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PERMIAN, per'mi-an, _n._ a group of strata forming the uppermost division of the Palezoic series.

PERMISCIBLE, per-mis'i-bl, _adj._ capable of being mixed.

PERMIT, per-mit', _v.t._ to give leave to: to allow to be or to be done: to afford means: to give opportunity:--_pr.p._ permit'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ permit'ted.--_n._ (per'mit) a written permission, esp. from a custom-house officer to remove goods.--_n._ PERMISSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ PERMISS'IBLE, that may be permitted: allowable.--_adv._ PERMISS'IBLY.--_n._ PERMIS'SION, act of permitting: liberty granted: allowance.--_adj._ PERMISS'IVE, granting permission or liberty: allowing: granted: not hindered.--_adv._ PERMISS'IVELY, by permission, without prohibition.--_ns._ PERMIT'TANCE, permission; PERMITT[=EE]', one to whom permission is granted; PERMIT'TER, one who permits.--PERMISSIVE BILL, a measure embodying the principles of local option for the regulation of the liquor traffic; PERMISSIVE LAWS, laws that permit certain things without enforcing anything. [L. _permitt[)e]re_, _-missum_, to let pass through--_per_, through, _mitt[)e]re_, to send.]

PERMUTABLE, per-m[=u]'ta-bl, _adj._ that may be changed one for another.--_ns._ PERM[=U]'TABLENESS, PERMUTABIL'ITY.--_adv._ PERM[=U]'TABLY.--_ns._ PERM[=U]'TANT; PERMUT[=A]'TION, act of changing one thing for another: (_math._) the arrangement of things or letters in every possible order.--_v.t._ PERMUTE'. [L.,--_permut[=a]re_--_per_, through, _mut[=a]re_, to change.]

PERN, p[.e]rn, _n._ a honey-buzzard.--Also PER'NIS.

PERNICIOUS, per-nish'us, _adj._ killing utterly: hurtful: destructive: highly injurious.--_adv._ PERNI'CIOUSLY.--_n._ PERNI'CIOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L.

_perniciosus_--_per_, completely, _nex_, _necis_, death by violence.]

PERNICKETY, per-nik'e-ti, _adj._ easily troubled about trifles: (_coll._) fastidious.--_n._ PERNICK'ETINESS.

PERNOCTATION, p[.e]r-nok-t[=a]'shun, _n._ act of passing the whole night, esp. in prayer or watching: a watch all night. [L. _per_, through, _nox_, _noctis_, night.]

PERONE, per'[=o]-n[=e], _n._ the fibula or small bone of the leg.--_adjs._ PER[=O]N[=E]'AL; PER[=O]N[=E][=O]TIB'IAL, pertaining to the perone and the tibia.--_n._ a muscle from the fibula to the tibia in some marsupials: an anomalous muscle in man, constant in apes, between the inner side of the head of the fibula and the tibia.--_n._ PERON[=E]'US, one of several fibular muscles. [Fr.,--Gr. _peron[=e]_, the tongue of a buckle.]

PEROPOD, p[=e]'r[=o]-pod, _adj._ having rudimentary hind limbs, as serpents--also _n._ [Gr. _p[=e]ros_, maimed, _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

PERORATION, per-[=o]-r[=a]'shun, _n._ the conclusion of a speech, usually summing up the points and enforcing the argument.--_v.i._ PER'ORATE, to make a peroration: (_coll._) to make a speech. [Fr.,--L.

_peroratio_--_peror[=a]re_, to bring a speech to an end--_per_, through, _or[=a]re_, to speak--_os_, _oris_, the mouth.]

PEROXIDE, per-ox'[=i]d, _n._ an oxide having a larger proportion of oxygen than any other oxide of the same series.--_n._ PEROXID[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ PEROX'IDISE.

PERPEND, per-pend', _v.t._ to weigh in the mind, to consider carefully. [L.

_perpend[)e]re_--_per_, inten., _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PERPEND, per'pend, _n._ in building, a bond-stone or bonder.--Also PER'PEND-STONE, PER'PENT-STONE. [O. Fr. _parpaigne_, Fr. _parpaing_.]

