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PERSULPHATE, p[.e]r-sul'f[=a]t, _n._ that sulphate of a metal which contains the relatively greater quantity of acid.

PERT, p[.e]rt, _adj._ (_obs._) open: evident: plain. [O. Fr. _apert_--L.

_aper[=i]re_, _apertum_, to open.]

PERT, p[.e]rt, _adj._ forward: saucy: impertinent: too free in speech: (_obs._) clever.--_n._ an impudent person.--_adv._ PERT'LY.--_n._ PERT'NESS. [_Perk_.]

PERTAIN, per-t[=a]n', _v.i._ to belong: to relate (with _to_).--_ns._ PER'TINENCE, PER'TINENCY, state of being pertinent or to the point: fitness for the matter on hand: suitableness: appositeness.--_adj._ PER'TINENT, pertaining or related to a subject: being to the point: fitted for the matter on hand: fitting or appropriate: suitable: apposite.--_adv._ PER'TINENTLY.--_n._ PER'TINENTNESS. [O. Fr. _partenir_--L.

_pertin[=e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

PERTINACIOUS, p[.e]r-ti-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ thoroughly tenacious: holding obstinately to an opinion or a purpose: obstinate: unyielding.--_adv._ PERTIN[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ PERTIN[=A]'CIOUSNESS; PERTINAC'ITY, quality of being pertinacious or unyielding: obstinacy: resoluteness. [Fr.,--L.

_pertinax_, _-acis_, holding fast--_per_, thoroughly, _tenax_, tenacious--_ten[=e]re_, to hold.]

PERTURB, per-turb', _v.t._ to disturb greatly: to agitate--also PER'TURBATE.--_adj._ PERTUR'BABLE, that can be agitated or confused.--_ns._ PERTUR'BANCE, PERTURB[=A]'TION, act of perturbing or state of being perturbed: disquiet of mind: irregular action, esp. (_astron._) the disturbance produced in the simple elliptic motion of one heavenly body about another by the action of a third body, or by the non-sphericity of the principal body; PERTUR'BANT, any disturbing thing.--_adjs._ PERTURB[=A]'TIONAL; PERTUR'BATIVE.--_n._ PERTUR'BATORY, the power of deflecting the divining-rod by magnetic influence.--_p.adj._ PERTURBED'.--_adv._ PERTURB'EDLY.--_ns._ PERTUR'BER, PERTURB[=A]'TOR:--_fem._ PER'TURB[=A]TRIX. [Fr.,--L. _perturb[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, thoroughly, _turb[=a]re_, to disturb--_turba_, a crowd.]

PERTUSION, p[.e]r-t[=u]'zhon, _n._ a hole made by a sharp instrument.--_adjs._ PERT[=U]'SATE, pierced at the apex; PERTUSE', -D, pierced with holes. [L. _pertund[)e]re_, _-tusum_--_per_, through, _tund[)e]re_, to strike.]

PERTUSSIS, per-tus'is, _n._ whooping-cough.--_adj._ PERTUSS'AL.

PERUKE, per-[=u]k', or per'[=u]k, _n._ an artificial cap of hair: a periwig--also PERRUQUE.--_adj._ PERUQU[=E]R'IAN, of or pertaining to the making of wigs.--_n._ PERRU'QUIER, a wigmaker. [Fr. _perruque_--It.

_parrucca_ (Sp. _peluca_)--L. _pilus_, hair.]

PERUSE, per-[=u]z', or per-[=oo]z', _v.t._ to read attentively: to examine carefully or in detail.--_ns._ PERUSAL (per-[=u]z'al, or per-[=oo]z'al), the act of perusing: careful examination: study: reading; PERUS'ER. [Formed from L. _per_, thoroughly, _uti_, _usum_, to use.]

PERUVIAN, per-[=oo]'vi-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Peru_ in South America.--_n._ a native of Peru.--PERUVIAN BALSAM, a fragrant bitterish liquid yielded by a South American tree, used for asthma and in making soaps; PERUVIAN BARK, cinchona (q.v.).

