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PANSCLEROSIS, pan-skle-r[=o]'sis, _n._ complete thickening and hardening of the interstitial tissue of a part.

PANSER, pan's[.e]r, _n._ an ancient piece of armour for the abdomen. [O.

Fr. _pansiere_--_panse_, the belly--L. _pantex_, the belly.]

PAN-SLAVIC, pan'-slav'ik, _adj._ pertaining to all the Slavic races.--_ns._ PAN'-SLAV'ISM, a movement for the amalgamation of all the Slavonic races into one body, with one language, literature, and social polity; PAN'-SLAV'IST, one who favours Pan-Slavism.--_adjs._ PAN-SLAV[=O]'NIAN, PAN-SLAVON'IC.

PANSOPHY, pan's[=o]-fi, _n._ a scheme of universal knowledge, esp. that of the educational reformer, John Amos Comenius (1592-1671): the pretence of universal wisdom.--_adjs._ PANSOPH'IC, -AL. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _sophia_, wisdom.]

PANSPERMATISM, pan-sper'ma-tizm, _n._ the theory of the widespread diffusion of germs--also PANSPER'MY.--_n._ PANSPER'MATIST, a holder of this.--_adj._ PANSPER'MIC. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _sperma_, seed.]

PANSTEREORAMA, pan-ster-[=e]-[=o]-ra'ma, _n._ a model showing every part in proportional relief, as of a building. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _stereos_, solid, _horama_, a view.]

PANSY, pan'zi, _n._ a species of violet developed by cultivation into large blossoms of great variety of colour--also _Heart's-ease_, _Love-in-idleness_:--_pl._ PAN'SIES.--_adj._ PAN'SIED. [Fr.

_pensee_--_penser_, to think--L. _pens[=a]re_, to weigh.]

PANT, pant, _v.i._ to breathe hard and quickly: to show excitement by quickness of breathing: to gasp: to throb: to desire ardently: to heave, as the breast: to bulge and shrink successively, of iron hulls, &c.--_v.t._ to gasp out: to long for.--_ns._ PANT, PANT'ING, rapid breathing: palpitation: longing.--_adv._ PANT'INGLY, in a panting manner: with hard and rapid breathing. [Imit.; or nasalised from _pat_ (v.t.).]

PANTAGAMY, pan-tag'a-mi, _n._ a system of communistic marriage, once practised in the Oneida community. [Gr. _panta_, all, _gamos_, marriage.]

PANTAGOGUE, pan'ta-g[=o]g, _n._ a medicine once believed capable of purging away all morbid humours. [Gr. _panta_, _pas_, all, _ag[=o]gos_, drawing out--_agein_, to lead.]


PANTAGRUELISM, pan-ta-gr[=oo]'el-izm, _n._ the theories and practice of _Pantagruel_ as described by Rabelais (1483-1553)--burlesque ironical buffoonery as a cover for serious satire: empirical medical theory and practice.--_adj._ PANTAGRUEL'IAN.--_ns._ PANTAGRUEL'ION, a magic herb allegorising fortitude, patience, industry; PANTAGRU'ELIST, a cynic who uses the medium of burlesque.

PANTALEON, pan-tal'[=e]-on, _n._ a musical instrument invented about 1700 by _Pantaleon_ Hebenstreit, a very large dulcimer.

PANTALETS, pan-ta-lets', long frilled drawers, once worn by women and children: a removable kind of ruffle worn at the feet of women's drawers.

PANTALOON, pan-ta-l[=oo]n', _n._ in pantomimes, a ridiculous character, a buffoon: (_orig._) a ridiculous character in Italian comedy, also a garment worn by him, consisting of breeches and stockings all in one piece: (_pl._) a kind of trousers.--_n._ PANTALOON'ERY, buffoonery. [Fr. _pantalon_--It.

_pantalone_, from _Pantaleon_ (Gr. 'all-lion'), the patron saint of Venice.]

PANTATROPHY, pan-tat'ro-fi, _n._ general atrophy of the whole body.

PANTECHNICON, pan-tek'ni-kon, _n._ a place where every species of workmanship is sold, or where furniture, &c., is stored. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _techn[=e]_, art.]

PANTER, pan't[.e]r, _n._ (_obs._). Same as PANTHER.