PERPENDICULAR, p[.e]r-pen-dik'[=u]-lar, _adj._ exactly upright: extending in a straight line toward the centre of the earth: (_geom._) at right angles to a given line or surface.--_n._ a perpendicular line or plane.--_n._ PERPENDICULAR'ITY, state of being perpendicular.--_adv._ PERPENDIC'ULARLY.--PERPENDICULAR STYLE, a style of Gothic architecture in England which succeeded the Decorated style, prevailing from the end of the 14th to the middle of the 16th century, contemporary with the Flamboyant style in France, marked by stiff and rectilinear lines, mostly vertical window-tracery, depressed or four-centre arch, fan-tracery vaulting, and panelled walls. [Fr.,--L. _perpendicularis_--_perpendiculum_, a plumb-line--_per_, through, _pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PERPETRATE, p[.e]r'p[=e]-tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to perform or commit (usually in a bad sense): to produce (as a poor pun).--_adj._ PER'PETRABLE.--_ns._ PERPETR[=A]'TION, act of committing a crime: the thing perpetrated: an evil action; PER'PETR[=A]TOR. [L. _perpetr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, thoroughly, _patr[=a]re_, to perform.]

PERPETUAL, per-pet'[=u]-al, _adj._ never ceasing: everlasting: not temporary.--_adv._ PERPET'UALLY.--PERPETUAL CURATE, a curate of a parish where there was neither rector nor vicar, the tithes being in the hands of a layman--abolished in 1868, every incumbent not a rector now being a vicar; PERPETUAL MOTION, motion of a machine arising from forces within itself, constantly kept up without any force from without; PERPETUAL SCREW, an endless screw. [Fr. _perpetuel_--L. _perpetuus_, continuous.]

PERPETUATE, per-pet'[=u]-[=a]t, _v.t._ to make perpetual: to cause to last for ever or for a very long time: to preserve from extinction or oblivion.--_adj._ PERPET'[=U]ABLE, capable of being perpetuated.--_n._ PERPET'UANCE, the act of making perpetual.--_adjs._ PERPET'U[=A]TE, -D, made perpetual: continued for an indefinite time.--_n._ PERPETU[=A]'TION, act of perpetuating or preserving from oblivion: preservation for ever, or for a very long time; PERPET[=U]'ITY, state of being perpetual: endless time: duration for an indefinite period: something lasting for ever: the sum paid for a perpetual annuity: the annuity itself.

PERPLEX, per-pleks', _v.t._ to make difficult to be understood: to embarrass: to puzzle: to tease with suspense or doubt.--_n._ (_obs._) a difficulty.--_adv._ PERPLEX'EDLY.--_n._ PERPLEX'EDNESS.--_adj._ PERPLEX'ING.--_adv._ PERPLEX'INGLY.--_n._ PERPLEX'ITY, state of being perplexed: confusion of mind arising from doubt, &c.: intricacy: embarrassment: doubt. [Fr.,--L. _perplexus_, entangled--_per_, completely, _plexus_, involved, pa.p. of _plect[)e]re_.]

PERQUISITE, p[.e]r'kwi-zit, _n._ an allowance granted over and above the settled wages: a fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service.--_ns._ PERQUISI'TION, a strict search: diligent inquiry; PERQUIS'ITOR, the first purchaser of an estate. [L. _perquisitum_, from _perquir[)e]re_--_per_, thoroughly, _quaer[)e]re_, to ask.]

PERRADIAL, p[.e]r-r[=a]'di-al, _adj._ fundamentally radial.--_n._ PERR[=A]'DIUS.

PERRIER, per'i-[.e]r, _n._ a machine for hurling stones.

PERRON, per'on, _n._ an external flight of steps giving access to the entrance-door of a building.


PERRY, per'i, _n._ an agreeable beverage made by fermenting the juice of pears. [Fr. _poire_, from _poire_, a pear--L. _pirum_.]

PERSANT, p[.e]rs'ant, _adj._ (_Spens._). Same as PERCEANT.

PERSCRUTATION, per-skr[=oo]-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a thorough search through: a minute inquiry. [L. _per_, through, _scrut[=a]ri_, to search carefully.]

PERSE, pers, _adj._ dark blue, bluish-gray.--_n._ a dark-blue colour, a cloth of such colour. [O. Fr. _pers_--L. _persicum_, a peach.]

PERSECUTE, p[.e]r'se-k[=u]t, _v.t._ to pursue so as to injure or annoy: to follow after persistently: to annoy or punish, esp. for religious or political opinions.--_ns._ PERSEC[=U]'TION, act or practice of persecuting: state of being persecuted: a time of general oppression on account of religious opinions; PER'SEC[=U]TOR:--_fem._ PER'SEC[=U]TRIX. [Fr.,--L.

_persequi_, _persecutus_--_per_, thoroughly, _sequi_, to follow.]

PERSEUS, per's[=u]s, _n._ a fabled Greek hero, who slew the Gorgon Medusa, and rescued Andromeda from a sea-monster: a constellation in the northern sky. [Gr.]

