ (_the[=o]ria_, theory)--_physis_, nature.]

PHYSIOCRACY, fiz-i-ok'r[=a]-si, _n._ the economic doctrine of the physiocrats (Francois Quesnay, 1694-1744, and his followers), that society should be governed by a natural order inherent in itself, land and its products the only true source of wealth, direct taxation of land the only proper source of revenue.--_n._ PHYS'IOCRAT, one who maintains these opinions.--_adj._ PHYSIOCRAT'IC.--_n._ PHYSIOC'RATISM. [Gr. _physis_, nature, _kratein_, to rule.]

PHYSIOGENY, fiz-i-oj'e-ni, _n._ (_biol._) the genesis of function--also PHYSIOGEN'ESIS.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGENET'IC, PHYSIOGEN'IC.

PHYSIOGNOMY, fiz-i-og'n[=o]-mi, _n._ the art of judging the qualities of a character from the external appearance, especially from the countenance: expression of countenance: the face as an index of the mind: the general appearance of anything.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGNOM'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHYSIOGNOM'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ PHYSIOGNOM'ICS (same as PHYSIOGNOMY).--_n._ PHYSIOG'NOMIST. [For _physiognomony_--Gr. _physiogn[=o]monia_--_physis_, nature, _gn[=o]m[=o]n_, one who interprets--_gn[=o]nai_, to know.]

PHYSIOGRAPHY, fiz-i-og'ra-fi, _n._ an exposition of the principles that underlie physical geography, and including the elements of physical science: an introduction to the study of nature: physical geography.--_n._ PHYSIOG'RAPHER, one versed in physiography.--_adjs._ PHYSIOGRAPH'IC, -AL.

[Gr. _physis_, nature, _graphein_, to describe.]

PHYSIOLATRY, fiz-i-ol'a-tri, _n._ nature-worship.

PHYSIOLOGY, fiz-i-ol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of the nature and processes of life, of the vital phenomena of animals and plants and the functions of their parts--a branch of biology.--_adjs._ PHYSIOLOG'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PHYSIOLOG'ICALLY.--_v.i._ PHYSIOL'OGISE.--_n._ PHYSIOL'OGIST. [Gr.

_physis_, nature, _logos_, science.]

PHYSIOMEDICALISM, fiz-i-[=o]-med'i-kal-izm, _n._ the system of treating disease with only non-poisonous vegetable drugs.--_n._ PHYSIOMED'ICALIST.

PHYSIQUE, fiz-[=e]k', _n._ the physical structure or natural constitution of a person. [Fr.]

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