PANTHEISM, pan'th[=e]-izm, _n._ the form of monism which identifies mind and matter, making them manifestations of one absolute being: the doctrine that there is no God apart from nature or the universe, everything being considered as part of God, or a manifestation of Him.--_n._ PAN'TH[=E]IST, a believer in pantheism.--_adjs._ PANTH[=E]IST'IC, -AL.--_ns._ PANTH[=E]OL'OGIST, one versed in pantheology; PANTH[=E]OL'OGY, a system of theology embracing all religions and the knowledge of all gods.

PANTHEON, pan'th[=e]-on, _n._ a temple dedicated to all the gods, esp. the round one at Rome, built by Agrippa in 27 B.C.: all the gods of a nation considered as one body: a complete mythology. [L. _panth[=e]on_--Gr.

_pantheion_ (_hieron_), (a temple) for all gods--_pas_, _pan_, all, _theos_, a god.]

PANTHER, pan'th[.e]r, _n._ a fierce, spotted, carnivorous quadruped of Asia and Africa:--_fem._ PAN'THERESS. [Fr. _panthere_--L.,--Gr. _panth[=e]r_.]

PANTILE, pan't[=i]l, _n._ a tile with a curved surface, convex or concave with reference to its width: a tile whose cross-section forms a double curve, forming a tegula and imbrex both in one.--_adj._ dissenting--chapels being often roofed with these.--_n._ PAN'TILING, a system of tiling with pantiles.

PANTISOCRASY, pan-ti-sok'ra-si, _n._ a Utopian community in which all are of equal rank or social position. [Gr. _pas_, _pantos_, all, isos, equal, _kratein_, to rule.]

PANTLER, pant'l[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) the officer in a great family who had charge of the bread and other provisions. [Fr. _panetier_--L. _panis_, bread.]

PANTOCHRONOMETER, pan-t[=o]-kro-nom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a combination of compass, sun-dial, and universal sun-dial.

PANTOFFLE, pan'tof'l, _n._ a slipper. [Fr.]

PANTOGRAPH, pan't[=o]-graf, _n._ an instrument for copying drawings, plans, &c. on the same, or a different, scale from the original.--_adjs._ PANTOGRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to, or done by, a pantograph.--_n._ PANTOG'RAPHY, general description: entire view: process of copying by means of the pantograph. [Gr. _pan_, all, _graphein_, to write.]

PANTOLOGY, pan-tol'o-ji, _n._ universal knowledge: a view of all branches of knowledge: a book of universal information.--_adj._ PANTOLOG'IC.--_n._ PANTOL'OGIST. [Gr. _pas_, _pantos_, all, _logia_, description.]

PANTOMETER, pan-tom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for measuring angles and perpendiculars.--_n._ PANTOM'ETRY.

PANTOMIME, pan't[=o]-m[=i]m, _n._ one who expresses his meaning by action without speaking: a play or an entertainment in dumb show: an entertainment in a theatre, usually about Christmas-time, in which some well-known story is acted, amidst showy scenery, with music and dancing, concluding with buffoonery by conventional characters--the clown, pantaloon, harlequin, and columbine.--_adj._ representing only by action without words.--_adjs._ PANTOMIM'IC, -AL.--_adv._ PANTOMIM'ICALLY.--_n._ PAN'TOMIMIST, an actor in a pantomime. [Fr.,--L.--Gr. _pantomimos_, imitator of all--_pas_, _pantos_, all, _mimos_, an imitator.]

PANTOMORPH, pan't[=o]-morf, _n._ that which exists in all shapes.--_adj._ PANTOMOR'PHIC.

PANTON, pan'ton, _n._ a horse-shoe for curing a narrow and hoof-bound heel: an idle fellow.

PANTOPHAGY, pan-tof'a-ji, _n._ morbid hunger for all kinds of food.--_n._ PANTOPH'AGIST.--_adj._ PANTOPH'AGOUS. [Gr. _panta_, all, _phagein_, to eat.]

PANTOSCOPE, pan't[=o]-sk[=o]p, _n._ a panoramic camera: a very wide-angled photographic lens.--_adj._ PANTOSCOP'IC, giving a wide range of vision.

PANTOSTOMATOUS, pan-t[=o]-stom'a-tus, _adj._ ingesting food at any point on the surface of the body.

PANTRY, pan'tri, _n._ a room or closet for provisions and table furnishings, or where plate, knives, &c. are cleaned. [Fr. _paneterie_, a place where bread is distributed--Low L. _panitaria_--L. _panis_, bread.]