PERSEVERE, p[.e]r-s[=e]-v[=e]r', _v.i._ to persist in anything: to pursue anything steadily: to be constant: not to give over.--_n._ PERSEV[=E]'RANCE, act or state of persevering: continued application to anything which one has begun: a going on till success is met with.--_adj._ PERSEV[=E]'RING.--_adv._ PERSEV[=E]'RINGLY.--PERSEVERANCE OF SAINTS, the Calvinistic doctrine that those who are effectually called by God cannot fall away so as to be finally lost. [Fr.,--L.

_persever[=a]re_--_perseverus_, very strict--_per_, very, _severus_, strict.]

PERSIAN, p[.e]r'shi-an, _adj._ of, from, or relating to _Persia_, its inhabitants, or language.--_n._ a native of Persia: the language of Persia: (_archit._) male figures used instead of columns to support an entablature--also PER'SIC.--PERSIAN APPLE, the peach; PERSIAN BERRY, the fruit of several buckthorns; PERSIAN BLINDS (see PERSIENNE); PERSIAN WHEEL, a large wheel for raising water, fixed vertically with a number of buckets at its circumference.

PERSICOT, per'si-kot, _n._ a cordial flavoured with kernels of peaches and apricots. [Fr.,--L. _persicum_, a peach.]

PERSIENNE, per-si-en', _n._ an Eastern cambric or muslin with coloured printed pattern: (_pl._) Persian blinds, outside shutters of thin movable slats in a frame.

PERSIFLAGE, p[.e]r'si-flazh, _n._ a frivolous way of talking or treating any subject: banter.--_adj._ PER'SIFLANT, bantering.--_v.i._ PER'SIFL[=A]TE (_Thackeray_).--_n._ PER'SIFLOUR (_Carlyle_). [Fr.,--_persifler_, to banter--L. _per_, through, Fr. _siffler_--L. _sibil[=a]re_, to whistle, to hiss.]

PERSIMMON, PERSIMON, per-sim'on, _n._ the American date-plum. [Amer. Ind.]

PERSIST, per-sist', _v.i._ to stand throughout to something begun: to continue in any course, esp. against opposition: to persevere.--_ns._ PERSIS'TENCE, PERSIS'TENCY, quality of being persistent: perseverance: obstinacy: duration, esp. of an effect after the exciting cause has been removed.--_adj._ PERSIS'TENT, persisting: pushing on, esp. against opposition: tenacious: fixed: (_bot._) remaining till or after the fruit is ripe, as a calyx.--_advs._ PERSIS'TENTLY; PERSIS'TINGLY.--_adj._ PERSIS'TIVE (_Shak._), persistent. [Fr.,--L. _persist[)e]re_--_per_, through, _sist[)e]re_, to cause to stand--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]

PERSON, p[.e]r'sun, _n._ character represented, as on the stage: character: an individual, sometimes used slightingly: a living soul: a human being: the outward appearance, &c.: bodily form: one of the three hypostases or individualities in the triune God: (_gram._) a distinction in form, according as the subject of the verb is the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of.--_adj._ PER'SONABLE, having a well-formed body or person: of good appearance.--_n._ PER'SON[=A]GE, a person: character represented: an individual of eminence: external appearance.--_adj._ PER'SONAL, belonging to a person: having the nature or quality of a person: peculiar to a person or to his private concerns: pertaining to the external appearance: done in person: relating to one's own self: applied offensively to one's character: (_gram._) denoting the person.--_n._ PERSONALIS[=A]'TION, personification.--_v.t._ PER'SONALISE, to make personal.--_ns._ PER'SONALISM, the character of being personal; PER'SONALIST, one who writes personal notes; PERSONAL'ITY, that which distinguishes a person from a thing, or one person from another: individuality: a derogatory remark or reflection directly applied to a person--esp. in _pl._ PERSONAL'ITIES.--_adv._ PER'SONALLY, in a personal or direct manner: in person: individually.--_n._ PER'SONALTY (_law_), all the property which, when a man dies, goes to his executor or administrator, as distinguished from the realty, which goes to his heir-at-law.--_v.t._ PER'SON[=A]TE, to assume the likeness or character of: to represent: to counterfeit: to feign.--_adj._ (_bot._) mask-like, as in the corollary of the snapdragon: larval, cucullate.--_adj._ PER'SON[=A]TED, impersonated, feigned, assumed.--_ns._ PERSON[=A]'TION; PER'SON[=A]TOR.--_n._ PERSONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PER'SONISE, to personify.--_n._ PERSONNEL', the persons employed in any service, as distinguished from the materiel.--PERSONAL ESTATE, PROPERTY, movable goods or property, as distinguished from freehold or real property, esp. in land; PERSONAL EXCEPTION (_Scots law_), a ground of objection which applies to an individual and prevents him from doing something which, but for his conduct or situation, he might do; PERSONAL IDENTITY, the continued sameness of the individual person, through all changes both without and within, as testified by consciousness; PERSONAL RIGHTS, rights which belong to the person as a living, reasonable being; PERSONAL SECURITY, security or pledge given by a person, as distinguished from the delivery of some object of value as security; PERSONAL SERVICE, delivery of a message or an order into a person's hands, as distinguished from delivery in any other indirect way; PERSONAL TRANSACTION, something done by a person's own effort, not through the agency of another.--IN PERSON, by one's self, not by a representative.

