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PETIT, pet'i, _adj._ small:--_fem._ PETITE (pe-t[=e]t').--_n._ PET'IT-MAi'TRE, a dandy, a coxcomb generally. [Fr.]

PETITION, p[=e]-tish'un, _n._ a request generally from an inferior to a superior: a written request presented to a court of law, or to a body of legislators: a prayer: a supplication.--_v.t._ to present a petition to: to ask as a favour: to supplicate.--_adj._ PETIT'IONARY, offering or containing a petition: supplicatory.--_ns._ PETIT'IONER, one who offers a petition or prayer; PETIT'IONING, the act of presenting a petition: entreaty: solicitation; PETIT'IONIST.--_adj._ PET'ITORY, petitioning.--PETITIO PRINCIPII, the fallacy of begging the question--a taking for granted in argument of that which has yet to be proved.

[Fr.,--L. _petitio_--_pet[)e]re_, _petitum_, to ask.]

PETRARY, pe-tr[=a]'ri, _n._ an engine for hurling stones.


PETREAN, p[=e]-tr[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to rock. [L. _petraeus_--Gr.

_petraios_--_petra_, a rock.]

PETREL, pet'rel, _n._ a long-winged dusky sea-bird, rarely landing except to lay its eggs, esp. the STORMY PETREL, called by sailors 'Mother Carey's Chickens,' scarcely larger than a lark, the smallest web-footed bird known.

[Fr.; from Matt. xiv. 29.]

PETRIFY, pet'ri-f[=i], _v.t._ to turn into stone: to make hard like a stone: to fix in amazement.--_v.i._ to become stone, or hard like stone:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pet'rified.--_n._ PETRES'CENCE.--_adjs._ PETRES'CENT, growing into or becoming stone; PETRIC'OLOUS, inhabiting rocks.--_n._ PETRIFAC'TION, the act of turning into stone: the state of being turned into stone: that which is made stone: a fossil.--_adjs._ PETRIFAC'TIVE, PETRIF'IC, changing animal or vegetable substances into stone; PET'RIF[=I]ABLE.--_ns._ PETROG'ENY, the science of the origin of rocks; PET'ROGLYPH, a rock-carving.--_adj._ PETROGLYPH'IC.--_ns._ PETROG'LYPHY, the art of writing on rocks or stones; PETROG'RAPHER, a student of petrography.--_adjs._ PETROGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PETROGRAPH'ICALLY.--_n._ PETROG'RAPHY, the study of rocks: petrology.--_adj._ PETROLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ PETROLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ PETROL'OGIST; PETROL'OGY, the science of the composition and classification of rocks.--_adjs._ PETR[=O]'SAL, of great hardness: petrous; P[=E]'TROUS, like stone: hard: rocky. [L. _petra_--Gr. _petra_, rock, L. _fac[)e]re_, _factum_, to make.]

PETRINE, p[=e]'trin, _adj._ pertaining to, or written by, the Apostle _Peter_.--_n._ P[=E]'TRINISM, the Tubingen theory of F. C. Baur (1792-1860) and his school, of a doctrinal trend in primitive Christianity towards Judaism, ascribed to Peter and his party in opposition to _Paulinism_. [L.

_Petrinus_--_Petrus_, Peter.]

PETROLEUM, p[=e]-tr[=o]'l[=e]-um, _n._ a liquid inflammable substance issuing or pumped up from the earth in various parts of the world.--_ns._ PET'ROL, a spirit obtained from petroleum; PETROLEUR (p[=a]-tro-l[=a]r'), one of those Parisians who, with the help of petroleum, set fire to many of the public buildings of Paris in May 1871: an incendiary:--_fem._ PETROLEUSE'.--_adj._ PETROLIF'EROUS, yielding petroleum. [L. _petra_, rock, _oleum_, oil.]

PETRONEL, pet'ro-nel, _n._ a large horse-pistol: a small carbine. [O. Fr.

_petrinal_, the breast--L. _pectus_.]