PANTS, (_coll._) trousers, abbrev. of _pantaloons_.

PANURGIC, pan-ur'jik, _adj._ able to do all kinds of work. [Gr. _pan_, all, _ergon_, work.]

PANZOISM, pan-z[=o]'izm, _n._ the sum of the elements that make up vital force. [Gr. _pas_, _pan_, all, _z[=o][=e]_, life.]

PAP, pap, _n._ soft food for infants: pulp of fruit: nourishment: (_slang_) the emoluments or perquisites of public office.--_v.t._ to feed with pap.--_adjs._ PAPES'CENT, PAP'PY.--_ns._ PAP'MEAT, soft food for infants; PAP'SPOON, a spoon for infants. [Imit.]

PAP, pap, _n._ a nipple or teat: a woman's breast: a round conical hill, as the _Paps_ of Jura.

PAPA, pa-pa', or pa'pa, _n._ father: a bishop: a priest of the Greek Church. [Imit.]

PAPACY, p[=a]'pa-si, _n._ the office of the Pope: the authority of the Pope: popery: the Popes, as a body.--_adj._ P[=A]'PAL, belonging to, or relating to, the Pope or to popery: popish.--_v.t._ P[=A]'PALISE, to make papal.--_v.i._ to conform to popery.--_ns._ P[=A]'PALISM; P[=A]'PALIST.--_adv._ P[=A]'PALLY.--_ns._ P[=A]PAPH[=O]'BIA, extreme fear of the Pope, or the progress of papacy; P[=A]'PARCHY, papal government.

[Low L. _papatia_--_papa_, a father.]

PAPAIN, pa'pa-in, _n._ a nitrogenous body, isolated from the juice of the papaw, one of the digestive ferments applied in some cases of dyspepsia, either internally or for the predigestion of food.

PAPAVEROUS, pa-pav'[.e]r-us, _adj._ resembling or having the qualities of the poppy.--_adj._ PAPAVER[=A]'CEOUS, of or like the poppy. [L. _papaver_, the poppy.]

PAPAW, pa-paw', _n._ the tree _Carica papaya_, or its fruit, native to South America, but common in the tropics, the trunk, leaves, and fruit yielding papain (q.v.), the leaves forming a powerful anthelmintic: the tree _Asimina triloba_, or its fruit, native to the United States. [The Malabar native name.]