[Fr.,--L. _pers[=o]na_, a player's mask, perh. from _pers[)o]n[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _son[=a]re_, to sound.]

PERSONA, p[.e]r-s[=o]'na, _n._ a person.--PERSONA GRATA, a person who is acceptable to those to whom he is sent.--DRAMATIS PERSONae, the characters in a play or story. [L.]

PERSONIFY, per-son'i-f[=i], _v.t._ (_rhet._) to treat, look on, or describe as a person: to ascribe to any inanimate object the qualities of a person: to be the embodiment of:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ person'if[=i]ed.--_n._ PERSONIFIC[=A]'TION. [L. _persona_, a person, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

PERSPECTIVE, per-spek'tiv, _n._ a view or a vista: the art of drawing objects on a plane surface, so as to give the picture the same appearance to the eye as the objects themselves: just proportion in all the parts: a telescope or field-glass: a picture in perspective.--_adj._ pertaining or according to perspective.--_adv._ PERSPEC'TIVELY.--_ns._ PERSPEC'TOGRAPH, an instrument for indicating correctly the points and outlines of objects; PERSPECTOG'RAPHY, the science of perspective, or of delineating it.--PERSPECTIVE PLANE, the surface on which the picture of the objects to be represented in perspective is drawn.--IN PERSPECTIVE, according to the laws of perspective. [Fr.,--L. _perspic[)e]re_, _perspectum_--_per_, through, _spec[)e]re_, to look.]

PERSPICACIOUS, p[.e]r-spi-k[=a]'shus, _adj._ of clear or acute understanding: quick-sighted.--_adv._ PERSPIC[=A]'CIOUSLY.--_ns._ PERSPIC[=A]'CIOUSNESS; PERSPICAC'ITY, state of being acute in discerning: keenness of sight or of understanding; PERSPIC[=U]'ITY, state of being perspicacious: clearness in expressing ideas so as to make them easily understood by others: freedom from obscurity.--_adj._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUS, that can be seen through: clear to the mind: easily understood: not obscure in any way: evident.--_adv._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUSLY.--_n._ PERSPIC'[=U]OUSNESS. [L.

_perspicax_, _perspicacis_--_perspic[)e]re_, to see through.]

PERSPIRE, per-sp[=i]r', _v.i._ and _v.t._ to emit or to be emitted, as moisture, through the pores of the skin: to sweat.--_n._ PERSPIRABIL'ITY.--_adj._ PERSP[=I]R'ABLE, capable of being perspired.--_v.i._ PER'SPIR[=A]TE (_rare_), to sweat.--_n._ PERSPIR[=A]'TION, act of perspiring: that which is perspired: moisture given out through the pores of the skin: sweat.--_adj._ PERSP[=I]R'ATORY, pertaining to or causing perspiration. [L. _perspir[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _spir[=a]re_, to breathe.]

PERSTRINGE, p[.e]r-strinj', _v.t._ to criticise.

PERSUADE, per-sw[=a]d', _v.t._ to influence successfully by argument, advice, &c.: to bring to any particular opinion: to cause to believe: to convince.--_adj._ PERSUAD'ABLE.--_n._ PERSUAD'ER.--_adj._ PERSU[=A]'SIBLE, capable of being persuaded.--_ns._ PERSU[=A]'SIBLENESS, PERSUASIBIL'ITY; PERSU[=A]'SION, act of persuading: state of being persuaded: settled opinion: a creed: a party adhering to a creed: (_Spens._) an inducement.--_adjs._ PERSU[=A]'SIVE, PERSU[=A]'SORY, having the power to persuade: influencing the mind or passions.--_n._ that which persuades or wins over.--_adv._ PERSU[=A]'SIVELY.--_n._ PERSU[=A]'SIVENESS. [Fr.,--L.

_persuad[=e]re_, _-suasum_--_per_, thoroughly, _suad[=e]re_, to advise.]

PERSUE, p[.e]rs'[=u], _n._ (_Spens._) a track.

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