PERVADE, per-v[=a]d', _v.t._ to go through or penetrate: to spread all over.--_n._ PERV[=A]'SION.--_adj._ PERV[=A]'SIVE, tending or having power to pervade. [L. _pervad[)e]re_, _pervasum_--_per_, through, _vad[)e]re_, to go.]

PERVERSE, per-v[.e]rs', _adj._ turned aside: obstinate in the wrong: stubborn: vexatious.--_adv._ PERVERSE'LY.--_ns._ PERVERSE'NESS, PERVER'SITY, state or quality of being perverse: inclination to oppose: wickedness.--_adj._ PERVER'SIVE, tending to pervert. [L. _perversus_, turned the wrong way.]

PERVERT, per-v[.e]rt', _v.t._ to turn wrong or from the right course: to change from its true use: to corrupt: to turn from truth or virtue.--_v.i._ to go wrong or out of the right course.--_n._ (per'vert) one who has changed from a former position: an apostate.--_ns._ PERVER'SION, the act of perverting: a diverting from the true object: a turning from truth or propriety: misapplication; PERVERT'ER.--_adj._ PERVERT'IBLE, able to be perverted. [Fr. _pervertir_--L. _pervert[)e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]


PERVICACIOUS, per-vi-k[=a]'shus, _adj._ very obstinate.--_ns._ PERVIC[=A]'CIOUSNESS, PERVICAC'ITY.

PERVIOUS, p[.e]r'vi-us, _adj._ permeable, penetrable: open, perforate.--_adv._ PER'VIOUSLY.--_n._ PER'VIOUSNESS. [L. _pervius_--_per_, through, _via_, a way.]

PESADE, pe-z[=a]d', _n._ the act or position of a saddle-horse in rearing.


PESETA, pe-s[=a]'ta, _n._ a silver coin of Spain worth 9d. [Sp., dim. of _pesa_, weight.]

PESHITO, pe-sh[=e]'to, _n._ a translation of the Bible into Syriac, made in the second century.--Also PESHIT'TO. [Syriac, _p[)e]shitta_, the simple.]

PESHWA, pesh'wa, _n._ a chief or prince of the Mahrattas.--Also PEISH'WAH.

PESKY, pes'ki, _adj._ annoying.--_adv._ PES'KILY.

PESO, p[=a]'so, _n._ a Spanish dollar. [Sp.,--L. _pensum_, _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PESSARY, pes'a-ri, _n._ an instrument worn in the vagina to remedy displacement of the womb. [Fr. _pessaire_--Low L. _pessarium_--Gr.

_pessos_, a pebble.]

PESSIMISM, pes'i-mizm, _n._ the doctrine that on the whole the world is bad rather than good: a temper of mind that looks too much on the dark side of things: a depressing view of life.--_v.i._ PESS'IMISE.--_n._ PESS'IMIST, one who believes that everything is tending to the worst: one who looks too much on the dark side of things--opp. to _Optimist_.--_adjs._ PESSIMIS'TIC, -AL. [L. _pessimus_, worst.]

PEST, pest, _n._ a deadly disease: a plague: anything destructive: a troublesome person.--_n._ PEST'HOUSE, a hospital for persons afflicted with any contagious disease.--_adj._ PESTIF'EROUS, contagious: pestilent: annoying.--_adv._ PESTIF'EROUSLY.--_n._ PEST'ILENCE, any contagious deadly disease: anything that is hurtful to the morals.--_adjs._ PEST'ILENT, producing pestilence: hurtful to health and life: mischievous: corrupt: troublesome; PESTILEN'TIAL, of the nature of pestilence: producing pestilence: destructive.--_advs._ PESTILEN'TIALLY, PEST'ILENTLY. [Fr.

_peste_--L. _pestis_, a contagious disease.]