PAPER, p[=a]'p[.e]r, _n._ the material made from rags or vegetable fibres on which we commonly write and print: a piece of paper: a written or printed document or instrument, note, receipt, bill, bond, deed, &c.: a newspaper: an essay or literary contribution, generally brief: paper-money: paper-hangings for walls: a set of examination questions: free passes of admission to a theatre, &c., also the persons admitted by such.--_adj._ consisting or made of paper.--_v.t._ to cover with paper: to fold in paper: to treat in any way by means of paper, as to sand-paper, &c.: to paste the end-papers and fly-leaves at the beginning and end of a book before fitting it into its covers.--_ns._ P[=A]'PER-BAR'ON, or -LORD, one who holds a title that is merely official, like that of a Scotch Lord of Session, &c., or whose title is merely by courtesy or convention; P[=A]'PER-CASE, a box for holding writing materials, &c.; P[=A]'PER-CHASE, the game of hounds and hares, when the hares scatter bits of paper to guide the hounds; P[=A]'PER-CIGAR', a cigarette; P[=A]'PER-CLAMP, a frame for holding newspapers, sheets of music, &c., for easy reference; P[=A]'PER-CLIP, or _Letter-clip_, an appliance with opening and closing spring, for holding papers together; P[=A]'PER-CLOTH, a fabric prepared in many of the Pacific islands from the inner bark of the mulberry, &c.; P[=A]'PER-CRED'IT, credit given to a person because he shows by bills, promissory notes, &c. that money is owing to him; P[=A]'PER-CUT'TER, a machine for cutting paper in sheets, for trimming the edges of books, &c.; P[=A]'PER-DAY, one of certain days in each term for hearing causes down in the paper or roll of business; P[=A]'PER-ENAM'EL, an enamel for cards and fine note-paper.--_adj._ P[=A]'PER-FACED (_Shak._), having a face as white as paper.--_ns._ P[=A]'PER-FEED'ER, an apparatus for delivering sheets of paper to a printing-press, &c.; P[=A]'PER-FILE, an appliance for holding letters, &c., for safety and readiness of reference; P[=A]'PER-GAUGE, a rule for measuring the type-face of matter to be printed, and the width of the margin; P[=A]'PER-HANG'ER, one who hangs paper on the walls of rooms, & P[=A]'PER-HANG'INGS, paper, either plain or with coloured figures, for hanging on or covering walls.--_ns._ P[=A]'PERING, the operation of covering or hanging with paper: the paper itself; P[=A]'PER-KNIFE, -CUT'TER, -FOLD'ER, a thin, flat blade of ivory, &c., for cutting open the leaves of books and other folded papers; P[=A]'PER-MAK'ER, one who manufactures paper; P[=A]'PER-MAK'ING; P[=A]'PER-MAR'BLER, one engaged in marbling paper; P[=A]'PER-MILL, a mill where paper is made; P[=A]'PER-MON'EY, pieces of paper stamped or marked by government or by a bank, as representing a certain value of money, which pass from hand to hand instead of the coin itself; P[=A]'PER-MUS'LIN, a glazed muslin for dress linings, &c.; P[=A]'PER-NAU'TILUS, or -SAIL'OR, the nautilus; P[=A]'PER-OFF'ICE, an office in Whitehall where state-papers are kept; P[=A]'PER-PULP, the pulp from which paper is made; P[=A]'PER-PUNCH, an apparatus for piercing holes in paper; P[=A]'PER-REED (_B._), the papyrus; P[=A]'PER-RUL'ER, one who, or an instrument which, makes straight lines on paper; P[=A]'PER-STAIN'ER, one who prepares paper-hangings; P[=A]'PER-TEST'ER, a machine for testing the stretching strength of paper; P[=A]'PER-WASH'ING (_phot._), water in which prints have been washed; P[=A]'PER-WEIGHT, a small weight for laying on a bundle of loose papers to prevent them from being displaced.--_adj._ P[=A]'PERY, like paper.--BRISTOL PAPER or BOARD, a strong smooth paper for drawing on; BROWN-PAPER (see BROWN); CHINESE PAPER, rice-paper: a fine soft slightly brownish paper made from bamboo bark, giving fine impressions from engravings; CREAM-LAID PAPER, a smooth paper of creamy colour, much used for note-paper; DISTINCTIVE PAPER, a fine silk-threaded fibre paper used in the United States for bonds, &c.; FILTER-PAPER (see FILTER); HAND-MADE PAPER, that made wholly by hand, as still with some kinds of printing and drawing papers; HEIGHT-TO-PAPER, in typefounding, the length of a type from its face to its foot (11/12 inch); HOT-PRESSED PAPER, paper polished by pressure between heated plates; IMPERFECT PAPER, sheets of poorer quality, as the two outside quires of a ream; INDIA PAPER (see INDIAN); JAPANESE PAPER, a soft fine paper made from the bark of the paper-mulberry, giving good impressions of plate engravings; LITHOGRAPHIC PAPER, paper used for taking impressions from lithographic stones; LITMUS PAPER (see LITMUS); MARBLED PAPER (see MARBLE); PARCHMENT PAPER, a tough paper, prepared in imitation of parchment by dipping in diluted sulphuric acid and washing with weak ammonia; PLAIN PAPER, unruled paper: (_phot._) any unglossy paper; PLATE PAPER, the best class of book paper; PRINTING PAPER (see PRINT); RAG-PAPER, that made from the pulp of rags; RULED PAPER, writing-paper ruled with lines for convenience; SENSITISED PAPER (_phot._), paper chemically treated so that its colour is affected by the action of light; STATE-PAPER (see STATE); TEST-PAPER (see TEST); TISSUE-PAPER, a very thin soft paper for wrapping delicate articles, protecting engravings in books, &c.--also SILK-PAPER; TRACING-PAPER, transparent paper used for copying a design, &c., by laying it over the original, and copying the lines shown through it; TRANSFER-PAPER (see TRANSFER); VELLUM PAPER, a heavy ungrained smooth paper, sometimes used in fine printing; WHATMAN PAPER, a fine quality of English paper, with fine or coarse grain, used for etchings, engravings, &c.; WOVE PAPER, paper laid on flannel or felt, showing no marks of wires; WRAPPING-PAPER, coarse paper used for wrapping up parcels, &c. [A shortened form of _papyrus_.]

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