PETTED, pet'ed, _adj._ treated as a pet: indulged.--_adj._ PETT'ISH, given to take the pet: peevish: fretful.--_adv._ PETT'ISHLY.--_n._ PETT'ISHNESS.

PETTICHAPS, PETTY-CHAPS, pet'i-chaps, _n._ the garden warbler, the willow-warbler, chiff-chaff.

PETTICOAT, pet'i-k[=o]t, _n._ a loose under-skirt worn by females and little boys: (_coll._) a woman: a fisherman's loose canvas or oilcloth skirt: a bell-mouthed piece over the exhaust nozzles in the smoke-box of a locomotive, strengthening and equalising the draught through the boiler-tubes.--_adj._ feminine: female, as 'petticoat influence.'--_n._ PETT'ICOAT-AFFAIR', an affair in which a woman is PETT'ICOAT-BREECH'ES, a loose short breeches worn by men in the 17th century.--_adj._ PETT'ICOATED.--PETTICOAT GOVERNMENT, government by women, either at home or in the state. [_Petty_ + _coat_.]

PETTIFOGGER, pet'i-fog-[.e]r, _n._ a lawyer who practises only in paltry cases.--_v.i._ PETT'IFOG, to play the pettifogger.--_n._ PETT'IFOGGERY, mean tricks: quibbles.--_adj._ PETT'IFOGGING. [_Petty_, and obs. _fog_, to cheat (cf. Old Dut. _focker_).]

PETTITOES, pet'i-t[=o]z, the feet of a sucking pig: (_Shak._) human feet. [_Petty_ + _toe_.]

PETTLE, pet'l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to indulge, pet.

PETTO, pet'o, _n._ the breast. [It.,--L. _pectus_, breast.]

PETTY, pet'i, _adj._ small: of less importance: lower in rank, power, &c.: inconsiderable, insignificant: contemptible.--_adv._ PETT'ILY.--_n._ PETT'INESS.--PETTY CASH, small sums of money received or paid; PETTY LARCENY (see LARCENY); PETTY OFFICER, a naval officer with rank corresponding to a non-commissioned officer in the army. [O. Fr. _petit._]

PETULANT, pet'[=u]-lant, _adj._ showing peevish impatience, irritation, or caprice: forward, impudent in manner.--_ns._ PET'ULANCE, PET'ULANCY, sauciness: peevishness or impatience.--_adv._ PET'ULANTLY. [L. _petulans, -antis_--obs. _petul[=a]re,_ dim. of _pet[)e]re,_ to fall upon.]

PETUNIA, p[=e]-t[=u]'ni-a, _n._ a Brazilian genus of ornamental plants of the nightshade family, with small undivided leaves and showy funnel-form flowers. [Amer. Ind. _petun,_ tobacco.]

PEW, p[=u], _n._ an enclosed seat in a church.--_ns._ PEW'-FELL'OW, companion; PEW'-HOLD'ER, one who rents a pew in a church; PEW'-[=O]'PENER, an attendant who opens pews in a church; PEW'-RENT, rent paid for the use of a pew in church. [O. Fr. _pui_, a raised place--L. _podium_, a front seat in the amphitheatre--Gr. _podion_, orig. a footstool--_pous_, _podos_, foot.]

PEWIT, p[=e]'wit, _n._ the lapwing, a bird with a black head and crest, common in moors.--Also P[=E]'WET, PEE'WIT. [Imit.; cf. Dut. _piewit_ or _kiewit_.]

PEWTER, p[=u]'t[.e]r, _n._ an alloy of four parts of tin and one of lead: sometimes tin with a little copper and antimony: a vessel made of pewter, esp. a beer-tankard: (_slang_) prize-money.--_adj._ made of pewter.--_ns._ PEW'TERER, one who works in pewter; PEW'TER-MILL, a lapidaries'

polishing-wheel for amethyst, agate, &c.--_adj._ PEW'TERY, belonging to pewter. [O. Fr. _peutre_ (It. _peltro_), from a Teut. root, seen in Low Ger. _spialter_, Eng. spelter.]