PESTALOZZIAN, pes-ta-lot'si-an, _adj._ pertaining to graduated object-teaching as originated by Johann Heinrich _Pestalozzi_ (1745-1827).

PESTER, pes't[.e]r, _v.t._ to disturb, to annoy.--_n._ a bother.--_n._ PES'TERER, one who pesters.--_adv._ PES'TERINGLY.--_n._ PES'TERMENT, annoyance. [Short for _impester_, O. Fr. _empestrer_ (Fr. _empetrer_), to entangle, from _in_, in, Low L. _pastorium_, a foot-shackle--L. _pastus_, pa.p. of _pasc[)e]re_, to feed.]

PESTLE, pes'l, or pest'l, _n._ an instrument for pounding anything in a mortar.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to pound with a pestle: to use a pestle. [O. Fr.

_pestel_--L. _pistillum_, a pounder, _pins[)e]re_, _pistum_, to pound.]

PET, pet, _n._ any animal tame and fondled: a word of endearment often used to young children: a favourite child: a wilful young woman--also PEAT.--_adj._ indulged: cherished: favourite.--_v.t._ to treat as a pet: to fondle:--_pr.p._ pet'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pet'ted. [Celt., as Ir.

_peat_, Gael. _peata_.]

PET, pet, _n._ a sudden fit of peevishness or slight passion: ill-humour.--_v.i._ to be peevish, to sulk. [From the above word.]


PETAL, pet'al, _n._ a flower-leaf: a corolla leaf.--_adjs._ PET'ALED, PET'ALIFORM, PET'ALOUS, having petals or flower-leaves; PET'ALINE, pertaining to or resembling a petal: attached to a petal.--_n._ PET'ALISM, a method of ostracism practised in ancient Syracuse, the name being written on an olive-leaf.--_adj._ PET'ALOID, having the form of a petal--also PETALOI'DEOUS. [Gr. _petalon_, a leaf.]

PETARD, p[=e]-tard', _n._ a kind of mortar filled with gunpowder, fixed to gates, barriers, &c., to break them down by explosion--(_Shak._) PETAR': a paper bomb in pyrotechny.--_ns._ PETARDEER', PETARDIER'.--HOIST WITH ONE'S OWN PETARD (see HOIST). [O. Fr.--_peter_, to crack or explode--L.

_ped[)e]re_, cog. with Gr. _perdein_, Eng. _fart_.]

PETARY, p[=e]'tar-i, _n._ a peat-bog.

PETASUS, pet'a-sus, _n._ a low broad-brimmed hat worn by heralds, &c., characteristic of Hermes. [Gr.]

PETAURIST, pe-taw'rist, _n._ a flying opossum, Australian squirrel, &c.--_adj._ PETAU'RINE. [Gr.]

PETCHARY, pech'a-ri, _n._ the gray king-bird.

PETECHIae, p[=e]-tek'i-[=e], purple spots on the skin.--_adj._ PETECH'IAL. [L. _petigo_, a scab.]

PETER, p[=e]'t[.e]r, _v.i._ in mining, to become exhausted (with _out_): (_fig._) to lose power or value.

PETER, p[=e]'t[.e]r, _v.i._ to call for trumps at whist, by throwing away a higher card of a suit while holding a smaller.--_n._ this signal for trumps.


PETERSHAM, p[=e]'t[.e]r-sham, _n._ a heavy greatcoat, also the rough-napped cloth, generally dark blue, of which it is made. [From Lord _Petersham_.]


PETIOLE, pet'i-[=o]l, _n._ the stalk which joins a leaf to the twig or branch: a footstalk--also PET[=I]'OLUS.--_adjs._ PET'IOLAR, -Y, pertaining to, or growing upon, a petiole; PET'IOL[=A]TE, -D, PET'IOLED, growing on a petiole.--_n._ PET'IOLULE, a little or partial petiole. [Fr.,--L.

_petiolus_, a little foot--_pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

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