PFENNIG, pfen'ig, _n._ a German copper coin, the hundredth part of a mark.--Also PFENN'ING.

PHACITIS, f[=a]-s[=i]'tis, _n._ inflammation of the crystalline lens of the eye.--_n._ PHACOCYST[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the capsule of the crystalline lens of the eye.--_adj._ PH[=A]'COID, lentil-shaped.--_n._ PH[=A]'COSCOPE. [Gr. _phakos_, a lentil.]

PHaeNOGAMOUS, PHENOGAMOUS, f[=e]-nog'a-mus, _adj._ having manifest flowers, phanerogamous.--_ns._ PHae'NOGAM, a phanerogamous plant; PHaeNOG[=A]'MIA=_Phanerogamia_.--_adj._ PHaeNOGAM'IC. [Gr. _phainein_, to show, _gamos_, marriage.]

PHAETON, f[=a]'e-ton, _n._ a kind of open pleasure-carriage on four wheels, drawn by one or two horses, from _Phaethon_, son of Helios, the sun, whose chariot he attempted to drive: a tropic bird.--_adj._ PHAeTON'IC.

PHAGEDENA, PHAGEDaeNA, faj-e-d[=e]'na, _n._ a sloughing ulcer, hospital gangrene.--_adjs._ PHAGED[=E]'NIC, PHAGEDae'NIC. [Gr. _phagein_, to eat.]

PHAGOCYTE, fag'o-s[=i]t, _n._ a white or colourless blood-corpuscle--also called _leucocyte_--an active amoeboid cell, which engulfs both nutritive and harmful particles.--_adjs._ PHAGOCYT'IC, -AL.--_ns._ PHAG'OCYTISM, the nature or function of a phagocyte; PHAGOCYT[=O]'SIS, the destruction of microbes by phagocytes. [Gr. _phagein_, to eat, _kytos_, a vessel.]

PHALaeNA, f[=a]-l[=e]'na, _n._ the Linnaean genus including moths.--_adj._ PHAL[=E]'NOID. [Gr. _phalaina_, a moth.]

PHALANGE, f[=a]-lanj', _n._ a phalanx of a digit: any of the joints of an insect's tarsus: a bundle of stamens joined by their filaments: a socialistic community in Fourier's dream of an ideal arrangement of society, consisting of 1800 persons living in a _phalanstere_--generally in _pl._, the usual _sing_. being PH[=A]'LANX (q.v.).--_adjs._ PHALAN'GAL, PHALAN'G[=E]AL, PHALAN'GIAL, PHALAN'GIAN; PHALAN'GIFORM; PHALANST[=E]'RIAN.--_ns._ PHALANST[=E]'RIANISM, PHALAN'STERISM; PHAL'ANSTERY, the dwelling of the phalange in the ideal social system of Fourier (1772-1837), a vast structure in the midst of a square league of cultivated land.

PHALANGER, f[=a]-lan'jer, _n._ a genus of small arboreal Australasian marsupials. [Fr.,--L. _phalanx_.]

PHALANX, fal'angks, or f[=a]'-, _n._ a line of battle: a square battalion of heavy-armed infantry drawn up in ranks and files close and deep: any compact body of men: one of the small bones of the fingers and toes:--_pl._ PHALAN'GES, or PHAL'ANXES. [L.,--Gr. _phalangks_.]

PHALAROPE, fal'a-r[=o]p, _n._ a genus of wading birds, forming a sub-family of the snipes. [Gr. _phalaris_, a coot, _pous_, a foot.]

PHALLUS, fal'us, _n._ the symbol of generation which figures in the rites and ceremonies of most primitive peoples: (_biol_.) the organ of sex.--_adj._ PHALL'IC.--_ns._ PHALL'ICISM, PHALL'ISM, the phallic worship.--_adj._ PHALL'OID. [L.,--Gr. _phallos_.]

PHANARIOT, fa-nar'i-ot, _n._ one of the Greeks inhabiting the _Fanar_ quarter of Constantinople--in Turkish history mostly diplomatists, administrators, and bankers, also hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia.--_adj._ PHANAR'IOT.--Also FANAR'IOT.

PHANEROGAMOUS, fan-e-rog'a-mus, _adj._ having true flowers containing stamens and pistils--opp. to _Cryptogamous_--also PHANEROGAM'IC.--_n._ PHAN'EROGAM, a phanerogamic plant. [Gr. _phaneros_, visible, _gamos_, marriage.]

PHANTASM, fan'tazm, _n._ a vain, airy appearance: a fancied vision: an apparition or spectre--also PHANTAS'MA (_Shak._):--_pl._ PHAN'TASMS, PHANTAS'MATA.--_adjs._ PHANTAS'MAL; PHANTASM[=A]'LIAN (_rare_).--_n._ PHANTASMAL'ITY.--_adv._ PHANTAS'MALLY.--_adjs._ PHANTASMAT'IC, -AL; PHANTAS'MIC; PHANTASMOGENET'IC, begetting phantasms.--_adv._ PHANTASMOGENET'ICALLY.--_adj._ PHANTASMOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to phantasms as subjects of inquiry.--_n._ PHANTASMOL'OGY, the science of phantasms.

[Gr. _phantasma_--_phantazein_, to make visible--_phainein_, to bring to light--_pha-ein_, to shine.]

PHANTASMAGORIA, fan-taz-ma-g[=o]'ri-a, _n._ a fantastic series of illusive images: a gathering of appearances or figures upon a flat surface by a magic-lantern.--_adjs._ PHANTASMAG[=O]'RIAL, pertaining to or resembling a phantasmagoria; PHANTASMAGOR'IC, -AL. [Gr. _phantasma_, an appearance, _agora_, an assembly--_ageirein_, to gather.]

PHANTASTIC, PHANTASY. See FANTASTIC, FANTASY.--_n._ PHANT[=A]'SIAST, one of those Docetae who believed Christ's body to have been a mere phantom.

PHANTOM, fan'tom, _n._ a phantasm.--_adj._ illusive, spectral.--_adj._ PHANTOMAT'IC, relating to a phantom. [O. Fr. _fantosme_--Gr. _phantasma_.]

PHARAOH, f[=a]'r[=o], _n._ a title of the kings of ancient Egypt.--_adj._ PHARAON'IC. [Heb.,--Egyptian.]

PHARE, far, _n._ a lighthouse.--Also PH[=A]'ROS. [_Pharos_.]

PHARISEE, far'i-s[=e], _n._ one of a religious school among the Jews, marked by their strict observance of the law and of religious ordinances: any one more careful of the outward forms than of the spirit of religion, a formalist.--_adjs._ PHARIS[=A]'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or like, the Pharisees: hypocritical.--_adv._ PHARIS[=A]'ICALLY.--_ns._ PHARIS[=A]'ICALNESS; PHAR'IS[=A]ISM, PHAR'ISEEISM, the practice and opinions of the Pharisees: strict observance of outward forms in religion without the spirit of it: hypocrisy. [Late L. _pharisaeus_--Gr.

_pharisaios_--Heb. _p[=a]r[=u]sh_, separated from, _parash_, to separate.]

PHARMACEUTIC, -AL, far-ma-s[=u]'tik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to the knowledge or art of preparing medicines.--_adv._ PHARMACE[=U]'TICALLY.--_ns._ PHARMACE[=U]'TICS, the science of preparing medicines; PHARMACE[=U]'TIST, one who practises pharmacy.

PHARMACOPOEIA, far-ma-k[=o]-p[=e]'ya, _n._ a book containing directions for the preparation of medicines: a collection of drugs.--_adj._ PHARMACOPOE'IAL. [Gr. _pharmakon_, a drug, _poiein_, to make.]

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